In many emergency planning exercises, this results in a decoupling between the plant data generated by the simulator and the radiological data generated by hand calculations, spreadsheet programs or estimated values. For a radiological dispersal device set off anywhere in a responsible agency’s jurisdiction, the agency staff could use RadPuff to determine the area affected prior to the deposition of the radioactive materials. This is taken from the IAEA News Channel (Nuclear & Radiological Events)Overexposure of an Industrial Radiographer. The playbook is based on the chronology of events outlined in the Radiological Attack scenario of the National Planning Scenarios (Scenario #11). Victims with only lower body contamination have a low likelihood of prior radionuclide inhalation and internal contamination, since they were probably exposed walking across the zone and not from the plume. Sheltering during the short-lived plume (about 20-30 min) may be beneficial, but evaluation of the incident and public messaging may not occur in time for this to be effective.
Evacuation routes from the affected zones need to be planned, with radiological monitoring of victims at exits to see which victims need decontamination and possible treatment.
This section also provides an overview of radiological dispersal devices and radiological explosive devices providing relevant information for preparedness and response operations. The number of casualties is very scenario dependent (nature of explosive, amount and type of radioactive material dispersed, location of the event, number of individuals affected, weather, etc.). The puff dispersion model and RDD simulator have been developed recently and are undergoing field testing. In this playbook, information requirements are derived as they relate to the preparedness and response activities for a radiological dispersal device attack. After the plume has passed, the inside of some buildings may have higher air concentrations than outside, depending on the air system, filtration, etc. The boundary line for the “no entry zone” will likely be about 100 meters for a small to intermediate sized device and up to 600 meters for a very large device (Harper 2007). Main ContentThe purpose of this playbook is to provide guidance for executive decision makers within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in the event of an actual radiological terrorist attack in a U.S.


This Radiological Attack Playbook is prepared in accordance with the National Response Framework (NRF) and associated Federal regulating documents. Concept of Operations (CONOPs): This CONOPs evolves from a vision of actions and events and is a description of how a set of capabilities may be employed to achieve desired objectives or a particular end state for the radiological attack scenario.
This playbook is based on the chronology of events in the National Planning Scenarios (Scenario #11) Radiological Attack - Radiological Dispersal Device. RED- Radiological Exposure Device refers to a sealed radioactive source that is placed in a public place and causes exposure but not contamination to those in proximity. Since air handling in some buildings may concentrate radiation, it is not easy to have simple guidelines for shelter-in-place recommendations during and after the plume passes by.
Nonetheless, whatever the size of a radiological event, a national response will likely be initiated immediately, with resources allocated as needed.
The releases of radioactive materials are treated as unsteady emissions in non-homogeneous dispersion conditions.
CONOPs take into account the steps and procedures that may be found in State, local, and Federal response plans to a radiological attack. Evacuation is recommended around 150 m and 1-15 km from the epicenter of detonation for these devices respectively. During the transient simulation, puffs are sequentially generated and dispersed in all directions governed by the Pasquill stability category, wind velocity and wind direction. RTR sites form spontaneously: Victims immediately in the blast site may have injury from the blast, fairly heavy contamination from radiation or combined injury (physical trauma and burn plus radiation). Steady state operations and advance preparations are initiated for a large-scale response to a radiological attack, based upon credible intelligence of a plan to detonate a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD) or a Radiological Explosive Device (RED) in a U.S.
An RED incident may be realized by direct discovery of an RED or by clinical recognition of an incident due to a number of people presenting at an Emergency Department, (not discovering the device per se), developing symptoms, and signs of radiation injury. If the operating crew in the simulator during the exercise takes different actions than those taken during scenario validation, the radiological data may not reflect simulated plant conditions.


While there may be some re-suspension of radioactive material most of the residual radiation will be a footprint on the ground and not a plume.
Specifically, it outlines key measures and options to aid the Secretary in making essential decisions and directing the HHS response to a radiological attack.The playbook functions as a resource document to the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) to assist in coordinating the Department’s Emergency Support Function (ESF #8) with other Federal and local emergency support agencies.
These scenarios are designed to be the foundational structure for the development of coordinated national preparedness standards from which homeland security capabilities can be measured or assessed, The Radiological Attack scenario is an account or synopsis of a projected event. It goes beyond training simulators and conventional methods to cover all feasible radiological events. Just left to our own devices with no oversight for risk assessment or emergency plan, not to mention a wind out that hadn't been serviced in years. The radiological attack scenario alerts us to different ways that future events could unfold. In this instance, the incident can be detected by physical detection devices or by an astute clinician who recognizes the syndromes related to radiation injury. This scenario should not be used to forecast future events, but rather, it offers a plausible story line to account for possible future events leading toward a radiological attack as depicted in National Planning Scenario #11. A ZIP file with almost all the REMM files can be downloaded to a personal computer or to a PDA device.
It also allows HHS to work closely with our interagency partners through the National Response Framework (NRF) and the National Incident Management System (NIMS) to ensure efficiency and interoperability in responding to radiological incidents.
I spend considerable time during my training courses - drilling into delegates the fact that monitoring (passive, active, direct and in-direct) are the ‘eyes, ears - indeed all the senses combined' -and the only way to understand the radiological environment surrounding you.



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