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The useable section of the map relating to centrifugal compressors is limited by the surge and choke lines and the maximum permissible compressor speed.
Anti-Surge Control The only way to prevent surging is to recycle or blow down a portion of the flow to keep the compressor away from it's surge limit. When a compressor reaches its surge condition, it loses the ability to maintain peak head and the entire system becomes unstable. Dresser-Rand's centrifugal compressor surge online training course discusses the surge phenomena that can occur when operating a centrifugal compressor. Axi-symmetric stall, more commonly known as compressor surge; or pressure surge, is a complete breakdown in compression resulting in a reversal of flow and the violent It is proven that the flow pattern produced by the inlet ducting at the compressor inducer modifies surge margin. GMRC Guideline – Release Version 4.3 Application Guideline for Centrifugal Compressor Surge Control Systems APPLICATION GUIDELINE FOR CENTRIFUGAL Not sure on your question are you asking when you should have independent anti-surge vs.
Data shown here provide evidence that our MicroBeagle strategy is feasibly, but that optimization is required in order to achieve improved expression of cell surface displayed target-binding proteins, and to modify the level of the stress-responsive promoter activation to make it operable over larger growth regimes. We are monitoring the growth of our bacteria containing our devices to see if the genes we inserted have any effect on bacterial growth. To kickstart lab work for Leeds's first-ever iGEM team, we performed this straightforward experiment in which cells were grown in SB media both in the presence and absence of chloramphenicol. Bacteria were grown which contained Device 1; their absorbance was monitored over time and then the rate of growth compared to bacteria that do not contain Device 1.
Investigation of literature regarding the action and regulation of the Cpx pathway lead to the discovery that the system as a whole responds to a large variety of membrane stresses, something that could be true of the specific promoter we chose to use (pCpxR). Individually many of the experiments produced erratic and seemingly random data which is listed independently below. This indicates that it would be possible to detect the presence of silica beads in solution, in principle, using our binding and detection system.
In light of these results, additional experiments were conducted to gain further information in which cells were exposed to the stresses of ethanol, Triton X-100 and pH gradients. We also performed preliminary investigation on the effects of temperature extremes on the CpxR promoter but the results were inconclusive and thus warrant further studies, possibly by future Leeds iGEM teams. The reason for the large spike in fluorescence at Triton concentrations >20% is unclear, a possible explanation for this is the total lysis of the cell, expelling all cellular components resulting in background GFP levels having a larger fluorescence reading due to reduced scattering from within the cell.
It is most important to note that this is preliminary data, from fluorescence based measurments, hence it is expected that with sufficiently high repeat readings, the trends proposed will clarify further. Atomic Force Microscopy utilises Van-Der-Waals forces to attract the tip towards a surface, causing the bending of a cantilever, onto which a laser is pointed. For Bio-Device 1 however, the team wanted to measure how much force was required to trigger the stress activated Cpx Pathway. The presence of background fluorescence in this experiment agrees with fluorescence confocal data and previous literature suggesting that the pCpxR promoter is active during early and mid-log phase of cell growth (cell division).
Here the growth of cells expressing INP-displayed Si4 was monitored via absorbance and compared to the growth of cells that do not contain Si4. The gallery above contains Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) data on cells either expressing Device 2 (i.e. Thus, overall, a small population of the cells seems to display function Si4 binding peptides, agreeing with the relatively few number of silica-coated cells found in our mineralization assay, and the relatively frequency of highly fluorescing, silica-binding (Device 2-expressing) cells observed via confocal fluorescence imaging. The fluorescence data is presented as a one-dimensional histogram and shows the same population as that plotted in the corresponding light-scattering maps. Overall, these data indicate that in future work may want to focus on cell surface display binders that are either more readily expressed or exhibit better target-binding properties versus the Si4 silica-bindin peptide explored here. This suggests that our Device may successfully be binding to the silica beads, utilizing the INP+Si4 construct, however not in all cases. For cells grown to the mid-log phase (5 h), GFP expression resulting from pCpxR activation is observed in both in the -beads control sample as well as the +beads experimental sample. At 18 h incubation relatvely little GFP expression is observed in the both the +bead experimental sample and -bead control sample. We note apparent biofilm formation (including pCpxR activation) in both the 5 h (bottom row) and 18 h (top right panel) samples.
By doping adjacent regions of a semiconductor with p-type and n-type dopants, one essentially creates a diode. A 3-D structure of hexagonal boron nitride sheets and boron nitride nanotubes could be a tunable material to control heat in electronics, according to researchers at Rice University. Three-dimensional structures of boron nitride might be the right stuff to keep small electronics cool, according to scientists at Rice University. Rice researchers Rouzbeh Shahsavari and Navid Sakhavand have completed the first theoretical analysis of how 3-D boron nitride might be used as a tunable material to control heat flow in such devices. Their work appears this month in the American Chemical Society journal Applied Materials and Interfaces.
In its two-dimensional form, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), aka white graphene, looks just like the atom-thick form of carbon known as graphene.
But like graphene, h-BN is a good conductor of heat, which can be quantified in the form of phonons. Heat moves ballistically across flat planes of boron nitride, too, but the Rice simulations showed that 3-D structures of h-BN planes connected by boron nitride nanotubes would be able to move phonons in all directions, whether in-plane or across planes, Shahsavari said. The researchers calculated how phonons would flow across four such structures with nanotubes of various lengths and densities. Since the discovery of graphene, a great future has been predicted for the material, which is strong and highly conductive. Tough, ultralight foam of atom-thick sheets can be made to any size and shape through a chemical process invented at Rice University.


Physicists have found a way to control the length and strength of waves of atomic motion called polaritons that have promising potential uses such as fine-scale imaging and the transmission of information within tight spaces. A recent study by researchers at the Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center took them to a not-so-likely destination: local farmers markets. A new Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) installed at the Lab earlier this year is giving LLNL researchers a clearer look at the atomic level of structures than they've had before. In many parts of the world, the only way to make germy water safe is by boiling, which consumes precious fuel, or by putting it out in the sun in a plastic bottle so ultraviolet rays will kill the microbes. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) bend and twist easily in solution, making them adaptable for biological uses like DNA analysis, drug delivery and biomimetic applications, according to scientists at Rice University. Researchers at Illinois Tech recently unveiled a major breakthrough in nanotechnology processing that reduces the time, and increases the amount of product that can be manufactured on an industrial scale. The heat would always prefer to go one way, but in the reverse direction it would be slower So if I put that material between two compartments that experience uncorrelated temperature fluctuations, one of them would heat up?
Abstract—The paper presents a compressor anti-surge control system, that results in maximizing compressor throughput with pressure standard deviation reduction Compressor Surge. Surge is most accurately described negative compressor characteristic slope even to the left of the surge line. Call for a The surge line is the line on the left side of the islands for the compressor map. I am familiar with it as I run across it periodically in my line of work, b Figure 5 illustrates this: At 70% open setting, the startup of the compressor is relatively closer to the surge line than at 100% open setting. The graph clearly shows that inserting Device 1 into cells considerably slows their growth in log phase compared with the growth of cells without Device 1, that the lag phase is shorter, and that the cells don't grow to as high an optical density in log phase as the bacteria without Device 1.
We therefore sought to investigate the response of our promoter to each individual membrane stress.
However plotting all average readings together shows that there is a dramatic increase in response to the stress induced by the silica beads relative to all chemically induced membrane stresses tested. This was certainly successful when silica beads were present at relatively high concentrations. In this second experiment, a robotic pipette was used to directly fill the 96 well plate to reduce human error, the raw data of which can be found here. The tip deflection causes the laser light to also be deflected and this is tracked using a bank of photodiodes.
This was to be done by observing the culture under the fluoroscope portion of the F-AFM, and then "prod" a bacterium at a low force, slowly increasing the stress until a fluorescence response was seen. Again, we are interesting in the possibility of using evolutionary development techniques to mutate a variant promoter, specific for MicroBeagle activity, with a higher threshold stress tolerance than the native Cpx promoter.
As was seen when device 1 was inserted into the cells, the growth is slowed down considerably. As with other hetereologous expression experiments, growth of the cells is considerably slowed when compared with cells that do not contain any device at all. Cells expressing this device were grown overnight, incubated with 5 micron diameter silica beads for two hours, and then analyzed by flow cytometry using a BD Fortessa instrument (at the Leeds Flow Cytometry Facility). This data shows a very slight increase in the fraction of highly fluorescent particles, which could possibly correspond to the P3 gated population.
While a relatively small fraction of cells binds to target beads, this still us allowed to demonstrate the feasibility of our detection approach, which is a significant result (see confocal data). This could either be due to not having enough time for binding totake place, or that our Si4 binding domain is not as effective as it should be - due to either under expression, or a weak binding domain.
Dividing bacteria are highlighted in magenta in the confocal images for the 5 h -bead control sample, highlighting that the likely source of membrane stress and pCpxR activation at this growth stage: membrane dynamics associated with cell replication.
However, in the +bead experimental sample has higher levels of GFP expression and highly fluorescent cells are occasionally observed bound to the surface of the silica microbeads (magenta highlights in the +beads, +device sample). This could be related to device-induced binding, but requires further exploration in future work. If a positive charge is placed on the p-type side, the holes are pushed toward the junction. One well-studied difference is that h-BN is a natural insulator, where perfect graphene presents no barrier to electricity.
They found the junctions of pillars and planes acted like yellow traffic lights, not stopping but significantly slowing the flow of phonons from layer to layer, Shahsavari said. This is the minimum flow required at This month's Question It addresses questions about compressor surge, modifying Scion tCs, and idling issues.
Compressor Anti-Surge protection is required on all continuous-flow (centrifugal and axial Figure 1 shows the surge limit line for a typical centrifugal compressor. This region is characterized by The useable section of the map relating to centrifugal compressors is limited by the surge and choke lines and the maximum permissible compressor speed. However further work needs to be done to assess whether this high response remains across a range of silica bead concentrations in solution.
We note that the response of the Cpx pathway to temperature has been characterized previously in the literature and by Calgary 2010.
Past 10% Triton X-100 concentration, it is assumed that cells are dying in large quantities, being unable to produce GFP at all or in very limited amounts before they are killed. AFM is typically used to image surfaces at the atomic scale, as well as for Force Spectroscopy.
This would then give a direct measure of the stress threshold for Cpx, a value currently unknown in the literature. Other extensions to this work would be in use of characterising the binding domain strengths of MicroBeagle, and we hope other teams may seek to use similar methods in future.


Although the graph shows a log and a lag phase for the cells expressing INP-Si4, the absorbance reached in log phase is very low compared to cells without Si4; it is even lower than the absorbance reached for cells containing Device 1. A slight change in the gradient of the graph can be seen showing the transition of the cell growth from lag to log phase, so the cells are still growing normally, but the insertion of Device 2 is restricting rate of cell growth and final density acheived. Cells were grown overnight and then incubated with 1 mM silicic acid (formed by acid hydrolyzing 1 mM tetraethoxysilane), pelleted by centrifugation and then imaged by SEM, which chemical analysis by electron x-ray dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The light scattering flow cytometry data shown here provides a map (a 2-dimensional histogram) of light scattering intensities caused by each bead or cell particle flowing past the cytometer's interrogating laser, with scattering from 10,000 particles mapped in each plot shown.
In contrast, the assay, which contained only Device 2 cells, had an insignificant percentage of Population 3 (0.1%).
For each panel, the image on the left is a fluorescence image acquired through a 500 nm long-pass filter under 488 nm excitation and the images on the right is the corresponding bright field image that has been overlaid with the fluorescence image. The low fraction of observed successful devices is probably due to issue with the Si4 binding, a conclusion that agrees with both flow cytometry, which showed only 2% binding, and SEM, which yielded only a few cases of mineralized cells.
The flow-pressure curve that defines the threshold of this condition is the line on the compression compressor performance graph known as the surge line.
This Surge Limit To the left of the surge limit line on the flow map is the surge area where compressor operation can be unstable.
Here’s what I found out, “Yes, surge is easily detected from the pressures on the outlet of each compressor stage.
But as expected, the graph shows that the bacteria do not grow in the presence of chloramphenicol. When used in Force Spectroscopy, the tip is brought into direct contact with the sample, allowing the sample protein to bind to the silicon tip. We propose that this is due to the increased energy and nutrient requirements to produce the inserted structures. Only in the cell samples containing Device 2 were silica-coated cells observed, whereas in the control cell population no cells coated with large quantities of silica were observed. Side scattering and forward scattering properties are related to the size and density of the scattering particles. Since there is an abundance of carriers at the junction, current can flow through the junction from a power supply. This graph was use as a control to compare with device-containing bacteria in order to determine whether the genes we inserted caused an effect on cell growth. Then, the AFM is slowly retracted at varying speeds or to varying distances, applying a force to the protein.
Firstly, it can be seen from the image that the culture were already fluorescing a little, likely due to smaller stresses in solution, although some can clearly be seen in the middle of binomial fission, which is known to also activate the pathway. Silica formation is expected to occur through reaction of surface-displayed Si4 with silicic acid in solution.
Boxes (“gates”) drawn in the scattering plots highlight certain sub-populations of the cells and cells+bead samples. However, if the charges placed on the semiconductor are reversed, the holes and the electrons are pulled away from the junction, leaving a relatively non-conducting silicon region which stops current flow. It just means that when area A is hotter transport towards area B will be slower compared to heat transfer towards area A when area B is hotter.With truly random heat fluctuations on both sides you would end up with a mean heat gradient. This causes portions of the protein to unravel, and the distinct patterns associated with ?-helices and ?-pleated sheets can be seen in this data. The other issue was with trying to keep the bacterial cells stable enough to continually poke them with AFM tip. The silica-coated cells shown here were relatively few in the overall population of experimental (Device 2-containing) cells, with large number of experimental cells uncoated. Overall, the scattering distributions are very similar, suggesting that the beads and cells mainly reside in the same area of the plot (“P2”, green). It will saturate because the chance of getting a "hotter than current" temperature from your temperature fluctuations will diminish as that end gets warmer (i.e. This allows the exact secondary and tertiary structure of a protein to be determined, but also the energy profile of various conformations, which in turn tells us how the protetin folds.
Normally, this sort of experiment is typically performed at the Univ of Leeds AFM facility on Giant Unilamellar Vesicles and microbubbles about 5 microns wide.
However, in the cells+beads sample a small sub-population (2.2%) exhibits increased side-scattering (“P3”), likely stemming cell-bead complexes and thus indicating bead binding by the cell. These microstructures are naturally forming precursors to cells, and thus of great interest to bio-physicists.
Collectively, these data suggest that Si4 is effectively surface-displayed in a small fraction of Device 2-containing cells. However, as trying to poke a structure 5 microns wide with a tip only 40nm at its widest is akin to throwing a needle from space onto a ship in the Atlantic ocean, experimenters usually adhere the bubbles to the surface with a binding peptide.
This could not be done for Bio-Device 1 without potentially triggering the pathway, so instead, it was hoped a more viscous solution and some micro-troughs scratched into the glass slide surface would be enough to keep them steady. Again though, bacteria are very different to inert bubbles of lipids, and tend to forcibly move themsleves regardless, hence results remained inconclusive. The approach showed some promise however, and it is hoped further work will be undertaken on this at a later date.




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