4 The Regulations consolidate existing duties and do not constitute any significant change to the way work at height risks are expected to be managed, inspected or enforced. 13 Such 'new' issues include inadequate assessment of low fall risks (falls below head height), failure to plan for emergencies and rescue, failure to take into account weather conditions while working at height, inappropriate selection of work equipment, particularly ladders, and failure to follow the principles set out in the hierarchy in Reg 6. 115 Reg 10(4) requires materials and objects to be stored in such a way so that they do not collapse, overturn etc, eg ensure bricks, bales of paper etc are stored safely so that they do not constitute a risk. Plans should be in place which recognise when conditions change to such an extent that work needs to be suspended because workers health or safety is at risk e.g. Organisation and planning should cover risks associated with setting up and dismantling a job as well as rescue.
It is expected that emergency services training and generic risk assessment will make their employees aware of fragile surfaces.
Prior to use, they should be checked for obvious defects which could increase the risk of a fall.
The risk assessment should demonstrate that the work can be carried out safely using collective mitigation measures. Duty holders who carry out risk assessments and select the appropriate methods and work equipment for work at height should meet the standards expected by the WAHR. However also assess risks from falls below head height and ensure sensible precautions are taken which reflect the risk. Reg 6 and 7 inform the risk assessment process by taking a duty holder through a set of questions which should prompt them to make the correct decisions when considering how to avoid or control risk when working at height. The expectation would not be to require 40 mm extensions to be applied to existing handrails for the course of the construction work providing the risk assessment could justify this. Similarly any fixed guard rails below 950 mm at the commencement of the WAHR can be justified on the basis of risk assessment. The policy line is to maintain a 600 mm minimum width unless there is a need for a smaller width which can be justified by a risk assessment.
Foot level anchorage can also mean potential deployment over a sharp edge resulting in an increased risk of failure. Risk assessment evaluates the likelihood and consequence of climate-related impacts on transportation and can be rooted in engineering applications. Climate change risk assessment can be a tool for enhancing the resilience of the transportation network (CCSP, 2008). The consequence of impact for the risk table can be determined for each endpoint of interest described in Box 4 . This report includes a Tier I infrastructure risk assessment for Victoria , Australia and implements the New Zealand risk management guidebook (NZCOO, 2004).
This study reviews the current understanding of the risks posed by climate stressors to the Metropolitan East Coast infrastructure with a focus on coastal storm surge inundation and then looks at the incremental hazards associated with projected sea level rise including risks associated with coastal storm surge.
Guarantee the safety and well-being of Maryland 's citizens in times of foreseen and unforeseen risk.
Many times this assessment will quantify the product of the probabilities of exposure and vulnerability.
The future climate change effects within the assessment area are projected to a particular time period to determine the potential changes in relevant climate variables and climate variability (Mehdi et al., 2006).
This study follows many of the steps described in the methodology section including the assessment of current vulnerabilities, estimating future climate conditions and identifying the associated projected vulnerabilities.
A sample of the vulnerability assessment findings of the percent of highway facilities vulnerable to relative sea level rise and storm surge impacts.
In the literature, risk assessment approaches fall into two distinct classes based on the availability of data and effort and are discussed here as the Tier 1 assessment and the Tier 2 assessment.
This approach provides methodologies for vulnerability assessment, risk assessment, and adaptation.
Methods currently used in assessing these risks and prioritizing responses could be augmented and employed in the context of climate change risks. Transportation (2008)highlights the California Seismic Retrofit Program as a strategic, risk-based approach that could be considered in the context of climate change risks.
This assessment provides transportation policymakers with guidance based on quantitative analysis of the level of risk associated with changing climate conditions. A climate change risk assessment can help identify no-regrets climate change adaptation options, that is, the uncertainty associated with the stressor is very low warranting implementation of adaptation options (Willows and Connell, 2003). Additionally, risks faced today at a given location may change in the future, dependent upon climatic changes, management decisions, and the implementation of adaptation measures, for example.
The severity and probability of projected impacts can also be factored into this analysis (see section on risk assessment) and compared to the timeframe available for implementation of action. The risk product for each stressor and endpoint reflects the level of risk for policymakers. This type of vulnerability assessment can be replicated in other regions as the climate scenarios are applicable worldwide and the results can be incorporated into regional vulnerability assessments relying on regional expertise and existing infrastructure inventories. Thus, this literature review focuses on three major categories of activities: vulnerability assessments, risk assessments, and adaptation approaches.
Alternatively, an event that is not likely to occur and, if it were to occur, would produce very little damage would be considered a very low risk (illustrated below in white). The Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research network (C-CIARN) hosted a workshop to discuss and identify the impacts of landslides, adaptation and risk management and future needs associated with future climate projected in Canada to include increased water, steepness, and intensity of storms (CCIARN, 2004). For example an extreme climate event such as intense rainfall events may be considered rare but the actual impacts may be very severe and may warrant a greater degree of associated risk than the findings of the evaluation (Willows and Connell, 2003). Plan must be supported fEMA was prepared to respond to a standard assessment risk government form activated when speak to occurs.
12 In general the enforcement approach should entail no relaxation of expected standards for duties which are not new, but a progressive approach where duties are new except for flagrant or deliberate breaches where there is significant risk of major injury or worse.
19 Work on the upper floor of an office is not work at height, neither is sitting on a chair because there is no risk of a fall.
124 Suitable intervals between inspections which are quoted under Reg 12(3)(a) are determined on the basis of risk assessment. They should also be able to use dynamic risk assessments to cope with changing circumstances. In the case of some low risk activities, particularly those involving falls below head height, this may involve no more than ensuring the person is aware of the risk of a fall and can choose the correct equipment to perform the task.

However for falls below head height, decisions regarding means of protection will need to be risk based.
This does not prohibit nets and airbags being positioned lower, however the greater fall height will have to be justified on the basis of risk assessment.
Duty holders need to ensure that matters under their control do not expose members of the public to a risk of a fall or being struck by falling objects.
Nets fixed at or near the working level will entail less risk to the user in the event of a fall compared to fixing them below the working level.
A duty holder can make an assessment that work at height can be carried out safely by utilising an existing place of work which has existing fall prevention measures in place. Adaptation assessment identifies, plans, prioritizes, implements, and measures transportation management options available for effectively adapting to climate change impacts. The evaluation of the likelihood and consequence of climate-related impacts provides policymakers with some guidance on the level of risk and may be based upon a literature review or expert survey (Snover et al., 2007).
Methods or frameworks for quantitatively assessing and prioritizing risks and direct and indirect consequences, or probable losses, due to climate-related impacts are not well established.
This approach represents a partial probabilistic risk assessment (Tier 2) while building upon elements of the Tier 1 approaches. Give state and local governments the right tools to anticipate and plan for sea-level rise and climate change. For this assessment, two IPCC scenarios were used to report on climate change impacts in California : A2 (a higher emissions scenario) and B1 (a medium-low scenario). The risk can be determined for a given system or program and focuses on a defined set of stressors (such as climate change effects).
A preliminary appraisal of the risks associated with these vulnerabilities has been undertaken finding that over 60% of them are expected to be affected by current predicted levels of climate change within the relevant asset life or activity time horizon. To date, three closely-related approaches are being used to help transportation decision makers consider and prepare for future climate impacts: vulnerability assessment, risk assessment, and adaptation assessment. In general, a vulnerability assessment can be broken into 3 key elements as illustrated in Box 1 .
Several fundamental concepts apply to any climate change risk assessment process (see Box 2 ). This demonstrates the grey lines that exist between these different assessments and approaches. In order to maximize the usefulness of the information presented in this report, examples from the literature are presented in three categories: (1) vulnerability assessment, (2) risk assessment, and (3) adaptation approaches. FHWA recognizes that efforts to address adaptation are in their infancy and in some cases, adaptation efforts may be limited to a qualitative assessment of vulnerability. Interestingly, adaptation approaches are extremely broad and are likely to include qualitative screening assessments, some quantitative risk assessments, policy and implementation actions, as well as outreach and communication efforts.
24 Factors to weigh up in the risk assessment when considering precautions at or below head height include the height at which the work is carried out, the condition of the surface a person is likely to fall on, whether people are working with their back to an edge, whether there is a high volume of pedestrian traffic exposed to an edge etc.
149 Work at height can be a high risk activity, it is therefore important that all people at work cooperate to achieve safety in performing work at height.
There are links with Reg 6 (avoidance of risks from work at height), Reg 7 (selection of work equipment for work at height) and Reg 9 (fragile surfaces).
Together with the hierarchy discussed in para 78 above, these principles can be used in the duty holder's risk assessment to determine which work equipment is best suited for a particular job. Unless the risk assessment can justify that no fall protection is necessary, see Appendix 2, para 7. They can be used only if the risk assessment can demonstrate that work can be carried out safely using PFPS and the use of other safer work equipment is not reasonably practicable. More complex tasks will require more effort in terms of the level of detail needed in a risk assessment. Challenge any culture that thinks there is no risk of injury from a fall below head height. Table 1 is an example of a vulnerability assessment conducted for various planning activities (Snover et al., 2007). In contrast to managing seismic risks, climate change impacts usually involve complex interactions of multiple climate-related effects.
As indicated previously, transportation professionals currently take into account a variety of risks outside the context of climate change, including seismic risks and other natural hazards, as well as human-induced risks such as terrorist attacks.
The findings of the assessment can then be ranked to assess, prioritize, and address vulnerabilities. At present, risks are not consistent regionally or even locally, and will differ down to the specific asset in question. The study assesses the risk for various types of infrastructure against a range of climate change variables. This assessment provides a roadmap for which climate variables (temperature, precipitation, etc.) are most likely to be of interest. The analysis for a given system or program can be divided into endpoints of interest such as environmental, human health, and financial where each endpoint has its own risk table. This assessment focuses on how the elevation of roads and bridges are linked to the vulnerability to storm surges and sea level rise by examining actual damages to transportation infrastructure that occurred as a result of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 and the associated costs of repairs (CCSP, 2008).
Each of these sections provides a general overview of the assessment or approach, the methodology that policymakers may utilize for applying the assessment or approach, and selected examples. Ultimately, some combination of these actions will inform a new risk assessment framework for FHWA. 28 There will also be situations where low risk and common sense dictates no precautions eg lollipop person standing next to a kerb.
150 Once a defect has been reported, the duty holder should make an assessment and decide whether any corrective action is required under the WAHR or any of the relevant statutory provisions.
The fall factor should be minimised so that the fall distances and associated risk of injury from a fall and risk of equipment failure are minimised during the deployment of a fall arrest system. It sets out a hierarchy of measures to enable duty holders to select the most appropriate method of work in order to avoid or minimise risk associated with work at height. A far better scenario would be to use a MEWP for the one person to perform the same repair job safely without the need to put others at risk to set up and dismantle the job.
The following summarizes studies that have utilized some aspect of the vulnerability assessment methodology outlined above in the approach and highlights each study's key findings.

This framework draws upon UK climate projections and practical templates, schedules, and guidance of assessments for vulnerability, risk, and adaptation options. Conduct ongoing assessments and prioritization of retrofit needs and include additional bridges in the retrofit program as needed. Natural variability and knowledge gaps are sources of uncertainty, which should be considered in the risk assessment process.
In fact, the Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network (C-CIARN) expanded upon this three element approach described above by prefacing these three elements with stakeholder involvement and adding a final step of identifying adaptation strategies when outlining the elements of a vulnerability assessment (Mehdi et al., 2006).
This methodology for assessing criticality may be a useful approach when prioritizing climate-related risks to transportation infrastructure. The engineering vulnerability assessment conducted in these two case studies employed a sophisticated three-dimensional analysis of infrastructure components including how the components respond to climate events and the particular set of climate events under consideration.
For example, an event that is very likely to occur and produce catastrophic consequences has a high level of risk associated with it (illustrated below in red).
Ideally, the risk thresholds of the policymaker are also incorporated into the design of the evaluation.
67 Emergency services will be expected to have generic training and experience available to deal with risks associated with the emergency phase.
7 A guard rail, mid rail and toe board for a 1 metre high working platform may be justified as being unnecessary on the basis of risk assessment, i.e. The Regulations adopt a risk based approach, so that measures taken to comply are proportionate to the risks involved.
If the work involves painting the door frame of the access way, then this constitutes a safe existing place of work because there is no risk of a fall at the work position. Synthesis and Assessment Product (SAP) 4.7 focuses on the Gulf Coast and examines the potential impacts of climate change on vulnerable transportation systems and infrastructure.
In step 4, each vulnerability identified receives a risk-ranking based on a risk appraisal scoring using four primary criteria: (1) uncertainty, (2) rate of climate change, (3) extent of disruption, and (4) severity of disruption (see Table 5 ).
Select and Prioritize Actions.Adaptation assessments may identify a wide variety of potential options for considered action. The outputs of a risk assessment should be communicated to relevant decision makers and to the public, as appropriate. While this assessment does not take into account long-term climate changes or variability, this assessment may be useful for providing a vulnerability assessment methodology framework for the highway system.
This risk assessment found an increase of sea level rise of less than 1 meter by 2100 increases the frequency of coastal flooding by factors of 2 to 10 by 2100. Identifying potential climate-related hazards and prioritizing at-risk infrastructure in the context of other risks currently under consideration by policymakers is critical in assessing whether or not adaptation is appropriate, and if so, when and where to focus adaptation efforts. 68 There are important links between Reg 4 and other provisions in the WAHR because organisation and planning will involve an assessment of all the risks associated with work at height so that appropriate methods of work (including use of appropriate work equipment) are selected. 17 The system may comprise of a single rope only under circumstances where it can be demonstrated that the use of a second line will entail higher risk, e.g. This is the global approach to risk assessment, ie look at all the risks throughout the operation, not just those associated with the 'use' phase. This Australian report uses a vulnerability assessment to investigate how projected climate effects will affect road infrastructure. Tier 1 - a systematic qualitative analysis, where the size, significance and relative importance of the risks, costs and benefits for each option are described. Weather conditions are becoming increasingly variable due to climate change, which translates into additional risks that have the potential to carry financial, environmental, and social costs related to long-lived transportation infrastructure assets (Fankhouser et al., 1999). The risk assessment is a GIS based assessment using maps to represent debris flow as a function of water conditions, vegetation and land cover, stream flow, and slope angle. 74 Duty holders should make the assessment of what constitutes competence for a particular task and should ensure that those with the relevant skills, knowledge and experience are employed to perform the task. However knocking a hole in the floor as part of a renovation or modification of the office, will constitute work at height because there is a risk of a fall.
However if the work approaches an edge or fragile skylight (distance to be determined by risk assessment but no less than 3 metres), then this will no longer constitute a safe existing place of work because work equipment will be required to prevent or mitigate a fall. In 2008, Engineers Canada conducted this engineering vulnerability assessment on four categories of Canadian public infrastructure: stormwater and wastewater, water resources, roads and associated structures, and buildings. Tier 2 - a semi-quantitative analysis, where some aspects of the risks, costs and benefits are assessed in quantitative terms while others are assessed qualitatively; the assessment would aim to assess uncertainty by placing upper and lower bounds on the risks, costs and benefits.
The literature is relatively sparse, but growing with respect to systematic descriptions of adaptation approaches compared to vulnerability and risk assessment methodologies (Heinz, 2007). 92 A risk assessment may be able to justify less visible fall prevention or mitigation measures for heritage cases. For falls below head height, solutions should be risk based which will mean different solutions for different jobs. Using lighting to delineate a stage edge or split level floor in a retail premise is another suitable and sufficient measure which reduces the risk of a fall. This report assesses the vulnerability of San Francisco Bay and its shoreline to the impacts of climate change, identifies information needs for future vulnerability assessments, and suggests near-term and long-term strategies to address climate change impacts. Tier 3 - a fully quantitative analysis, where the probable performance of each option in managing the risk is quantified in terms of costs and benefits and, in some cases or where possible, converted into monetary terms. 107 The duty to provide warning notices is not intended to cover the provision of temporary signs to cover actual work in progress unless a risk assessment determines a need for them.
A duty holder has to make an assessment as to whether a working platform constitutes a suitable surface to work from i.e.
The concept of risk is not new to transportation planners, designers, engineers, managers, community stakeholders and policymakers; however, the application of risk assessment methods in the context of climate change is relatively new. The enforcement expectation is that working platforms should be a least 600 mm wide unless a risk assessment can justify a narrower width, e.g. Effort should be in proportion to the risk and should cover reasonably foreseeable situations such as users stranded in equipment e.g.

Us landforms and waterways map
How to be prepared before a hurricane
Senior emergency rooms


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