In the following proposed investigation, we seek to bring together regulators, EPA, end-users, and scientists to demonstrate the applicability of these concepts by showing that simple, readily available soil properties can often times be used to predict the bioavailability of As(V), Cd, Cr, and Pb with a reasonable level of confidence.
Immediately upon receiving possible funding for this endeavor, a two day workshop will be held bringing together state regulators, DoD site end users, state EPA officials, and scientists familiar with soil metal bioavailability. Demonstration and use of in vitro methods to perform human and ecological risk calculations for contaminated study soils: Risk estimates from incidental ingestion of contaminated soils will be calculated using metal bioavailability values derived from CU-1166 methods (total metal content and soil properties). As a member of the Ecological Risk Technical Assistance Team (ERTAT) her duties include providing review of ecological risk assessments, site-specific application of Navy policy, and management of risk assessment-related research and development projects. Using the discriminating statistical models in determining of financial and the financial condition and the risk analysis 7. IntroductionA world marked by rapid changes of the economic, financial, political and social environment, a world ruled by uncertainty is subject to the emergence of increasingly higher risks, affecting the process of economic development of world economy. As is being done in CU-1350, neural network models will be implemented in a spreadsheet program to compute health risk due to ingestion of one or more metals of interest and any given soil properties. Research Background: Solving animal disease problems, teaching veterinary students and doing research in environmental risk assessment represent the body of his work. All site demonstrations will be focused on end-user needs, and data gathered will be used by DoD project managers and regulatory agencies to make risk based decisions at the demonstration site. The proposed research strategy will be discussed at a workshop where scientists, regulators, EPA, and end-users will be present in an effort to advance complete or partial acceptance of in vitro methods in human health and ecological risk assessment and policy. Therefore, in addition to an analysis of profitability, the manager should also focus his attention on potential risk factors of the investment. The risks identification at the level of economic entitiesAny firm bases their activity on two major coordinates: satisfying consumer requests and maximizing the obtained profitability. Another manner of approach, illustrates risk as the possibility of producing a fact which has unintended consequences. In other words, uncertainty is present in the fact that it is not known which of the situations will intervene."[3]In presenting these concepts it can be observed that the risk results from uncertainty. At the level of an economic organization, uncertainty is similar with the risks that cannot be identified and estimated. The more and more frequent occurrence of unpredicted events has caused a high interest for researches in the field of risk identification, quantification and prevention at microeconomic level. Therefore, ever since 1955, the professor Wayne Snider had defined the concept of risk manager, and in 1956 the concept of risk management appeared. On this background, risk management has known a fast development, being defined also the concept of global cost of risk. The area of risk event is broad, covering both the human side and also the social, political or other nature side. The development of the society has created new forms of risk and imposed the identification of new strategies and methods for forecasting and analysis of risk and uncertainty. Thus, to the risks caused by natural disasters, the ones related to economic processes and phenomena, armed conflicts, etc., were added also other categories that are often difficult to define or to estimate quantitatively. Thus, there is growing evidence of risks caused by increasing complexity of the business environment, changes in legal systems (especially for harmonization with other legal systems), conducting business in different countries which experience different rates of economic development, the action of political, demographic, cultural, juridical factors.The group of risks can be realized from more points of view, in the specialty literature being meet many approaches.
No matter the classification criterion and the possibility of dividing, one thing is for sure: the risk in business is a certain state, a feature of market economy.
As a result, exercising an active risk management can only have favorable effects at the level of economic operators. If it would be made a survey in Romania, especially at the level of small and medium organizations, the percentage would be extremely low.Moreover, the risk management issue in our country has acquired a well-defined contour in a recent period, the researches performed being divided and the simple and the legislation is insufficient and permissive. We must not believe that the fact of having a large volume of information on possible alternatives, allows adopting decisions in the absence of risk conditions and uncertainty. Considering an economic agent engaged in the activities of production and marketing, we can identify and assess major risks that may occur in the economic, financial, investment and trade area.
For the operational risk assessment the operators can monitor the level of turnover compared to breakeven. The risk can be measured by using the dispersion or the intermediate square deviation of individual flows to the mathematical expectation.
Therefore, establishing a break-even point as a range rather than a fixed size seems a much more useful solution in avoiding financial risk [11].The indebtedness and the insolvency (the insufficiency of available resources for the discharge of outstanding debt) are at the basis of the determination of insolvency and bankruptcy.


The system of indicators that allow the highlight of the economic-financial performances of the economic entities and the substantiation risk management decisionsMaximizing the efficiency of the activities performed at the firm level requires a constant monitoring of the financial performances. Basically, this document creates a group of incomes and expenditures which have determined the overall result for the ended financial year and allows assessment of the overall economic and financial performances achieved by the firm by using some performance indicators. Science, Technology and Medicine open access content.Publish, read and share novel research.
Based on our previous scientific and technical advances in the area of in vitro and in vivo metal bioavailability in soils, we believe that it is timely to apply these techniques to DoD site-specific problems. For ecological risk estimates, metal bioavailability will be estimated from multiple regression and path analysis models developed using toxicity and bioaccumulation data from 26 soils (CU-1210; previous US EPA-NCEA project).
The results from this project would provide site managers and risk assessors with tools to make better initial estimates of site risk which can be used to prioritize sites and to justify, on basis of cost savings from estimated Environmentally Acceptable Endpoints, more definitive site-specific in vivo bioavailability studies. He specializes in subsurface science research that deals with time-dependent, multi-process fate and transport issues at multiple scales. The increasingly frequent manifestation of unforeseen events caused high interest for research in the risk identification, quantification and prevention at the microeconomic level. Our research team are members of the Bioavailability Research Group of Europe where we have established an international collaboration that seeks to demonstrate the appropriateness of in vitro methods for assessing risk associated with soil metal bioavailability. In addition to estimating the expected future return it is imposed also a quantification of the risk associated with its achievement. The object of the financing decision is realized by the selection of the sources of capital at the lowest cost for obtaining them in terms of risk reduction. It is noted that the risk is regarded as the probability of manifestation of an event (possible to predict or not) with negative implications on the economic activity of a company.Whatever the way of approaching the concept of risk we observe that it transforms the potential losses according to the probabilities of their manifestation, which are known or determined.
So, any increase of their weight in the total of risks which affect the activity that takes place determine an increase of the uncertainty state and reverse (knowing and anticipating almost fully the risks involved in the activity that takes place is not similar with the elimination of uncertainty). In the market economy frame, the concept of risk has been widely debated, without existing uniform opinions, but rather diverse and even contradictory.
As a result, conscious or unconscious actions exerted on the components of a system can cause expected direct effects, appropriate to the objectives followed, but also the evidence of unwanted direct or indirect adverse effects that the specialty literature defines as risks.Among the economic agents, there is a wide range of risks arising both from their actions and from the external environment.
The elaboration of an action plan, with clear action measures, for avoiding risks and reducing the losses caused by their manifestation is the next mandatory step. An important aspect of risk management is represented by dimensioning its size so that there can be evaluated the effects generated by its manifestation. For this, it is imposed stating the possibilities of capital (Figure 2).This structure allows capital allocation process targeting specific risk assessment activities of the two components. Real investments, embodied by essential assets for the development of the production and sale processes, are the subject of differentiated risks, the ability of managers in the selection of projects that ensure the maximization of the economic agent value being essential.
To predict and avoid the bankruptcy risk it can be used a system of indicators represented by solvency ratios (these allow the sizing of the liquidity of a company), leverage, financial debt repayment capacity and the rate of financial autonomy.
But, even if it concerns an internal or external analysis of the activity undertaken, the objectives followed are the assessment of economic and financial performance and identification of the potential risks that may occur. The analysis of these issues should be completed with the assessment of the losses caused by the manifestation of the mentioned risk. Comparison of bioavailability assessment technologies developed by CU-1166 and CU-1210 with bioavailability endpoints in the current U.S.
Adjustments to ecological risk-based endpoints (bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity) based upon study soil properties will be calculated using methods developed in CU-1210. These values would be compared to screening criteria to determine whether any further assessment is warranted. These concepts are quite unique in that site risks are based on bioavailability estimates versus the current standard of basing site risk on traditional total soil metal analyses; concepts that could save DoD huge expenses in unnecessary remedial costs. Profit variability may involve achieving a lower return than expected; the higher the profit variation range is, the more risky the investment.
But, all these issues require the identification of potential risks and establishing a strategy which allows reducing or even avoiding their effects.Before performing a risk analysis, a differentiation between the concepts of risk and incertitude is necessary [2]. Clearly, scientific investigation pointed the reduction of uncertainty at different components and behaviors of human mind. In this context, companies which registered a high level of fixed costs are much more exposed to risk than those who have a high share of variable expenses.


Concepts of interest rate as rate of productivity without risk (Rf) and net present value (NPV) are in the center of the analysis in the certain environment.The determination of cash flows generated by the investment project and of the moment of their action, the balance of the capital market and the practice of an unchanged interest rate for a long time that allows the exact identification of the borrowing costs are items that cannot be recorded on different market segments. The manager can present to the creditors a plan for the recovery of the activity, and if they accept taking risks by granting new loans or rescheduling debts, the bankruptcy situation can be rectified.In Romania, the insolvency law was adopted in the year 2006, when bankruptcy law was repealed. Measures of metal bioavailability can be used to eliminate sites or portions of sites from further risk assessment procedures during screening or Phase I procedures. Casteel has given more than 150 presentations at scientific meetings and has authored more than 150 abstracts and scientific papers and 29 book chapters. Thus, the profitability - risk trend analysis provides a better classification of the investment opportunities.
The inability of companies to adapt to changes recorded in the external environment with minimal cost can develop into a risk for this. The globalization process, the interdependence between economies in a regional and global plan, the problems arising from the need to ensure compatibility between legislative previsions, the effects of free labor movement, the macroeconomic context located in an accentuated dynamic, the fierce competition at the level of participants from the economic circuits, the limited degree of the resources and unlimited of the needs, the need to adapt to technological changes, the challenges generated of climate change, the high degree of complexity of the factors which influence economic and financial results of the business, the diversity of international economic flows are just some aspects which sustain the organized risk management, training the personnel for managing the activity, the identification of the losses caused by the action of the risk and the insurance of resources necessary to cover them, but also in the identification and communication of the risk, fact which requires the existence of a strong organizational culture oriented to this sense.Defining risk has been done in different ways over several decades, the polemics continuing today. Rational investors, generally characterized by an aversion to risks, will exclude from the list those investments that offer the same return, but with a higher risk, and the option for one of the remaining opportunities will ultimately depend on their degree of risk aversion. If we refer to this sense, it is clear that any company (even the most profitable ones) is subject to constant risk, being imposed the development of risk management mechanisms to enable a fast referral of the changes recorded but also developing a mechanism of intervention.A definition of the notion of risk is based on the changes recorded at the profit level compared to the average achieved in the previous years (this can be implemented also to the level of change in future profitability, of revenues to be obtained, of the results recorded). But regardless of the angle of approach, defining the border between risk and uncertainty, the identification of the management methods, a thing is certain: the existence of risk. Also, some authors consider that the risk is measured as variability in comparison with the profitability average of the last exercises and in foresight as variability of the profit in relation to the hope of profitability or as variability of the profit in relation to the volume of activity (turnover) of the company [1].Avoiding risks due to significant changes in the activities concerned can be considered a beneficial strategy for the trader, in the context of the possibility of occurrence of problems with serious consequences. Other potential conference presentations include the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA). Against the background of strong economic and financial instability or when carrying out complex activities involving the development of partnerships, strategies may be adopted to follow fundamental indicators and to develop action plans for risk occurrence (for example, we can predict the resources used in case of higher costs or stocks of spare parts can be constituted to repair equipment and avoid large interruptions in production, are identified the opportunities for rescheduling of exchanges in case of defects which do not allow obtaining the quantity of finished products necessary to comply with the contractual obligations and so on).
The importance of the risk management is even more striking in the current economic climate, amid a crisis which seems to be having just begun.
A commonly used option is that of transferring potential risks to specialized companies or individuals (insurance companies, experts in the field) or to some businesses which provide service for the technological equipment used, even if this generates additional costs. The existence of an arid land in Romanian economy seeing application of some specific techniques and strategies to the risk impose the immediate development of risk management, especially at the level of small and medium size entities (at the level of large companies it is noticed a considerable orientation towards the risk management, being created even different departments to exercise an active management at the level of risks).The analysis of the economic-financial performances requires taking into consideration the risk factor as well, and hence of its possible implications on profitability and financial stability.
The emphasized development of the international economic relations, the existence of a complex ensemble of agents that influence the economic-financial performances of the economic organizations, the economic - financial instability, the competitive environment's volatility, the extension of information and communication technologies are just some aspects that support unconditionally the necessity of risk management.The research conducted aims to clarify an issue considered previously, but also to identify new issues, allowing further future approaches.
The impetus for this departure is to provide additional scientific evidence in support of EPA's integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model and site-specific data generated from Superfund Site test soils. In this context, he would like to know what is the probability to charge a minimum amount of 3000 euro from the sale of the goods mentioned, knowing that the unit price of sale is 500 euro for product X and 300 euro for product Y, and the quantity that can be offered for sale is of 5 pieces of each product. Using the discriminating statistical models in determining of financial and the financial condition and the risk analysis The financial condition of an economic agent can be considered a qualitative indicator that characterizes the overall activity of the economic agent, is subjected continuously to the influence of quantitative variables.
One of the first score functions used in the analysis of default risk was developed by Altman in 1968, which allows the registration of a degree of predictability of 75% of bankruptcies two years prior to their production [15]. The application of scoring functions in the Romanian economy cannot yet be considered as a safe situation of risk management. In addition, the proper identification of the bankrupt companies, the long absence of the legislative provisions governing the bankruptcy, the lack of analysis of a wider range of firms before bankruptcy, focusing on financial variables without including non-financial indicators and trying to develop the models available in all branches reflect some of the aspects that require the completion of the risk management techniques based on a discriminant analysis with other possibilities.7. ConclusionsThe manifestation of risks in a higher or lower degree cannot be eliminated, regardless of the strategy used. However, in practice it has been shown that a potential risk with higher negative impact but which has been identified and controlled can cause fewer losses than a lower but uncontrolled risk. Therefore, a good manager should use a risk management strategy in order to enable the reduction or even avoidance of losses caused by their manifestation.



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