Varzia provides risk assessment service as a key component of a holistic, organization-wide risk management process.
The Cisco Rapid Risk Vulnerability Response Model is one method of performing triage on a security vulnerability, whether the vulnerability announcement comes from Cisco or another vendor.
Running a vulnerability announcement through the model will result in one of four possible outcomes. For example, a denial-of-service attack against a core router can affect the overall stability of the network, disrupt traffic that would transit that router, and so on. Rakesh Bharania is a Network Consulting Engineer with Cisco Advanced Services for Network Security and specializes in network security, web architecture security, and risk assessments.
The first step in the Rapid Risk Vulnerability Response Model is to learn about new security vulnerabilities. Industry mailing list forums: There are numerous security mailing lists where vendors, independent researchers, and other interested persons discuss the latest vulnerabilities and countermeasures. Vulnerability intelligence services: There are an increasing number of intelligence services available from vendors that collate and analyze security vulnerability information from numerous sources and provide a continual feed of relevant security information to their customers.
Cisco also recommends that customers adopt CVSS and encourage their vendors to adopt it as well. If the security team's procedures for handling a vulnerability announcement assume a comfortable margin of time between vulnerability and exploit, the team might not have enough time to take action before the system is compromised. Additionally, Cisco recommends that customers evaluate CVSS for the purposes of understanding vulnerability severity. There are more vulnerabilities that have to be examined and less time in which to determine the threat any given vulnerability poses. There are many sources for learning about security vulnerabilities that threaten your enterprise. For example, when Microsoft announced a vulnerability on October 17, 2000 (MS00-078), the exploit came in the form of the Nimda worm on September 18, 2001, effectively giving security teams 336 days to patch their systems. They often learn later that they were never affected by the vulnerability in the first place—either they did not run the affected platform, had other mitigation strategies in place to defeat the attack, or the effect to their organization from a successful attack was much less severe than their initial response indicated.
This holds true even if that decision is to determine that the risk of installing the fix is greater than the benefit to security. By going through the questions, the organization will arrive at one of the four previously defined urgency levels (Table 2). You worry about the security of your intellectual property and the ability of your partners to effectively communicate with you across your VPN-based extranet. Check with your vendor to learn about its security announcement procedures and how to enroll in its process. A drawback to this type of panic response is that when a severe vulnerability is announced, the security apparatus of the organization may have become desensitized to the level of urgency that mitigation requires. Near the end of 2005, that time period had further shrunk to 16 hours for MS05-051, announced on October 11, 2005.
The security team in your organization knows that it needs to keep up to date about the latest security vulnerabilities that threaten your infrastructure.
Based on customer input, Cisco Systems has developed a vulnerability risk triage method that can be used by customers to rapidly determine what action to take in response to a vulnerability report. The vulnerabilities previously discussed went through the established industry practice of responsible disclosure by the vendor when a software fix or workaround was available, but this is not always the case. But even as organizations evolve their technology infrastructure to deal with these threats, a security team's operational procedures must evolve as well.
It can be overwhelming to track all vulnerabilities; the solution is to have a good process to determine which ones are relevant to your organization. Similar to Rapid Risk, which is the internal Cisco method of determining security risk for IT infrastructure projects, vulnerability management also requires a triage method.
The model should be considered an adjunct to other best common practices for vulnerability management. A common criticism of vendor-defined risk categorizations is that the vendor sets the level of urgency, regardless of the effect by the vulnerability on any specific organization.


Medium: Proof of concept or technically challenging exploit methods are known to be circulating for the vulnerability. Finally, after the security team members have arrived at one of the four conclusions, initiate the appropriate predefined response process. Vulnerability risk triage provides a quick way to evaluate the incoming barrage of vulnerabilities and determine their potential severity to the organization. Vendor announcements: Software and hardware vendors (including Cisco Systems) publish security advisories regarding their products.
Risk managementManaging risk is an important element of our business operation where we take a long-term perspective while, importantly, minimising daily avoidable risks. The ROCKWOOL Group is the world’s leading supplier of innovative products and systems based on stone wool.
Our more than 11,000 employees in more than 35 countries cater for customers in a large part of the world. Working in conjunction with vulnerability scoring methods such as the Common Vulnerability Scoring System (CVSS) and your organization's own security policies and vulnerability management procedures, this vulnerability response model can help clarify a course of action in a minimal amount of time. This allows customers to make quick, informed decisions about a particular security vulnerability based on its relevance to and effect on the organization. It allows frontline security team members to determine the relevance of a vulnerability and then initiate the appropriate response process.
Applying the Cisco Rapid Risk Vulnerability Response Model can help an organization manage this challenge in conjunction with other industry best practices and the smart use of technology. Risk assessments can support a wide variety of risk-based decisions and activities by organizational officials across all tiers in the risk management hierarchy. It is increasingly common to include the ability to detect and mitigate attacks on various devices, including routers, switches, security appliances, and application software. If customers are using CVSS, certain questions in the model can be answered based on the output from CVSS. It is therefore possible that two organizations with two different technical architectures might arrive at different conclusions about how to treat the same vulnerability. The organization should answer this question relative to its business and technical goals as well as its infrastructure.
Before you start to manage the risks inherent in your infrastructure, you need to create the team that will bring focus to the problem and respond to incidents when they do occur.
Proper use of these features can go a long way toward stopping a major outbreak before it occurs. The Sasser.A worm was released only 17 days after MS04-011 was announced on April 13, 2004. These vulnerabilities, regardless of whether they are caused by an unintentional software bug or by design (such as a default administrative password), can be used by malicious persons to compromise the confidentiality, availability, or integrity of your infrastructure. Within this time period, system administrators can take action to protect their systems against an attack, because at this point the public knows a flaw exists, but hackers are still trying to find a way to take advantage of that vulnerability.
A few years ago, the time between a vulnerability announcement and the availability of the corresponding exploit could be measured in months or years. Sometimes information about a previously undisclosed vulnerability emerges on the Internet before the vendor is notified and has time to take action.
Customers are encouraged to examine the model, modify it if necessary, and use it to determine the appropriate action to be taken by the security team or other affected groups within their organization. Although some customers might determine that there are valid reasons not to deploy changes to their infrastructure if a security vulnerability's severity is below a certain threshold, it remains important that customers have a process to make informed and repeatable decisions. In the case of the Rapid Risk Vulnerability Response Model, several crucial questions are affected by the relevance of the vulnerability to the organization itself. These outcomes are based on the urgency levels provided by the Cisco IntelliShield service and will direct the organization to implement one of four predetermined action plans, based on the organization's security needs, policies, and processes (Table 1). Such a vulnerability should be mitigated during the organization's next priority maintenance cycle. Consider technical operations, business processes, negative press, property damage, risk to life and limb, and so on.


A denial-of-service attack against a manufacturer's extranet VPN concentrator can prevent shipping product to customers, a core business function. But the threats keep evolving, and your technology people are starting to lose the battle for your own network. We address risks proactively and implement appropriate control systems based on the company’s current activities and operations.
In 2014, the risk associated with a large scale withdrawal of these incentive systems was not significantly higher than previously. We create sustainable solutions to protect life, assets, and the environment today and tomorrow. The problem for security teams and IT organizations of all sizes rapidly becomes one of information overload: thousands of vulnerability announcements exist that must be tracked, validated, and in some circumstances acted upon. For each of the four outcomes, Cisco recommends that customers define policies and processes that permit systematic, repeatable responses to security advisories.
Underreacting and overreacting both carry significant risks, which in some cases can be more damaging than an attack. Our approach identifies and controls risks with mitigation procedures involving relevant parts of the organisation, from subsidiaries to Group functions, Group Management and Board of Directors level.Risk assessment processSystems and processesThe Board of Directors continuously evaluates the overall and specific risks associated with the company’s activities and operations, and the risks associated with the financial reporting process. The Group is amongst the global leaders within the insulation industry with products and solutions for all major application areas for both residential and non-residential buildings. As part of general risk management, the company has established various internal control systems that are continuously examined by the Board of Directors to ensure they are appropriate and adequate.Risk management is organised under the CFO function which reports directly to the Board of Directors. In none of the countries where we have evaluated the risk of nationalisation, our local assets represent more than 15% of Group assets. Together with other construction-related products such as acoustic ceilings and cladding boards, the Group ensures energy efficient and fire-safe buildings with good acoustics and a comfortable indoor climate.
All managing directors of the subsidiaries and Group functions are asked to ensure that risks within their areas of responsibility are described, scored for severity and likelihood, and quantified in terms such as predicted financial impact. The highest percentage risk in one single country is in Russia where the Group runs four stone wool facilities. We also create green solutions for the horticultural industry, special fibres for industrial use, effective insulation for the process industry and marine & offshore as well as noise and vibration systems for modern infrastructure. The Group is working actively to encourage legislators to establish programmes which will not counteract the competitiveness of stone wool insulation or encourage producers to allocate production facilities outside the taxation area.
Furthermore, we address this challenge by developing new highly energy efficient process technologies with lower CO2 impact. In 2014, the EU finalised the Carbon Leakage system for 2015-2019 which is an important driver behind the costs of emitting CO2. Therefore, considerable attention is focused on protecting access to our production facilities.
This is especially pertinent to those factories which are equipped with our latest state-of-the-art equipment, likewise the handling of secret information generally within the Group.A new system to strengthen the protection of communications, documents and professional know-how, was established. IT systems are increasingly central to the running of our operations therefore major breakdowns must be avoided through appropriate risk management. When new factories are constructed, these will normally be located in industrial zones or well apart from major residential areas. The Group invests heavily in cleaner technologies to address potential nuisance and to ensure – as a minimum – that we comply with local regulations. We also put time and effort into listening to, understanding and communicating with local stakeholders.The stone wool production process relies on substantial amounts of energy to melt the volcanic rock and recycled materials.
The price of coke – which has fluctuated highly over the years - is thus an essential element of the costs and profitability of the Group.
To limit this risk factor, the Group has focused on researching alternative energy sources for the cupola oven, as well as developing new melting technology using energy sources other than coke.In 2014, the Group inaugurated its first green field factory based on our new melting technology in Mississippi, USA, currently three production lines are running on the new melt process.



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