The reactive program repairs components when they are not functional and is associated with a significant risk to delivered water quality. Both components and arrangement of components in the Pretreatment Section may vary with application and nature of the feed water supply. A future article will discuss a responsive system monitoring program to detect many excursions before point-of-use water quality is affected. Valve seals, diaphragms, or entire assembly should be replaced if water leaks (to the atmosphere or by the sealing mechanism in the water flow path) are noted. The storage of highly purified water types is critical because of the risk of re-contamination by micro-organisms and other contaminants. Learn about the purified water storage and distribution system and procedure for validation. The unit consists of a vessel containing graduated levels of support and filter media to remove particles from feed water with a size of about 10 micron and larger.
In an attempt to provide a suggested proactive preventative maintenance program for as many water purification, storage and distribution components and accessories as possible, a purified water System utilizing ozone for bacteria control in the storage and distribution system has been selected.


As an example, the position of the activated carbon and water softening units assumes that the feed water is from a surface source and that the municipality employs monochloramine as a “secondary” disinfecting agent (1,2).
The water softening units contain cation ion exchange resin in vessels and a brine storage tank.
Individual membrane cleaning shall be conducted in “parallel configuration with other membranes used for purification of properly pretreated “Drinking Water”.
Any bacteria present in product water from the continuous electrodeionization system would accumulate on the downstream final membrane filtration system and replicate.
The municipal feed water source must meet The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR), equivalent governmental regulating agency standard or World Health Organization (WHO) standard for Drinking Water (3,4). Gases such as oxygen that will not chemically react with water and reactive gases such as carbon dioxide that will react with RO product water to produce ions are not removed.
Since differential pressure “across” the unit is critical to successful operation, accurate liquid filled pressure gauges are suggested with annual calibration frequency.• Water Softening SystemGenerally two water softening units are provided to remove multivalent ions from feed water, replacing the ions with sodium.
The Storage, Ozonation, and Distribution System provides a method for storing make-up water from the Ion Removal and Polishing Section, a very effective method for obtaining total viable bacteria control, and a method of delivering Purified Water to individual points-of-use.


During this time period an unacceptable increase in total viable bacteria could occur as a result of an operating excursion in a water purification unit operation. In addition to removing raw water disinfecting agent, activated carbon will reduce the concentration of reverse osmosis membrane fouling naturally occurring organic material (NOM).
The UV unit not only provides inactivation of extremely low levels of bacteria in continuous electrodeionization product water but also serves as a “bacteria check valve” for biofilm from the downstream final membrane filtration system.
The proactive preventative maintenance approach is conservative but virtually eliminates the risk to product water quality associated with water purification component, non personnel, related excursions. For systems with chloramines in feed water, the replacement frequency of activated carbon media should be once every six months, maximum.



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