The hot-spot detect data, showing the fire moving rapidly towards Paradise, assisted in the evacuation determination for residents in the vicinity.
IntroductionDisaster management planning is structured around the disaster management cycle model. The challenge with disaster management is that the inherent unpredictability and range of hazards does not allow for a single all-encompassing solution to be developed and explored. An extensive coverage of each, including optimal processing regimes for their data would be prohibitively long; instead this chapter aims to give some general examples of the use of remote sensing in disaster management, while directing the reader to more specific studies in the literature. Imagery of fires, volcanic eruptions and flooding are often used during the response phase for the visual impact that they provide. Remote sensing images of similar communities experiencing hazards, or the progress of a hazard such as a fire front, can assist with this personalisation process.
Remote sensing can also be used to provide an indication of the rate of recovery in an area post disaster based on indicators such as vegetation regrowth, debris removal, and reconstruction.There are few examples where remote sensing is incorporated seamlessly into all stages of the disaster management cycle for planning purposes.
The disaster management cycle The traditional approach to hazard risk and disaster management has been one primarily focussed on response to events as they occur (Gregg & Houghton 2006), managing residual risk through warning systems and emergency management plans, and more recently attempting to reduce risk through changing the hazard process or impacts (Board on Natural Disasters 1999). The overall focus of emergency management has shifted to consider disaster management planning as part of a broader system of planning for sustainable, resilient communities. Whether a hazardous event will become a disaster - an event that is beyond the capacity of responding agencies, resources, and community coping capacity (Quarantelli 1985), can be influenced by effective disaster management planning. This recognition of the importance of social drivers has brought about a change in how disaster planning is considered and undertaken. In theory, land use planning can reduce all risk from disasters, but centuries of settlement in hazardous locations make this option unrealistic and impractical. The phase of disaster management that has traditionally received the most recognition, funding and planning effort is Response (Gregg & Houghton 2006).
This fact is also reflected in the remote sensing community, with an overwhelming number of research papers dedicated to the use of imagery for disaster response, despite the fact that data often cannot be provided in the timeframe required to be of use for decision makers. The reality is that most nations do not have the capability to prevent disasters occurring; the best option for reducing the chance of a disaster is through reducing risk. However, response capability is important in any disaster as it involves the processes of coordinated effort to manage resources, including life essentials and personnel, for activities such as evacuation, relief, search and rescue and needs assessment (Quarantelli 1997).
The recovery phase of a disaster can be considered to have several steps, the initial restoration of lifeline essentials, and the longer term rebuilding of communities.


The recovery phase is often considered to be an optimal time to include measures that will reduce the risk of future disasters (Becker et al.
Remotely sensed data typesIn order to successfully use remote sensing for disaster management, physical indicators of features or attributes within the disaster management cycle that are measureable in imagery need to be identified.
During the reduction, readiness and recovery phases, there may be sufficient time to develop and apply the framework as the cycle is progressing. However, as timeliness is a critical factor in the response phase, it is of most use to already have systems in place to aid with appropriate data selection so that crucial decisions need not be made under the severe time constraints that are necessitated by rapid response. In this way, the decisions regarding remote sensing in the response phase can actually be made during the readiness phase instead.
This should be done as a collaborative exercise between both remote sensing experts and emergency management agencies.The types of satellite and airborne sensors that can be used to support phases of the disaster management cycle are many and varied. During the readiness phase, the emphasis is on monitoring these features or processes, developing models for forecasting purposes, and using maps and model for training and education.
OpticalThere are a large number of applications for which optical remotely sensed imagery can be used to aid the disaster management cycle. Optical data can be of particular use to the disaster management community as it is generally simple to understand and interpret raw data, particularly when collected using standard true colour spectral bands (blue, green, and red). For example, during the response phase, rapid acquisition of data following the event is crucial. During the recovery phase, the speed of acquisition is less important than repetition on a consistent basis.
In the early stages of recovery, imagery may be useful on a monthly basis, though as time passes, an annual acquisition may suffice.Optical data can be used for activities in all stages of the disaster management cycle, however the greatest potential contributions are for monitoring recovery, and helping to plan for reduction and readiness. This relationship has been demonstrated using forest fire size and the temperature difference between a smouldering and flaming fire that could be of use in understanding different stages of fire development (Giglio et al. ReductionDisasters are social constructs in that social drivers such as migration (forced and voluntary), conflict, modification of natural buffer systems, reliance on shrinking resources, private property rights, urban intensification, artificial protection structures, and economic and political vulnerability are all contributors to people living in hazardous locations or at levels of vulnerability that make a disaster more likely.
Reduction of risk, and therefore reduction in the probability of a disaster occurring, is an important part of the disaster management cycle. Remote sensing can be applied in disaster reduction initiatives through identification and understanding of hazards (Table 1). Although it is primarily social factors that amplify a hazard event into a disaster (Quarantelli 1985, Wisner 2004), improved knowledge of hazards and their potential consequences is essential for decision making about modifying hazard characteristics, or modifying vulnerability of people and assets.


Optical imagery is often complemented by LiDAR data, which can not only aid in detecting building edges, but is also used for calculating building heights.
Incorporation of remotely sensed data into a GIS is vital during this phase for recording spatial attributes and combining with other data sets.Remote sensing technology can also be applied to measure the success of risk reduction initiatives.
Aerial reconnaissance during major flooding events can identify whether stopbanks are performing to design standard and identify areas of weakness, overtopping or failure.
ReadinessReadiness planning and activities are undertaken in the realisation that residual risk from hazards has the potential to create emergencies, and in some cases, disasters for affected populations.
Examples of readiness activities include public education, preparedness activities, trainng and exercising, evacuation planning, developing hazard monitoring and public alerting systems, and putting in place state, national and international plans and agreements for assistance and aid. This information is required to assist with damage assessment during the response and recovery phases.At the individual and household level there are identified factors that contribute to whether people will take actions to prepare for disasters. These actions might include having emergency supplies in the home, an action plan for evacuation and emergency contact with other household members, first aid training or training as a civil defence volunteer. The principle of risk perception aiding preparedness applies to both static and dynamic hazards, e.g. Granger (2000) discusses the development of information infrastructure for disaster management in Pacific island nations, based on remotely sensed data, and GIS interpretation.
The volcano has a crater lake at the summit which produces periodic large lahars during eruptions and tephra dam bursts. While bridges have been modified to reduce risk, considerable readiness planning has also been undertaken to ensure that the events such as the 1953 disaster cannot happen again (Galley et al. An integrated response plan involving emergency managers, police, the fire service, road managers, railways operators, ski field staff, scientists and national park managers, was developed to stop all trains outside the hazard zone, close the highway, trigger warnings and response plans at the ski fields (move to ridges away from flow paths) (Leonard et al. This means that damage assessments undertaken via remote sensing during the response phase will also be integral to the recovery phase.



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