Tide: The term ‘tide’ refers to the alternate rising and falling of the sea level at shores. Earthquake: A sudden and violent movement of a portion of the earth’s crust, and the series of vibrations that follow. Teletsunami: A tsunami which causes damage a long distance away from the source has been given the name ‘teletsunami’.
Tsunami waves are caused by large underwater earthquakes where there are tectonic plate boundaries. When the pressure of the tectonic plate at the ocean floor releases pressure, it causes the water above to create a series of rolling waves which will build up to cause more turbulent and fast moving waves.
Some people might left be trapped under buildings for long periods of time while search and rescue teams attempt to get a hold on the situation. Tsunamis can cause economic decline as they have to spend a lot of money rebuilding the houses and restoring the original landscape. One of the most well known and recent incidence of a tsunami was in Indonesia, on the 26th of December 2004. Due to the distances involved, the disastrous tsunami took between fifteen minutes and seven hours to reach the all the different coastlines. The earthquake which caused the tsunami affected many countries even beyond Southeast Asia. Tsunamis are also often confused with storm surges, even though they are quite different phenomena. For tsunamis that are generated by underwater earthquakes, the amplitude of the tsunami is determined by the amount by which the sea-floor is displaced.
As well as travelling at high speeds, tsunamis can also travel large distances with limited energy losses. As a tsunami leaves the deep water of the open-ocean and travels into the shallower water near the coast, it transforms.
Just like other water waves, tsunamis begin to lose energy as they rush onshore - part of the wave energy is reflected offshore, while the shoreward-propagating wave energy is dissipated through bottom friction and turbulence. Tsunamis have great erosion potential, stripping beaches of sand that may have taken years to accumulate and undermining trees and other coastal vegetation. In the deep ocean, a tsunami has a small amplitude (less than 1 metre) but very long wavelength (hundreds of kilometres). Tide gauges measure the height of the sea-surface and are primarily used for measuring tide levels. The tide gauge at Cocos Island observed the tsunami on December 26th 2004 as it passed by the island, as shown in these observations made during December. In 1995 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) began developing the Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) system.
An undersea earthquake in the Indian Ocean on 26th December 2004 produced a tsunami that caused one of the biggest natural disasters in modern history. The waves devastated the shores of parts of Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand and other countries with waves reported up to 15 m high, reaching as far as Somalia on the east coast of Africa, 4500 km west of the epicentre. The earthquake took place at about 1am UTC (8am local time) in the Indian Ocean off the western coast of northern Sumatra. The epicentre of the earthquake was located about 250 km south-southeast of the Indonesian city of Banda Aceh. Due to the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours (for Somalia) to reach the various coastlines.
On its arrival on shore, the height of the tsunami varied greatly, depending on its distance and direction from the epicentre and other factors such as the local bathymetry. The people who live in a country located in the Ring of Fire in Pacific Ocean should be aware with Tsunami.  More than 80 percent of Tsunami occurs on the location.
Some people might not aware that tsunami is going to come.  This condition occurs because the first wave of tsunami is not strong and big. You are wrong by thinking that the only place in the world that can be swept by tsunami is located in Japan. Hawaii is considered as the most dangerous states in US which can be affected and swept by Tsunami.  It was on 1 April 1946 that the greatest Tsunami in Hawaii occurred.
Indian Ocean tsunami is very famous because it killed more than 283,000 people in 11 countries in the world. No one will ever know how many died in the 2004 Tsunami because so many of the towns and villages affected were in remote areas with few records of population. Many scientists had been warning of the risks of a severe Tsunami in the region, and continue to warn of future Tsunami risks.

Tsunami warning systems are now in place across the region most affected in December 2004 and were used during a recent tremor (April 2005).
However as the wave approaches land, the water becomes more shallow and all the wave energy is concentrated into a very small area. In the 2004 Tsunami, much of the damage was done by seawater returning to the ocean, and also by a second wave a few minutes after the first.
Here is some useful data showing how the speed of a Tsunami wave falls as it approaches land, and how the height rises.
Tsunami earthquakes are those where there is a major shift of the seabed as two tectonic plates slide against each other, releasing forces many times as great as an undersea nuclear bomb.
Tsunami videos can be very upsetting to watch if they show the reality of what happens when a mega Tsunami hits land, buildings and people. Tsunami video - dramatic film clip taken by a holiday maker as a huge Tsunami wave sweeps up the beach and into the restaurant of the hotel, showing footage of Tsunami damage, tsunami wave pictures of tsunami victims and scale of tsunami disaster. Im doing a project on the 2004 tsunami and I really needed alot of info and this really helped! Plates slide along either beside, over or under each other, causing friction and pressure between the plates. These types of tsunamis are not produced by horizontal motions, but by vertical motions in the seabed.
This is due to the amount of earthquake and volcanic activity in the area, which occur due to the tectonic shifts in the earth’s plates. When it reaches the shore, it produces what is described as the ‘vacuum effect’, which sucks the coastal water into the sea and gives the opposite effect of a tsunami. A 9.3 magnitude earthquake triggered a series of giant tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses that bordered the Indian Ocean. These other countries included Sri Lanka, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Myanmar, the Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania and South Africa. Please listen to your local radio and TV announcements or call 1300 TSUNAMI (1300 878 6264) for latest warning information.
Similarly, the wavelength and period of the tsunami are determined by the size and shape of the underwater disturbance.
As the tsunami propagates across the ocean, the wave crests can undergo refraction (bending), which is caused by segments of the wave moving at different speeds as the water depth along the wave crest varies. If you read the "The physics of a tsunami" section, you will know that a tsunami travels at a speed that is related to the water depth - hence, as the water depth decreases, the tsunami slows. So a tsunami with a height of 1 m in the open ocean where the water depth is 4000m would have a waveheight of 4 to 5 m in water of depth 10 m.
Capable of inundating, or flooding, hundreds of metres inland past the typical high-water level, the fast-moving water associated with the inundating tsunami can crush homes and other coastal structures. These are sent down to the ocean surface from the satellite and the height of the ocean surface can be determined by knowing the speed of the pulse, the location of the satellite and measuring the time that the pulse takes to return to the satellite. The data were taken by a radar altimeter on board the satellite along a track traversing the Indian Ocean when the tsunami waves had just filled the entire Bay of Bengal.
Refraction and diffraction of the waves meant that the impact of the tsunami was noticed around the world and sea-level monitoring stations in places such as Brazil and Queensland also felt the effect of the tsunami.
A numerical model was used to replicate the generation and propagation of the tsunami and it shows how the waves propagated around the world's ocean basins.
With a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale, it was the largest since the 1964 earthquake off Alaska and equal fourth largest since 1900, when accurate global seismographic record-keeping began. It was a rare megathrust earthquake and occurred on the interface of the India and Burma tectonic plates. An estimated 1200 km of faultline slipped about 15 m along the subduction zone over a period of several minutes.
Tsunami waves travel very fast, and it is impossible to provide warnings for those very close to the earthquake zone which generates the wave.
You can see the graph more clearly, and print it out, by right-clicking on the image and saving it first.
Hawai sees a small tsunami every year and Alaska, Californai, Oregan, Washington, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philipines, India and other parts of the world can all expect to experience larger or smaller tsunamis in the future. He has been a conference speaker at events in Barbados, Belarus, Brazil, Burundi, China, Czech Republic, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Estonia, Fiji, Estonia, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Nigeria, Panama, Poland, Romania, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, South Africa, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uganda, United Arab Emirates and Zimbabwe.
The closer they get to the shoreline and enter shallower water, their energy and height grow to drastic measures. When this occurs, the sea floor is left completely waterless and the seafloor is totally exposed.

This gives people little time to escape the wrath of the tsunami; however the warning can save lives. Australia and Europe had a large number of their citizens in the region at the time of the disaster, along with many other countries.
The term "tidal wave" is misleading; even though a tsunami's impact upon a coastline is dependent upon the tidal level at the time a tsunami strikes, tsunamis are unrelated to the tides.
The tsunami's energy flux, which is dependent on both its wave speed and wave height, remains nearly constant. Depending on whether the first part of the tsunami to reach the shore is a crest or a trough, it may appear as a rapidly rising or falling tide.
Tsunamis may reach a maximum vertical height onshore above sea level, often called a run-up height, of tens of metres.
One problem with this kind of satellite data is that it can be very sparse - some satellites only pass over a particular location about once a month, so you would be lucky to spot a tsunami since they travel so quickly. The data shown are the differences in sea surface height from previous observations made along the same track 20-30 days before the earthquake, showing the signals of the tsunami. These stations give detailed information about tsunamis while they are still far off shore. The northern regions of the Indonesian island of Sumatra were hit very quickly, while Sri Lanka and the east coast of India were hit roughly two hours later.
The worst affected areas were close to the earthquake epicentre, but the wave caused destruction as far away as India and Africa (East Coast). Tsunami is a lesser punishment to what happened to the people of Thamud, whom Allah sent WIND and not WATER to wipe them from the surface of the EARTH. The speed and momentum increases due to the top of the waves moving faster that the bottom does.
When a tsunami hits it is important for people to remember that the danger may not have passed with the first wave or two. The east coast of India and Sri Lanka were hit somewhere between 90 minutes to two and a half hours later. The acoustic sensor emits a sound pulse which travels from the top of the tube down to the water surface, and is then reflected back up the tube. However, during the Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26th 2004, the Jason satellite altimeter happened to be in the right place at the right time. Each station consists of a sea-bed bottom pressure recorder which detects the passage of a tsunami. Thailand was also struck about two hours later, despite being closer to the epicentre, because the tsunami travelled more slowly in the shallow Andaman Sea off its western coast. Yes, it is true that Japanese island is often swept by tsunami.  Read the following facts to know more about Tsunami. Tsunami waves can travel at over 400 miles an hour through deep ocean, but don't usually cause any trouble at that stage to ships or boats. Tsunamis are often called tidal waves, and pictures often show tsunami waves over 30 metres high breaking over the coastline, although the reality is more that the water level rises rapidly, and later falls just as fast. Thailand was hit around two hours later despite the fact that it was closer to the epicentre The reason for this is because the water was more shallow in the Andaman Sea, which is off the western coast. This large vertical displacement of the sea-floor generated the devastating tsunami, which caused damage over such a large area around the Indian Ocean. The best defense against any tsunami is early warning that allows people to seek higher ground. Because of this shoaling effect, a tsunami that is unnoticeable at sea, may grow to be several metres or more in height near the coast.
This system filters out small-scale effects like wind-waves and has the capacity to measure sea-level changes within 1mm accuracy.
Ships and boats just rise and fall gently - and may have no idea that a Tsunami wave has just passed beneath them. The surface buoy then radios the information to the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) via satellite.
The system has considerably improved the forecasting and warning of tsunamis in the Pacific.

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