Venus will provide an important new perspective on the issue because like Mars, it has no global magnetic field, yet it is similar in size to Earth and has a much thicker atmosphere.
Conceptual computer artwork of the Earth being protected by its magnetic field (magnetosphere). Earth's magnetic field is caused by fluid dynamo processes in its iron core, and the resulting electric currents. Earth’s magnetic field is the planet’s only defense against the sun’s formidable electromagnetic radiation. The magnetic field is generated at the earth’s core which starts about 1,800 miles (2,897 km) beneath its surface with the molten outer core. Earth’s magnetic field is much like a bar magnet with the magentic field lines running from the south magentic pole to the north magentic pole.
It is the magnetosphere — which extends 45,000 miles into space – that protects Earth from the continuous bombardment of harmful solar electromagnetic radiation. It is not a perfectly symmetrical shroud around the planet, but far from it as it fluctuates with the changes in the planet’s dynamo (electricity generating) core and strength of the individual magnetic field lines.
Earth’s magnetic field is generated at its core, but these individual field lines are not uniform as seen in the computer simulation above. The magnetic poles are moving faster than at any time in human history,,, almost 40 miles a year… indicating a reversal may be near.


Earth’s magnetic field lines as depicted before (left) and during a complete pole reversal.
An artist's depiction of Earth's magnetic field deflecting high-energy protons from the sun four billion years ago, is shown in this image released on July 30, 2015. Previous research had estimated the field originated about 3.5 billion years ago, roughly a billion years after Earth's formation. This field acts like a bar magnet where the magnetic energy flows from the magnet’s south pole to its north pole. Most solar electromagnetic radiation that hits the magnetosphere is deflected away from Earth around the magnetic field to continue on out into space. This magnetic cocoon varies in shape and strengths due to fluctuations in the magnetic field generated from the earth’s iron core.
Thus the magnetic field around the Earth is not uniform and changes as it is generated within the core.
Earth’s magnetic poles are located near but not exactly on the planet’s geographic North and South Poles. The magnetic North Pole is located near Canada’s Ellesmere Island and is about 500 miles (800 kilometers) from the geographic North Pole.
The Earth's magnetic field, its magnetosphere, deflects these particles, forming a wake-like pattern of field lines that is compressed on the sunward side and trails over a million kilometres away from the Sun on the night side of the EarthCaption:The solar wind is made up of charged particles emitted by the Sun.


It’s the flow of this energy from the planet’s magnetic South Pole to its magnetic North Pole that creates Earth’s magnetic field and subsequently its protective magnetic cocoon called the magnetosphere. It’s the radiation that makes it through this field that creates the auroras as well as problems for human society’s technological infrastructure.
Solar activity bends around this magnetic field in more of an oblong shape as it is deflected around Earth and continuing on out into space. Though Earth’s magnetic field is invisible, it can be felt by a compass needle on its surface which is why compasses will point towards the magnetic North Pole (the direction of the flow of magnetic energy).
The magnetic poles are not connected by a straight geographic line through the Earth like the geographic poles but they are dipolar, meaning the electromagnetic charge flows from the magnetic South Pole to the magnetic North Pole around the earth. He has done field study in Kenya, Africa, the Sea of Cortez (Baja California, Mexico), Catalina Island, California and the Atlantic Seaboard.



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