During this session, presentations and discussions on satellite communications services, namely satellite phones, Very Small Aperture Terminals (VSATs), and Broadband Global Area Networks (BGANs) for emergency telecommunications were held by the service providers and technology developers. Communication and dissemination of this information in order to provide coordination centers with an accurate situation overview (i.e. User terminals are designed primarily for regular rescue services, so that in case of a disaster they are instantly available. Figure 3: e-Triage communication suitcase (on-site emergency communications equipment, OSECE) consisting of an Inmarsat BGAN satellite terminal, a GSM pico cell, and a WLAN router (9). An electronic registration system for MCIs requires wireless communication services, and since local infrastructures may not exist at all or can be destroyed, it is of paramount importance that at least a temporary communication system is set up.
WLAN: Data communication as well as Voice over IP (VoIP) calls can be provided by WLAN access points. DECT: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) is suitable for voice communication in vicinity of the local coordination center. Public safety communication means in most cases voice communication (group calls) using dedicated PMR networks, which are designed for closed user groups with partly specific confidentiality requirements. Under the coordination of the Luxembourg Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Directorate for Development Cooperation and Humanitarian Action ), Emergency.lu has been established as a public private partnership with the objective to satisfy the telecommunication needs of the international humanitarian community in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster. The Haiti crisis has drastically shown also that for such a large crisis the deployment of a central communication point is not enough as the help will be spread along all the theatre of operations.
Voice communication using SIP based Voice over IP communication: Each Service Hosting is implementing an IPBX with dedicated connection to PSTN and offering a link to small IPBX implemented into the NoSaCo terminals. The Directory Service is managing the contact information that is used for voice communication as well as an inventory of devices or components and their logical organisation. To ensure a convenient user experience, all services are using a self-discovery concept via IP multicast mechanisms and are directly managing their communication and synchronisation without any intervention from the users.
Although LAA has over 20 years experience in supporting disaster relief and humanitarian missions with fixed wing and rotor wing aircrafts as well as medical teams, this more global approach requires an impeccable planning involving all the partners.
It is very important to point out that the Emergency.lu solution is not intending to replace any existing mechanism or intervention teams, but that it should be seen as a valuable and helpful support.
Once the system is deployed, it can be decided either to dissolve the unit and return to Luxembourg with the equipments, or one can consider building a more permanent communication infrastructure, potentially through an increased amount of NoSaCo units.
Flooding in Benin, Earthquake in Haiti, Cyclone Mick swept over Fiji's main island: humanitarian aid and emergency relief teams are more and more in need of a structured, secure information flow through all phases of the disaster management cycle. As the Greek philosopher Platon has astutely observed, “the beginning is the most important part of the work”. Due to integrated function of Unified Communication and Collaboration (UCC), PLATON users can access all means of communication via their PLATON desktop client, i.e.
In particular this applies to local disaster situations where specialists are not available on site. In a disaster situation the human resources are very likely to be limited and helpful information has to be up-to-date at any location. The government's response to the disasters triggered by the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011 raised serious questions about Japan's ability to handle a crisis at the national level.
The key point that emerged from our hearings and deliberations was the importance of establishing a smoothly functioning decision-making cycle under which the government's top leadership can keep abreast of circumstances as they unfold, accurately assess the situation, decide on an appropriate response, and take effective action in a crisis situation.
In such emergencies, state and local public institutions—including the Self-Defense Forces, the Coast Guard, police and fire departments, traffic and transportation authorities, public medical facilities, and immigration authorities—must be prepared to respond. Currently, the deputy chief cabinet secretary for crisis management directs the Cabinet Secretariat's crisis-management apparatus during emergencies, "except for those pertaining to national defense." The drafters of this provision may have thought it prudent to distinguish between contingencies pertaining to national defense and other emergencies, but in the real world, seemingly isolated incidents, such as a missile launch or incursion by a suspicious vessel, can subsequently develop a into armed attacks. Moreover, because access to the center was strictly controlled in the name of information security, use of key channels of communication, including mobile phone access, was restricted.
One of the most important lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake is the vital role played by the information and communications infrastructure. Inasmuch as the disruption of communications was a problem for the stricken Tohoku region in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, thought must be given to the impact a major quake in the Tokyo area would have on vital communication networks in the nation's capital, including those of the Prime Minister's Office. Assuming that certain parts of the Tokyo-area telecommunications network will remain functional even in a worst-case scenario, planners should also establish procedures for linking them together to restore communications on an emergency basis. When the March 2011 tsunami struck, the wireless Personal Handy-phone System ordinarily used for communication within the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station complex was immediately rendered useless. In addition to the government-only networks used by various ministries (including the SDF) and the public network operated by NTT and other telecom carriers, most businesses that operate and maintain the capital area's power and transportation infrastructure have their own dedicated communication networks.
One international NGO that assisted with rescue and relief operations after the March 2011 disaster was the International Medical Corps.
Information and communications services for disaster-hit communities should be considered a priority comparable to food, clothing, shelter, and medical care.
The report of the Independent Investigation Commission on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident issued by the Rebuild Japan Initiative in February this year devotes a substantial number of pages to the issue of risk communication.
The chief cabinet secretary played an essential role in providing the media with regular updates during and after the emergency.
At the same time, there is an urgent need to enhance the Japanese government's capacity to provide information in English and other key languages in order to improve communication with the rest of the world and ensure that foreign nationals in Japan receive warnings and other vital information in a timely and accurate manner. In this brief paper, I have focused on three key imperatives for effective emergency management in Japan: (1) "anticipating the unanticipated" to prepare for a wider range of contingencies, (2) creating an optimum decision-making environment based on accurate information, and (3) enhancing information and communications infrastructure.
Recent years have witnessed important milestones in the global trend toward sustainable investment.
If you ask a person who has been through a natural disaster, you will find out how difficult it is to establish communication immediately after.
Sometimes multiple disasters strike at the same time or at a short time difference like it happened in Virginia in 2011.
Communication is very important in our day-to-day life but it becomes crucial during and after a disaster. Natural disaster preparation is very important and it has to be done in advance especially when it comes to communication. There are situations when the power goes off but secure Wi-Fi is still available so you can get online and read news about the disaster or send e-mails and chat with loved ones.
If there is a natural disaster and you still get network and Internet, don’t occupy the line with voice calls unless you have an emergency. As you can see, a communication system during disaster is extremely important and if you are lucky enough to have a working phone don’t waste it’s battery on activities that are not important like games and watching videos.
Mobile phones, landlines, tablets, and laptops represent our main way of communication these days.
Still, there are many situations when traditional and modern communications failed all together leaving isolated people at the mercy of chance.

Radio waves are transmitted based on Earth’s ionosphere which makes them the perfect candidate when it comes to communicating during the worst scenarios of natural disasters. These are the main radio equipments that can help you during a difficult time such as natural disasters.
Another public alternative communication system during disaster is the media (television, newspapers, online publications, and radio broadcasting) but if you want to alert the population about an immediate danger, the systems enumerated above are more effective. After these events and many like these, the importance of a wireless communication system that is not based on a terrestrial structure increased for local governments and authorities. There are two main types of satellite communication that someone could use in case of emergency: Geostationary Satellite Systems (GEO) and Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEO).
GEO support a full range of communication services like voice, broadband data and video and they are located at 36.000 km above our planet. Satellite communication in case of natural disasters only works if local authorities, humanitarian organizations and first responders prepare in advance.
Terminals for communications on the move – a slightly bigger equipment that is usually operated from inside a car (you’ll need one to transport it). Fixed satellite communications – big equipments that are best to be installed before the disaster strikes, in an area near the endangered zone. Like everything else, when it comes to a natural disaster, finding the right alternative communication system requires preparation in advance. Eight years have passed since PWRI first began its lending program, and during this time many external institutions have made use of it. Disaster-management drills were held at the Civil Engineering Research Institute for Cold Region (CERI) on Monday, September 1, and at the Tsukuba Central Research Institute etc.
Communications training involved receiving disaster information from the HRDB, engaging in in-house communication of disaster information and instructions to CERI employees, and gathering information from media outlets.
Training in setting up and operating a disaster support headquarters involved receiving a request for support from the HRDB´s director, setting up a disaster support headquarters, reporting on disaster conditions and the status of response measures, and receiving damage information from a helicopter.
Training in response to requests for personnel dispatches from the HRDB involved a series of steps that included receipt of a dispatch request from the HRDB´s director, making dispatch decisions in a disaster support headquarters meeting, and making dispatch preparations. And training in disaster management in external facilities envisioned that a part of the Experiment Site for Resource Circulation System in Betsukai had been hit by an earthquake of intensity 5 or greater.
Communications training involved calling for personnel to gather in accordance with disaster communications network (telephone communications) instructions for the entire staff, and communicating information to all division heads and senior researchers and above using e-mail. And training in setting up and operating disaster headquarters involved setting up disaster headquarters in the PWRI in Tsukuba and CERI in Sapporo and then conducting a videoconference. To date, PWRI has made significant contributions to the recovery of disaster-affected areas. The preliminary study team held interviews on sewerage conditions in Syria with the Ministry of Housing and Construction as well as sewerage authorities that maintain and manage sewerage facilities.
While it is known that stream-side forests play an important role in maintaining various waterside ecosystems, there is concern that such forests also produce driftwood whenever floods occur.
In May, Cyclone Nargis struck Myanmar´s Irrawaddy Delta, causing great loss of life and damaging facilities and infrastructure. In response, the Geotechnical Research Team explained construction methods - with particular focus on low-cost methods (log-laying, trenches, sand mats, laying material, pile net, etc.), and provided advice on methods for laying down local plants as well as the importance of sand mats and drain ditches. Nevertheless, the main drawback is that information about affected persons remains among the persons themselves, making disaster management considerably more difficult.
Although earlier and other current works have studied single components of electronic MCI management, a unique feature of e-Triage is that for the first time a coherent overall concept consisting of mobile devices, communication infrastructure, and data management is under development.
Introducing data communication to public safety requires appropriate preparation, which means that one may not rely on the availability of public (commercial) terrestrial networks only. This initiative is intended to bring added humanitarian value through faster and more reliable telecommunication services in the first few hours following a natural disaster, a segment of emergency relief still insufficiently covered today. The lack of coordination during the first hours after a crisis is a real difficulty to get the relevant information to prepare and coordinate the help.
This distributed architecture allows an advanced management of the resilience, security and quality of service, ensuring that the local collection and access to information is still possible even when no communication to the Service Hosting is possible. With the similarity to the OSI Layer representation, the Satellite communication layer can be compared with the physical layer.
Summarizing discussions held under the Tokyo Foundation’s National Security Policy Project and drawing on his experience as special adviser to the cabinet between March and September 2011, Noboru Yamaguchi offers proposals that stress the need to rethink crisis management in the age of advanced information and communications technology.
The private sector, too, such as private companies, nongovernmental organizations, healthcare providers, media organizations, scientists, and engineers, may be called upon to play an important role, depending on the nature of the situation. A backup satellite network is needed to ensure that channels remain open between key cabinet members and other vital personnel during such an emergency. By creating an ad hoc network from those elements that remain functional, it should be possible to restore vital information and communications service on an emergency basis. By dispatching small, autonomous teams equipped with a variety of information and communications equipment ("mobile communication support units") to set up ad hoc networks in disaster areas, we could facilitate the flow of information between the demand and supply sides of the rescue and relief equation. As a result of these new developments in information and communication technology, news or rumors of an event can reach people around the world almost instantaneously, but such reports are not always accurate. The report discusses the manner in which the government sought to address concerns over the accident both in Japan and overseas, assessing the strengths and weaknesses of its public communications efforts, including its explanations of the risks of radiation exposure and its statements to the foreign media.
But in a situation like the March 2011 disaster, the task can become too much for one person, particularly given that the chief cabinet secretary, as the prime minister's chief of staff, also performs a vital role of coordinating the work of the ministries and agencies. In some sense, all of the recommended reforms—including measures to ensure effective communication with the international community—point to a greater emphasis on information and communication. Usually power is down and landline communications are interrupted due to tower loss and other technical difficulties. In case wireless connection still works after a natural disaster, you may need to use the phone many times.
During times like this people need to call emergency services and lines become extremely crowded. Usually, in case of disaster, authorities create special lines for non-emergencies where you can call and find out information. If you are lucky, these devices may help you get through a natural disaster, by offering you the possibility to stay in touch with friends and family or to get in touch with authorities and rescue teams. That’s why an alternative communication system is absolutely necessary in a shelter or a place where people gather waiting to pass the natural disaster safely.
Given the fact that this is a long rage communication system via radio waves, it can be the device that saves many lives when there’s nothing else around. Communication towers usually get destroyed during these kinds of situations leaving people in the dark without any possibility of contacting the authorities and asking for help.

This type of device is required for extra high speed communications that require broadband data and video communication. Every person must be aware of the fact that disasters are called this way because they tend to flatten everything down in their way starting with houses, cars, trees and ending up with communication towers.
With our satellite-based communication facilities flexible data services can be provided plus the possibility to quickly establish point-to-point telephone services in case of extreme disasters. Not to blame anybody, but precious time was lost in Haiti because the necessary tools for quick and reliable communication were not in place in order to coordinate and deploy USAR teams as they arrived.
Once the communication is restored, synchronisation processes are sharing automatically the information with other SPoP and in the Service Hosting. The virtual “Task Force Disaster“ team can effectively support the local team via video, voice, chat and data.
The success or failure of an organization's handling of a crisis has been shown to hinge in large part on the manner in which it navigates this cycle, and its importance has only increased with the rapid rise and diffusion of advanced information and communications technology in recent years. The government also instituted a system, applicable in the event of any contingency that meets the definition of an emergency situation (large-scale disasters, major accidents, major incidents, armed attacks, etc.), under which an emergency response team consisting of high-level officials from concerned ministries and agencies gathers at the Crisis Management Center of the Prime Minister's Office to draw up emergency countermeasures. By March 26, moreover, this company network and been linked up with a mobile base station set up in the compound, permitting the restoration of mobile-phone communications inside the plant complex. Just as there are various NGOs dedicated to providing food and medical care, organizations to provide information and communication services might need to be set up.
This makes it more important than ever before that the government broadcast messages to the nation and the world in a clear and timely fashion during emergencies.
When and how the prime minister should stand and speak before a domestic or foreign audience is a crucial judgment call for the administration as a whole; it is therefore of the utmost importance to equip the prime minister with expert staff to advise him on such matters. Even though we live in an extremely technological era, an alternative communication system during disaster is an absolute necessity in such times. News agencies and radio channels broadcast during a natural disaster in order to keep people informed.
This allows rescue teams and emergency responders to meet immediate communication needs, using satellites and satellite systems.
They present a series of advantages towards terrestrial communication but the most important advantage is the fact that they work while floating around our planet where no wind, water or fire can reach them. They are not just an alternative communication system during disaster they are also very useful at warning people about seismic activity that could transform in a catastrophic situation and floods. David's responsibility was to protect people in case of any disaster or cataclysm that might occur.
Arriving triage and medical rescue teams have to be able to start working immediately without having to wait for the communication infrastructure to be set up. Werner, “Portable satellite backhauling solution for emergency communications,” in Proceedings 5th Advanced Satellite Multimedia Systems (ASMS) Conference and 11th Signal Processing for Space Communications (SPSC) Workshop, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, Sep. Here Emergency.lu is providing an approach creating broadband communication and additionally offering a set of services that can be directly used by the experts.
Until wireless phone service was restored at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, plant personnel were able to make do with a combination of iridium satellite phones and a multichannel access radio communication system stored on site for emergency purposes. In a crisis of the magnitude of the March 2011 disaster, the quality of public information coming out of the Prime Minister's Office is of the essence. Considering the importance of this function during crisis situations, a quasi-cabinet post of press officer may need to be created. We are used to be able to communicate at every given moment in time, with people who live thousands of miles away from our location which is why the need of an alternative communication system during disaster may seem obsolete and unnecessary.
We all have to admit that earthquakes, storms, tornadoes, and all other natural disasters are frightening and extremely impressive. This type of communication is used mostly by humanitarian organizations and first responders who are usually present at big, catastrophic events like Haiti. Also, governments can broadcast warnings and keep the general flow of information during difficult times. All team members have received in depth crisis management education and have experience in disaster relief missions. Distribution of emergency communications devices and the creation of ad hoc networks to ensure the smooth flow of critical information can play a vital role in emergency response.
We often forget that our communication technology runs on power and it needs signal towers in order to reach the recipient device.
This effect implies an additional problem, namely a saturation of the geographically nearest hospitals, which very often do not have a communication return channel to coordination centers. The main objective of this article is to describe the e Triage approach (6), which is a research project funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research and which consists of four main elements: autonomous communication infrastructure, electronic data recording, a distributed database system (7), and psychological acceptance research.
Muhammad, “Performance of database synchronization via satellite,” in Proceedings 5th Advanced Satellite Multimedia Systems (ASMS) Conference and 11th Signal Processing for Space Communications (SPSC) Workshop, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, Sep. The physicians’ and specialists’ competences can be virtualized and provided in any location, thus easing the communication and saving time and money. The damage to communications infrastructure also hindered coordination and information sharing among the various responders taking part in relief efforts, from SDF troops and firefighters to volunteer groups and international organizations. That’s why it is extremely important that everyone knows what to do in case this happens and how to get in touch as soon as they are safe. Thus, the underlying storage technology will be a distributed database system (DDBS), which has to cope with a variety of different communication technologies, including terrestrial wireless and satellite links with different bandwidths.
In many cases the emergency supplies that prefectural authorities had readied in warehouses in the event of such a disaster never reached the evacuation centers that needed them, whether because of transport problems or because the center was unable to communicate its needs. In more details, the e-Triage system comprises a satellite-based communication system with terrestrial radio cells that can be installed in the field, matching end devices with dedicated application software for the registration of victims, and a distributed, self-synchronizing database system guaranteeing maximal availability without a single point of failure. The basic design goal is that the complete on-site emergency communications equipment (OSECE) fits into a hand-luggage size suitcase. In disaster-stricken areas, the efficient flow of information between the demand and supply sides is of the essence. Nodes of this DDBS are installed in all mobile user terminals (tablet-PCs), at communication nodes (OSECEs), and in the remote area.

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