Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital.
Ash rained down in many Guatemalan cities to the northwest of the volcano, including Guatemala City. President Alvaro Colom declared a state of calamity in the region adjacent to the volcano, and the Ministry of Education closed the schools in the departments of Guatemala, Escuintla and Sacatepequez. To follow eventual activity at this time, please check also our Daily Volcano Activity reports. Chile's Calbuco volcano has erupted for the third time in eight days, leading the government to order the evacuation of 2,500 people.
For several years Paris-based photographer Olivier Grunewald has been documenting the Kawah Ijen volcano in Indonesia, where dazzling, electric-blue fire can often be seen streaming down the mountain at night.
The largest volcano on Earth is not in Hawaii, but hidden beneath the western Pacific Ocean and covers an area the size of New Mexico.
On land, when a volcano erupts, it does so in either a violent fiery explosion, or as a seeping flow of hot magma.
A new survey suggests that the chamber of molten rock beneath Santorini's volcano expanded 10-20 million cubic metres - up to 15 times the size of London's Olympic Stadium - between January 2011 and April 2012. Lightning crackles over Japan on Friday as ash and lava erupt from Shinmoedake peak, one of the calderas of the Kirishima volcano complex.
Analysis of erupted rock from Agrigan volcano in the western Pacific near Guam found it to be highly oxidized as a result of its exposure to oxygen when it formed in the Earth's mantle. To study Eyjafjallajokull, researchers from New Mexico Tech have set up six instruments near the volcano as part of a lightning-mapping array. The 1980 outburst, a colossal event by modern volcano standards, killed 57 people as rocky debris, scalding hot steam and gas swept down the volcano's slope at more than 683 miles per hour (1,100 kilometers per hour) and reached temperatures of 572 degrees Fahrenheit.
When volcano seismologist Stephen McNutt at the University of Alaska Fairbanks's Geophysical Institute saw strange spikes in the seismic data from the Mount Spurr eruption in 1992, he had no idea that his research was about to take an electrifying turn. The eruption of the Lusi mud volcano in Indonesia was caused by drilling for oil and gas, a meeting of 74 leading geologists has concluded. Pacaya is the largest post-caldera volcano, and has been one of Central America's most active volcanoes over the last 500 years. But unusually and perhaps uniquely, they occur regularly at Sakurajima volcano in Japan, one of the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcano is about the size of the state of New Mexico and is among the largest in the solar system, Sager says. Their goal: to install a network of seismometers around the Katmai Volcanoes, the source of the largest volcanic eruption since Indonesia's Mount Tambora in 1815. The tempestuous volcano also hurled about 540 million tons of ash into the air, and has since earned celebrity status as perhaps the most studied volcano today. Scientists have long blamed the 1815 eruption of an Indonesian volcano, Tambora, for a worldwide cold snap the following year-the so-called year without a summer.
Perhaps ironically, these volcanoes first caused global warming -- by releasing massive amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The volcano and surrounding area now lie within the Pacaya National Park, which was created to supervise and protect tourism in this region.
The National Coordinator for Disaster Reduction (CONRED) declared a red alert for the communities near the volcano, and recommended the evacuation of some of them. Four years and mounds of data later, the team is beginning to understand the plumbing system beneath that group of volcanoes, including the magma source for the 1912 Novarupta eruption, which spewed 3 cubic miles (12 cubic kilometers) of magma and dwarfed the 1980 Mount St.
The eruption of the volcano in March this year caused chaos, shutting down huge swathes of European air space. The majestic volcano is first seen through breaks in fast moving clouds as the movie begins. Each has produced several million cubic miles of lava - about three hundred times the volume of all the Great Lakes combined - dwarfing the amount of lava produced by the Hawaiian volcanoes or the Icelandic volcano that erupted recently. High gas levels led Hawaii Volcanoes National Park to close several days last month, forcing the evacuation of thousands of visitors.
The above image is particularly notable, however, for the lightning bolts caught near the volcano's summit. They suggest that had the volcano erupted on land, it would have blown its top, but because of the incredible pressure exerted by the weight of the ocean above it, it wasn't able to do so. They are all part of Marsabit, a shallow-sloped volcano classified as a shield volcano, which rises 3,000 feet above the Chalbi Desert. Both the volcano and the geysers owe their existence to a hotspot, a massive plume of molten rock rising from within Earth's mantle toward the surface.
Vesuvius, ItalyMount Vesuvius (Photo credit: Wikipedia)Mount Vesuvius in Campagnia, Italy has a history of activity that makes it one of the world’s most dangerous volcanoes. An erupting volcano A Volcano is an opening (or rupture) in the Earth's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash, and gases to escape from deep below the surface. Volcanoes are generally found where two to three tectonic plates pull apart or are coming together. Finally, volcanoes can be caused by "mantle plumes," so-called "hotspots" these hotspots can occur far from plate boundaries, such as the Hawaiian Islands.
In July 2006, volcanoes were discovered that did not fit in any of the above-mentioned categories, since they are located far from the plate boundary, but are too small to be the result of a mantle plume.[1] A new theory suggests that submergence of tectonic plates causes stress all over the plate, which causes the plate to crack in some places. The most common perception of a volcano is of a conical mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater in its top. Other types of volcanoes include cryovolcanos (or ice volcanoes), particularly on some moons of Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune; and mud volcanoes, which are formations often not associated with known magmatic activity. Volcanic cones or cinder cones result from eruptions that throw out mostly small pieces of scoria and pyroclastics (both resemble cinders, hence the name of this volcano type) that build up around the vent. Super volcano is the popular term for large volcanoes that usually have a large caldera and can potentially produce devastation on an enormous, sometimes continental, scale. Another way of classifying volcanoes is by the composition of material erupted (lava), since this affects the shape of the volcano.
These "andesitic" volcanoes generally only occur above subduction zones (e.g Mount Merapi in Indonesia). A popular way of classifying magmatic volcanoes goes by their frequency of eruption, with those that erupt regularly called active, those that have erupted in historical times but are now quiet called dormant, and those that have not erupted in historical times called extinct. Scientists usually consider a volcano active if it is currently erupting or showing signs of unrest, such as unusual earthquake activity or significant new gas emissions. Dormant volcanoes are those that are not currently active (as defined above), but could become restless or erupt again. The Earth's Moon has no large volcanoes and no volcanic activity, although recent evidence suggests it may still possess a partially molten core.[3] However, the Moon does have many volcanic features such as maria (the darker patches seen on the moon), rilles and domes.
There are several extinct volcanoes on Mars, four of which are vast shield volcanoes far bigger than any on Earth.


In 1989 the Voyager 2 spacecraft observed cryovolcanos (ice volcanoes) on Triton, a moon of Neptune, and in 2005 the Cassini-Huygens probe photographed fountains of frozen particles erupting from Enceladus, a moon of Saturn.[7] The ejecta may be composed of water, liquid nitrogen, dust, or methane compounds.
The concentrations of different volcanic gases can vary considerably from one volcano to the next. Volcano is thought to derive from Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn originates from Vulcan, the name of a god of fire in Roman mythology. The Roman name for the island Vulcano has contributed the word for volcano in most modern European languages. Before it was understood that most of the Earth's interior is molten, various explanations existed for volcano behavior. How Volcanoes Work - Educational resource on the science and processes behind volcanoes, intended for university students of geology, volcanology and teachers of earth science. Pacaya is a complex basaltic volcano constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlan caldera. The roiling lava lake atop Hawaii's Kilauea Volcano is threatening to overflow for the first time since the molten pool appeared in February 2010. Scientists say that they have discovered the single largest volcano in the world, a dead colossus deep beneath the Pacific waves. An underwater volcano dubbed Tamu Massif was found some 1,000 miles east of Japan, says William Sager, a professor at the University of Houston, who led a team of scientists in the discovery.
They noted that the samples they had sported evenly spread bubble cavities on the inside, and not so even bubbles near their surface - a pattern not generally found with rock spewed from explosive volcanoes. The Popocatepetl volcano that towers over Mexico City began rumbling again Friday, shooting a blast of ash about 2 miles above its crater at dawn.
The Tungurahua volcano in Ecuador is billowing ash into the sky and sending super-hot pyroclastic flows surging down its slopes, causing authorities to evacuate nearby villages. Strange undersea domes spotted off the California coast are extinct "asphalt volcanoes" made from a mixture of hardened crude oil and marine fossils, according to a new study. A newly detected 19th-century volcanic eruption may solve the mystery of a strangely cool decade in the early 1800s, researchers say-but the location of the volcano itself remains a puzzle. Several huge active submarine volcanoes, spreading ridges and rift zones have been discovered northeast of Fiji by a team of Australian and American scientists aboard the Marine National Facility Research Vessel, Southern Surveyor. Deposits from the landslide travelled about 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the volcano down to the Pacific coastal plain. Pantelleria, a little-known island between Sicily and Tunisia, is a volcano with a remarkable past: 45 thousand years ago, the entire island was covered in a searing-hot layer of green glass.
Pictured above, the Sakurajima volcano in southern Japan was caught erupting in early January. The world's biggest and fastest growing mud volcano, Lusi sprang to life in May 2006, and it and may continue to spew hot mud for another 26 years, according to a new study. The crater fields surrounding the Marsabit Volcano show how dramatically volcanoes can shape the landscape. The volcano blew its top June 12, generating a remarkable shock wave in the atmosphere seen in a photo taken by astronauts. Their technique showed for the first time that instead of flowing radially out from the volcano and covering everything in their path, these currents move initially in one direction, but that this direction then changes.
Authorities in Chile went house to house, trying to persuade stragglers near the volcano to leave because of an increasing danger of toxic gas and flash floods. The volcano spewed hot lava and sand high into the sky early Sunday in its first eruption in 400 years causing thousands of people living around its slope to evacuate their homes.
More than 200 craters appeared 500,000 years ago when the volcano became active after a long dormant period.
Collapse of Pacaya volcano about 1100 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (MacKenney cone) grew. The new discovery came about as the team was studying pumice from a volcanic eruption that occurred in the Macauley volcano - far beneath the waves in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Soon the clouds have dissipated and a sky filled with stars seems to rotate about the snow-peaked volcano's peak. While serving as American ambassador in Paris, Franklin first made the connection between a "dry fog" that had obscured the Sun for months in 1784, the extremely cold weather in Europe and North America that same year, and the 1783 eruption of Iceland's Laki volcano.
Helens which killed 57 people and hurled volcanic ash around the world.Unlike traditional volcanoes, super volcanoes don’t have a cone shaped mountain, instead they form what are known as calderas – the sunken areas that are left over from previous super volcano eruptions. Galeras, ColumbiaGaleras (Photo credit: Wikipedia)Located in Southern Columbia near the border with Ecuador, Galeras has been active for at least 1 million years. A mid-oceanic ridge, like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by "divergent tectonic plates" pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by "convergent tectonic plates" coming together.
This surplus amount of magma generated in one location causes the formation of the volcano.
This describes just one of many types of volcano and the features of volcanoes are much more complicated. The buildup of these layers form a broad volcano with gently sloping sides called a shield volcano.
Pyroclastic flows (ignimbrites) are highly hazardous products of such volcanoes, since they are composed of molten volcanic ash too heavy to go up into the atmosphere, so they hug the volcano's slopes and travel far from their vents during large eruptions.
The lifespan of a volcano can vary from months to several million years, making such a distinction sometimes meaningless when compared to the lifespans of humans or even civilizations. Confusion however, can arise because many volcanoes which scientists consider to be active are referred to as dormant by laypersons or in the media. It is covered with volcanoes that erupt sulfur, sulfur dioxide and silicate rock, and as a result, Io is constantly being resurfaced. Iceland's Bardarbunga volcano was hit by a magnitude 5.7 earthquake on Tuesday morning, the largest since tremors began in the area last week.
A team writing in the journal Nature Geoscience says the 310,000 sq km (119,000 sq mi) Tamu Massif is comparable in size to Mars' vast Olympus Mons volcano - the largest in the Solar System. In Alaska, scores of volcanoes and strange lava flows have escaped scrutiny for decades, shrouded by lush forests and hidden under bobbing coastlines. Scientists have discovered one of the world's weirdest volcanoes on the seafloor near the tip of Baja, Mexico. The huge volcano under Yellowstone National Park has been rising at an unprecedented rate during the past several years, according to a new study. Hidden in the murky depths of the Pacific Ocean off the coast of California, a series of asphalt volcanoes rise from the seafloor.
In his new book, Earth on Fire, photographer and geologist Bernhard Edmaier wanted to show more than just the traditional pyrotechnics of volcano eruptions.
A giant and unusual underwater volcano lies just offshore of Iceland on the Reykjanes Ridge, volcanologists have announced. Not only does it look like a volcano designed by HR Giger (below), but it is the only place on the planet that is currently erupting carbonatite lava, some of the strangest stuff you will ever see.


The findings are helping scientists to understand more about the inner workings of the volcano which had its last major explosive eruption 3,600 years ago, burying the islands of Santorini under metres of pumice. In the ancient past, the Yellowstone volcano produced some of the biggest-known continental eruptions, but the recent rising doesn't mean another doomsday eruption is looming, scientists say. On the hunt for subsea volcanic and hot-spring activity, the team of geologists located the volcanoes while mapping previously uncharted areas. In this new effort, the researchers have found evidence that some underwater volcanoes erupt in a way that is neither - instead they erupt in a way that is in-between. Volcanic lightning is still a mystery, though it may be that electrically charged silica - part of magma - interacts with the atmosphere when it flies out of a volcano, Steve McNutt of the Alaska Volcano Observatory told National Geographic News in February 2010. Hilario, of Portugal's University of Aveiro, and colleagues recently found 20 species of the tiny worms, called frenulates, in mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz, an arm of the Atlantic Ocean southwest of Spain.
In comparison, the largest active volcano on Earth, Hawaii's Mauna Loa, is about 2,000 square miles, Sager says. Mud volcanoes are places where methane-filled fluids seep from the seafloor, providing energy for "exceptionally rich ecosystems. Merapi means Mountain of Fire, an apt name for the most active volcano in Indonesia, and a mountain that has produced more lava flow than any volcano in the world. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another (like the San Andreas fault).
Typical examples for this kind of volcano are the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire, and also Mount Etna and Mount Vesuvius. Because the tectonic plates move whereas the mantle plume remains in the same place, each volcano becomes extinct after a while and a new volcano is then being formed as the plate shifts over the hotspot.
Lassen Peak in California is an example of a volcano formed from felsic lava and is actually a large lava dome. They use classifications which refer to a particular volcano's formative and eruptive processes and resulting shapes, which was explained above.
For example, many of Earth's volcanoes have erupted dozens of times in the past few thousand years but are not currently showing signs of eruption. Marsili, Europe's largest undersea volcano could disintegrate and unleash a tsunami that would engulf southern Italy "at any time", a prominent vulcanologist warned in an interview published today. The volcano ejected an estimated 800 cubic kilometers of ash into the atmosphere, leaving a crater (now the world's largest volcanic lake) that is 100 kilometers long and 35 kilometers wide.
The vast lump of lava is called the Tamu Massif and lies about 1,000 miles (1,600 km) east of Japan and is comparable, though somewhat less voluminous, than the enormous volcano Olympus Mons on Mars.
Precariously located above the grinding and mashing of several tectonic plates, and ringed by a chain of fire-breathing volcanoes, the country's islands are located in one of the most volatile regions in the world. Then in March, Kilauea volcano opened a new vent and began spewing double the usual amount of toxic gas.
The eruption of a volcano and the shaking of a tsunami-generating earthquake this week is just one reminder of Indonesia's fiery foundation. The summits of two of the volcanoes, named Dugong, and Lobster, are dominated by large calderas at depths of 1100 and 1500 metres. Taal Volcano, PhilippinesTaal Volcano (Photo credit: Wikipedia)The Taal Volcano is a cinder cone volcano.
Volcanoes can also form where there is stretching of the Earth's crust and where the crust grows thin (called "non-hotspot intraplate volcanism"), such as in the African Rift Valley, the European Rhine Graben with its Eifel volcanoes, and the Rio Grande Rift in North America.
Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a volcanic summit crater, whereas others present landscape features such as massive plateaus.
Olympus Mons is the largest shield volcano on Mars, and is the tallest known mountain in the solar system. Erupting from an undersea volcano some 745 miles south of Tokyo, smoke and ash rise roughly 30 stories into the air. Researchers here have discovered the pivotal role that volcanoes played in a deadly ice age 450 million years ago. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the Cerro Grande lava dome and a younger volcano to the SW.
The phenomenon occurs when the ash and fine particles sprayed high into the atmosphere by the volcano scatter light.
Due to its collapse, the magma chamber is now smaller in capacity, so that the volcano has frequent small eruptions. Because of the rapid cooling effect of water as compared to air, and increased buoyancy, submarine volcanoes often form rather steep pillars over their volcanic vents as compared to above-surface volcanos. New data provides the strongest evidence to date that the world's biggest mud volcano, which killed 13 people in 2006 and displaced thirty thousand people in East Java, Indonesia, was not caused by an earthquake, according to an international scientific team that includes researchers from Durham University and the University of California, Berkeley.
Some of the world's most dangerous volcanoes can erupt much more quickly than scientists had suspected, according to a new study of the massive 2008 eruption of Chile's Chaiten volcano. Much of the park sits in a caldera, or crater, some 40 miles (70 kilometers) across, which formed when the cone of the massive volcano collapsed in a titanic eruption 640,000 years ago.
Where the mid-oceanic ridge comes above sea-level, volcanoes like the Hekla on Iceland are formed. Complicating the definition are volcanoes that become restless (producing earthquakes, venting gasses, or other non-eruptive activities) but do not actually erupt.
A huge Siberian volcano destroyed the world's forests 250 million years ago in what scientists say was the worst extinction event the planet has ever witnessed, new research has disclosed.
Yellowstone Caldera, United States of AmericaYellowstone Caldera (Photo credit: Wikipedia) The bubbling sulfuric hot springs and erupting geysers of Yellowstone national park have long attracted tourists from far and wide. A BBC expedition exploring inside the crater of an extinct volcano in Papua New Guinea (PNG) has discovered a lost world of dozens of weird new species and rare animals, including new frogs, a giant rat, many new insects and spiders, giant caterpillars, and a new bat species. Ongoing sulfur dioxide gas emissions from the volcano create vog, or sulfur dioxide smog, which wreaks havoc on crops and harms people who are sensitive to atmospheric pollutants.
The creature, which has not yet been formally described, was discovered by an expedition team filming the BBC programme Lost Land of the Volcano. While lightning is typically associated with thunderstorms, hurricanes and other severe weather, the roiling debris clouds of volcanoes can also produce them. Many people in the United States and Europe are seeing gorgeous lavender sunsets lately thanks to the eruption more than two weeks ago of Russia's Sarychev Peak volcano.
Gases rising from deep within the Earth are fueling the world's highest-known microbial ecosystems, which have been detected near the rim of the 19,850-foot-high Socompa volcano in the Andes by a University of Colorado at Boulder research team.
A crew drilling on the Big Island of Hawaii has discovered magma, the molten rock material - never before found in its natural habitat underground - that is the central ingredient in the evolution of planets and the lifeblood of all volcanoes.
Very large earthquakes can trigger an increase in activity at nearby volcanoes according to a new study.



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