From the MWA reservoir -- Javors Lucas Lake -- or in some cases directly or indirectly from the Ocmulgee River, the Authority pumps raw water into the Amerson Plant, where the drinking water treatment process then begins. Filtration takes place when water passes through filters, some made of layers of sand, gravel, charcoal, or other substance, which helps remove even smaller particles from the water. Disinfection is the final stage of the drinking water treatment process that requires a small amount of chlorine or similar disinfection method to kill any bacteria or micro-organisms that may be in the water.
Following this treatment process, finished drinking water is stored in a closed tank, either on the plant site (clearwells) or within the Authority's distribution system (ground and elevated storage tanks) for eventual safe delivery to MWA customers. HWTS is also suitable for urban poor communities such as slums where households are very likely to use unprotected water sources. Hence, treating drinking water at household level by using simple, yet effective Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) options such as boiling, filtration, chlorination and SODIS could significantly reduce incidences of waterborne diseases.
However, drinking water supplied by centralised treatment systems is likely to get contaminated due to poor distribution networks, management and unhygienic handling prior to consumption.
The first part contains an introduction to the topic and depicts some possible, simple techniques for treating water at the household level. Household-level Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) can reduce episodes of diarrhoeal diseases by 39% (WHO 2007a). We need to follow a process and not just rely on a single technology to improve water quality. Department of Water Supply and Sewerage (DWSS) Nepal, United States Agency for International Development (USAID), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Source: CAWST (2007)Sedimentation is a physical treatment process used to reduce the turbidity of the water (see also sedimentation). Suspended materials in water, such as particles of sand, clay, and other materials can be substantially removed simply by settling the water.


Safe storage means keeping treated water away from sources of contamination, and using a clean and covered container. PDFSummary and brief evaluation of main household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) options for developing countries.
Flocculation is the second stage of water treatment, which involves gentle stirring to bring suspended particles together so they will form larger clumps called "floc" that will more easily settle out for removal during the next phase(s) of treatment. Lack of improved access to safe drinking water together inadequate sanitation and hygiene are the overwhelming contributors to the 1.8 million annual deaths caused by diarrhoeal diseases. Water may be treated differently in different communities depending on the quality of the water which enters the plant.
Safe drinking water and sanitation are the condition for physical health and intellectual, social and economical activity and development. To treat the water at household level in order to assure the microbial (and chemical) quality together with safe water storage and proper hygiene practices could considerably contribute to reach the millennium development goals.
Both community and household water treatment systems follow the same water treatment process.
Now that the water is safe to drink, it should be handled and stored properly to keep it safe. It also means drinking water from the container in a way so that people do not make each other sick. Sedimentation occurs when the heavy particles (floc) settle to the bottom of basins, so the clear water can move on to filtration.
Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage (HWTS) is particularly suitable in places where people are using contaminated drinking water sources and relying on potentially contaminated centralised water supply systems.
You may click on each treatment point on the image for a little information about that treatment point.


The quality of drinking water being supplied is often neglected even if the access to water supply has been increased substantially. PDFThis paper identifies the critical points of drinking water contamination and also determines the extent of recontamination after treating water by using HWTS. The only difference is the scale of the systems that are used by communities and households.The multi-barrier approach of HWTS contributes to stop microbial pollution and thus reduces the health risks linked to waterborne disease.
If it is not stored safely, the treated water quality could become worse than the source water and may cause people to get sick.
The container should prevent hands, cups and dippers from touching the water, so that the water does not get re-contaminated. Providing access to safe drinking water through centralised systems in developing countries is very challenging. Large distribution systems involve a lot of operation and maintenance and often, drinking water gets contaminated during distribution and during handling in the household.
PDFCAWST (Editor) (2009): An Introduction to Household Water Treatment and Safe Storage, A CAWST Training Manual. PDFThis Technical Brief is the second of two which examine the treatment of water at household level. Waterborne diseases caused by consumption of unsafe drinking water are a major health burden in most of the developing countries in the world.
Groundwater is water located under ground and typically requires less treatment than water from lakes, rivers, and streams.



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Comments

  1. 11.01.2014 at 23:51:49


    Perform just as nicely for $80.

    Author: A_Y_N_U_R
  2. 11.01.2014 at 19:55:20


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    Author: 7700
  3. 11.01.2014 at 16:35:38


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    Author: sensiz_geceler
  4. 11.01.2014 at 14:10:18


    Run a generator in areas you should have all brand filters, made.

    Author: Koketka
  5. 11.01.2014 at 20:27:30


    And, certain enough, its plastic container is marked ive noticed so far.

    Author: 888888