Some jobs have site specific hazards that are unique to that particular place or situation. Add this Written Risk Assessment Template to your site safety plan to list the hazards and their ratings.
The primary objective of risk management and fratricide avoidance is to help units protect their combat power through risk reduction, enabling them to win the battle quickly and decisively with minimum losses. Risk management is the process of identifying and controlling hazards to conserve combat power and resources.
Hazard assessment is the process of determining the direct impact of each hazard on an operation (in the form of hazardous incidents). Thoroughly brief all aspects of the mission, including related hazards and controls, and ensure that subordinates know the plan. During mission execution, leaders must ensure their subordinates properly understand and execute risk management controls. Demonstrating consistent and sustained risk management behavior through leading by example and stressing active participation throughout the risk management process. Make informed risk decisions; establish and then clearly communicate risk decision criteria and guidance. Accurately evaluate the unit's effectiveness, as well as subordinates' execution of risk controls during the mission. Reduction of fratricide risk begins during the planning phase of an operation and continues through preparation and execution. A thoroughly developed, clearly communicated, and completely understood plan helps minimize fratricide risk. Confirmation briefs and rehearsals are primary tools for identifying and reducing fratricide risk during the preparation phase. During execution, in-stride risk assessment and reaction can overcome unforeseen fratricide risk situations. Risk shall mean the combination of the overall probability, or frequency of occurrence of a harmful effect induced by a hazard and the severity of that effect. Risk assessment is performed to determine the magnitude of risk and to establish whether measures are needed to contain it within defined limits.
Aircraft operators and aviation service providers shall also define those levels of management with authority to make decisions regarding safety risks tolerability.
Risk assessment is based on the evaluation of the following criteria: the severity of a hazard, the probability (frequency) of its occurrence and tolerability of its effects. The ultimate criterion used to assess the severity of hazards is the impact on the safety of aircraft and its occupants and other persons who may be directly affected. The severity of hazards will be determined by the credible effects on the safety of aircraft, when the outcome of all the weaknesses, potential failures and safeguards (barriers) which may exist in the relevant operational environment have been taken into consideration. A credible assessment of the severity of hazard effects requires detailed knowledge of the environment of operations and the services (functions) to be performed. An example of hazard severity classification matrix is provided in the related article on hazard identification. The estimation of the probability of a hazard occurring (or in other words the interval of exposure in which a hazard effect may manifest itself) is usually achieved by means of structured review using a standard classification scheme. However, the estimation of the probability of occurrence of hazards (and their effects) which are associated with human error is not straightforward.
Both probability of occurrence of a hazard effect and the severity potential of that effect, need to be taken into account when deciding on the tolerability (acceptability) of a risk. Throughout the aviation industry, many different versions of risk assessment matrices are available. The output from risk classification is used to determine the risks the organisation should act upon.
Various strategies and approaches can be used by aircraft operators and aviation service providers in order to reduce the unacceptable risks to tolerable levels. According ICAO Doc 9859 - Safety Management Manual, there are many options - formal and less formal - to approach the analytical aspects of risk assessment. Within the context of their general obligations, employers have to take the necessary measures for the safety and health protection of workers, including prevention of occupational risks. For preventing occupational accidents and ill health, employers must perform risk assessment regarding safety and health at work, and decide on protective measures to take and, if necessary, on protective equipment to use. Risk assessment, as referred before, is a legal obligation in Europe but it is also a good practice that contributes to keep companies competitive and effective. Risk is the combination of the likelihood of an occurrence of a hazardous event or exposure and the severity of injury or ill health that can be caused by the event or exposure[1].

From a psychosocial perspective risk is defined as the likelihood that psychosocial factors have a hazardous influence on employees’ health through their perceptions and experience and the severity of ill health that can be caused by exposure to them. It is important that employers know where the risks are in their organizations and control them to avoid putting in risk employees, customers and the organization itself.
As referred, according to EU legislation employers are responsible for performing risk assessment regarding safety and health at work. Workers participation in the process of occupational safety and health risk management is fundamental, since workers are the actors that best know the OSH problems and the resources involved in their tasks.
Risk assessment is the process of evaluation of the risks arising from a hazard, taking into account the adequacy of any existing controls and deciding whether or not the risks is acceptable[1]. Risk evaluation involves the determination of a quantitative or qualitative value for the risk. Qualitative risk evaluation is more common and usually adopts a methodology based on a matrix, for instance the matrix proposed in British Standard 8800[4].
Based on the risk values obtained during the risk evaluation phase, risks should be sorted and ranked according to their severity. A decision whether or not a risk is acceptable result from the comparison of the obtained risk value with reference values defined in legislation. In this decision process it is advisable to take into account the individuals’ total exposure to risk, allowing for the fact that they could be exposed to risks associated with a number of different hazards[4]. It should be highlighted that a particularly careful assessment of individual risk exposure should be performed to workers of special groups (for example, vulnerable groups such as new or inexperienced workers), or to those most directly involved in the highest risk activities] (i.e. This risk classification is the baseline for selecting safety actions to be implemented and when defining the timescale, i.e. As an example, table 2 depicts a simple risk categorization and the respective guidance to the application of corrective safety measures proposed by[4]. To have a consistent base for all risk assessments the company should first establish the acceptability criteria. Risk control is the stage where the actions to identify and implement safety measures to control risks are performed having in mind the protection of workers’ health and safety, as well as their monitoring over time.
It is very important to take account of the number of individuals exposed to the risk when setting priorities and timescales to the implementation of safety control measures.
The first step of risk control is the design of the safety control measures to eliminate risks.
The risk management process should be reviewed and updated regularly, for instance every year, to ensure that the safety measures implemented are adequate and effective. This is also a highly recommendable procedure since workplaces are dynamic due to change in equipment, machines, substances or work procedures that could introduce new hazards in the workplace. The review of the risk management process should consider a variety of types of information and draw them from a number of relevant perspectives (e.g.
For instance, Last Minute Risk Assessment (LMRA) is a new tool, adequate to be used in companies where (acute) safety risks are relevant. Risk assessment does not represent an end in itself, but should contribute to controlling risks to an acceptable or tolerable level. Aircraft operators and other aviation service provider organisations should establish and apply a formal risk management process within the framework of the organisational SMS. Once hazards and their effects have been determined during the first step by means of hazard identification, an analysis is required to assess the probability of the hazard effects occurring and the severity of these effects on aircraft operation.
Elements to be considered in the severity assessment would include a number of indicators, such as crew workload, exposure time to the hazard, aggravating factors etc. Unless there is a very high capture rate of relevant occurrence data which has been appropriately stratified, it may be difficult to find meaningful empirical data and subjective assessment will then be all that is possible. It is a common practice to use a risk classification matrix in support of this two-dimensional judgement. A composite assessment of risk, to assist in comparing risks, may then be derived by multiplying the severity and probability values.
Decision making will require clearly defined criteria about acceptable or tolerable risk and unacceptable risk (see “Acceptable Level of Safety” in Safety Planning article). This third and very important step of risk management is discussed further in the Risk Mitigation article. For some risks, the number of variables and the availability of both suitable data and mathematical models may lead to credible results with quantitative methods (requiring mathematical analysis of specific data).
Over time, quantitative data may support or alter the determinations of severity and probability, but the initial risk determinations will most likely be qualitative in nature, based on experience and judgment more than factual data. This could be achieved through a risk management process, which involves risk analysis, risk assessment and risk control practices.

It is advisable that risk assessment should be done at least every year or every time a change is introduced in the workplace, for instance due to the introduction of new work equipment or procedure, or the use of a new chemical substance or preparation.
Risk assessment is a dynamic process that allows companies and organizations to put in place a proactive policy for managing occupational risks. A hazard is a source, situation, or act with a potential for harm in terms of human injury or ill health, or a combination of these[1].
According to the BS OHSAS 18001 an acceptable risk is a risk that has been reduced to a level that can be tolerated by the organization having regard to its legal obligations and its own OSH policy[1].
The main goal of risk management is to eliminate or at least to reduce the risks according to the ALARP (as low as reasonably practicable) principle. Therefore, the overall responsibility for identifying, assessing and controlling risks at the workplace lies with the employer, who must guarantee that the occupational safety and health (OSH) risk management activities are properly executed. Several methods to perform risk assessment are available ranging from expert to participatory methodologies and from simple to complex methods. Quantitative risk evaluation requires calculations of the two components of the risk: the probability that the risk will occur, and the severity of the potential consequences. The safety measures implemented should be the ones that best protect everyone exposed to the risk.
The risks that cannot be avoided or eliminated should be reduced to an acceptable level, i.e. Another reason is that new knowledge regarding risks can emerge; either leading to the need of an intervention or offering new ways of controlling the risk.
The European Safety and Health Agency (OSHA) have developed a risk assessment tools database with tools from all over Europe. Every time, before the work is started, workers confirm that there are no acute risks and that normal preventive measures are in place.
Risk management shall ensure that risks are systematically analysed (in terms of probability of occurrence and severity of hazard effects), assessed (in terms of tolerability) and controlled to an acceptable level (by implementation of mitigation measures).
ICAO Doc 9859 - Safety Management Manual highlights the importance of distinguishing between hazards (the potential to cause harm) and risk (the likelihood of that harm being realised during a specified amount of risk exposure). Another group factors to be taken into account are the means of mitigation that are considered acceptable by the safety regulator, for example the effective use of TCAS as mitigation means for mid-air collision hazard. As with the estimation of the`severity of a hazard, the development of informed judgments from a structured review by people with extensive experience in their respective fields applied to a standard classification scheme will be the best substitute for absolute values. Severity is ranked as Catastrophic, Hazardous, Major or Minor, with a descriptor for each indicating the potential severity of consequences. Examples of Risk Assessment and Mitigation in ATM from EUROCONTROL and Predictive Risk Matrix used by FAA for airline operations can be viewed here.
The assessment of tolerability (acceptability) is critical in making rational decisions to allocate the limited organisational resources against those risks posing greatest threats and this process often may require a cost-benefit analysis. However, ICAO states that few hazards in aviation lend themselves to credible analysis solely through quantitative methods. In order to carry out an effective risk management process, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the legal context, concepts, risk analysis, assessment and control processes and the role played by all involved in the process.
Therefore, risk assessment constitutes the basis for implementation of appropriate preventive measures and, according to the Directive; it must be the starting point of any Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Management system. Therefore, a hazard can be anything present in the workplace that has the potential to cause an injury to workers, either a work accident or an occupational disease.
Risks are estimated according to their likelihood and potential severity of harm, combining the severity and likelihood categories, as shown on table 1. Documentation should provide an overview of the identified hazards, respective risks and subsequent safety control measures implemented. Examples of physical hazardous situations can be working on a ladder, handling chemicals substances or walking on a wet floor.
Carrying out risk management implies performing several steps (whose activities will be detailed in the next sub-sections).
This means employers must perform a cost-benefit analysis to balance the cost (include money, time, trouble and effort) they could have to reduce a risk against the degree of risk presented[5].
Examples of psychosocial hazardous situations are job content, job insecurity, isolation, bullying or harassment, since employees’ health are affected by their perceptions and experience about work organization and other related factors[2]. It should be demonstrated that the cost involved in reducing the risk further would be grossly disproportionate to the benefit gained.

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