Disaster Management involves planning what to do before, during and after a disaster or emergency occurs. A risk-informed, performance-based approach exists offering opportunities to better understand objectives, identify credible hazards and develop alternatives that allow stakeholders (owners, government, etc.) to make risk-informed decisions as to how best protect heritage and meet disaster mitigation objectives. Planning for disasters in advance significantly reduces damage to tangible and intangible heritage, including historic sites, structures and their collections. For building staff to clearly understand the proper actions in an emergency the Emergency Response Guide is invaluable. Management sends reminders electronically on a regular basis of the importance of reviewing the emergency procedures.
For over 20 years, Ken Samuelsen has produced key floor plans and riser diagrams for clearly delineating building systems, exit routes, and other pertinent building information. Filmed on-site, the video can be used for fire drills, preparedness training for building staff, floor wardens, and all tenants.
One or two pages summarizing the concept of operations that the organization to implement in an emergency. Based on the needs of the organization and space limitation, facilities should be dedicated for emergency response personnel to work in. Emergency kits, fire extinguishers, first aid kits, and spill control kits should be strategically placed throughout the facility with basic and specialized equipment (based on the nature of your business) needed for response. This section should address the responsibilities and frequencies associated with the review, update, and approval of The Plan, Emergency Response Procedures, emergency facilities, inventory of emergency kits and testing of communications equipment. Each emergency response position should have specific selection criteria to include skill sets, educational background, and emergency response training requirements to fully qualify to serve in that capacity.
Following the closeout of an emergency event, one person should be responsible for coordinating the critique of the event, documenting, and tracking action items to ensure proper closure. A good practice is to perform a root cause analysis of each emergency or near miss to determine a pattern of equipment failure or operator error that may need to be addressed.
As an example, your organization could decide to use an "event-based" or "symptom-based" list of indicators that when reached or exceeded warrant a formal declaration of emergency. The Incident Command System (ICS) is clearly becoming the standard for responding to any type of emergency. Establish a means to communicate with employees and their families to provide them with emergency updates. Changes to the Emergency Response Plan, Emergency Response Procedure or Training program may be necessary as a result of the lessons learned from the event. Our experts will evaluate the damage and formulate a plan for reconstruction, working closely with your insurance carrier throughout the process.
The Plan also describes how your emergency preparedness program will be maintained and tested to ensure it is operational and up to date. Immune response is involved, and is the target and theological connections to the Western Wall and. A SEMP establishes a federal government institution's objectives, approach and structure for protecting Canadians and Canada from threats and hazards in their areas of responsibility and sets out how the institution will assist the coordinated federal emergency response. The development and employment of a SEMP is an important complement to such existing plans, because it promotes an integrated and coordinated approach to emergency management planning within federal institutions and across the federal government. Supporting templates and tools can contribute to effective emergency management planning and are provided with this Guide. The Emergency Management Planning Guide uses a step-by-step approach and provides instructions that are supplemented by the Blueprint and the Strategic Emergency Management Plan (SEMP) template provided in Annexes A and B, respectively.
The Emergency Management Planning Unit, Public Safety Canada, is responsible for producing, revising and updating this Guide.
The purpose of this Guide is to assist federal officials, managers and coordinators responsible for emergency management (EM) planning. The EM plans of federal government institutions should address the risks to critical infrastructure within or related to the institution's areas of responsibility, as well as the measures for protecting this infrastructure.
Given this variety of EM planning documents, the distinctions between them are summarized in the following table.
A SEMP establishes a federal government institution's objectives, approach and structure for protecting Canadians and Canada from threats and hazards in their areas of responsibility, and sets out how the institution will assist the coordinated federal emergency response. It outlines the processes and mechanisms to facilitate an integrated Government of Canada response to an emergency and to eliminate the need for departments to coordinate a wider Government of Canada response. It includes 13 emergency support functions that the federal government can implement in response to an emergency. Operational plans may be based on all four pillars of EM planning, or focus on the specific activities of a single pillar. The National Strategy and Action Plan for Critical Infrastructure establishes a public-private sector approach to managing risks, responding effectively to disruptions, and recovering swiftly when incidents occur.
Implementation of the Strategy will feature targeted and accurate information products, such as security briefings for each critical infrastructure sector.
Emergency management (EM) refers to the management of emergencies concerning all hazards, including all activities and risk management measures related to prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery.
The Emergency Management Continuum is depicted in a wheel diagram where all four risk-based functions of emergency management are interconnected and interdependent in a system from prevention and mitigation to preparedness, response, and recovery.
In the center of the wheel are the main elements that influence the development of a Strategic Emergency Management Plan (SEMP). Figure 1 highlights the four interdependent risk-based functions of EM: prevention and mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from emergencies. The SEMP should ideally be reviewed on a cyclical basis as part of a federal government institution's planning cycle, as presented in Figure 2 below. This figure represents the optimal planning cycle federal institutions should consider for undertaking their emergency management planning activities. February: Senior Institutional Management makes decision regarding the institution's strategic priorities for the upcoming fiscal year. This section of the Guide outlines a recommended approach for developing a tailored SEMP and is supported by a blueprint and a SEMP template provided in Annexes A and B, respectively. This step involves starting the formal planning process in recognition of the responsibility to prepare a SEMP. Consider having members of the EM planning team designated by your institution's senior management. One of the most crucial steps in the EM planning process is to identify appropriate members for the EM planning team.


Consider including a member of your institution's corporate planning area on the EM planning team in order to help align the EM planning cycle with the institution's overall business planning cycle.
Federal government institutions should consider identifying the range of experience and skill sets required in the EM planning team. The composition of the EM planning team will vary depending on institutional requirements; however, it is important that clear terms of reference (TOR) for the team be established and that individual assignments be clearly defined. After the EM planning team has clear authority and direction, the next step is to review any relevant existing legislation and policies. Consider giving a team member the responsibility of analyzing the legislative and policy obligations applicable to the development of the SEMP. As noted in Section Two, the EM planning process should be carried out as part of an institution's overall strategic and business planning processes—this will support their alignment. Developing the SEMP can be supported by a formal work or project plan to ensure that established timelines for plan development are met. As a next step, federal government institutions should consider developing a comprehensive understanding of the planning context. Additional supporting planning tools and templates as well as an EM glossary are provided in Annexes C and D, respectively.
As part of the environmental scan, the institution defines the internal and external parameters to be taken into account when managing the risk and setting the scope and risk criteria for the remaining risk assessment process. Additionally, federal government institutions are responsible for conducting mandate-specific risk assessments, including risks to critical infrastructure. The Planning Context is represented in a target diagram that consists of three circles representing the factors federal institutions should consider in order to understand the context in which it operates and how it could potentially be affected. An inventory of critical assets and services will assist the planning team in identifying the associated threats, hazards, vulnerabilities and risks unique to their institution. If a business impact analysis (BIA) has already been completed for your federal government institution's BCP, this analysis can greatly inform your criticality assessment. Risk assessment is central to any risk management process as well as the EM planning cycle.
Qualitative analysis is conducted where non-tangible aspects of risk are to be considered, or where there is a lack of adequate information and the numerical data or resources necessary for a statistically significant quantitative approach.
The purpose of risk evaluation is to help make decisions about which risks need treatment and the priority for treatment implementation. The risk-rating matrix allows for decisions to be made about which risks need treatment and the priority for treatment implementation. This step focuses on developing an informed EM approach for your institution based on the four pillars of EM. Each institution should establish an EM governance structure to oversee the management of emergencies. It is important that the planning team confirm the strategic priorities of the institution and of senior management so that they can be reflected in the SEMP. Consider developing an overview of these priorities and identifying potential areas for attention given risk probabilities and vulnerabilities. The planning team should aim to clearly identify the planning constraints and institutional limitations that will influence the SEMP building blocks and the subsequent development of the SEMP. Through further understanding these hazards, and assessing a structure’s behaviour to them, we can better prepare for disasters. Emergency Preparedness Brochures and Booklets can be distributed electronically to all tenants and employees.
Safety Planning Group is knowledgable of all the pertinent fire safety code in New York City to ensure fast approval by the FDNY. Discuss the process that your organization will use in declaring the emergency including the authority provided to back shift personnel. New hires that are expected to serve as an emergency responder should be indoctrinated and trained upon being hired for the position.
The Incident Command Post will typically be established at the location of the emergency scene. A mechanism needs to be in place to ensure that personnel are made aware of any meaningful changes to the emergency preparedness program. Messages announced over the public address system should be considered to warn site personnel of the emergency and actions to take. Emergencies can quickly escalate in scope and severity, cross jurisdictional lines, take on international dimensions and result in significant human and economic losses. Federal government institutions are increasing their focus on emergency management (EM) activities, given the evolving risk environment in their areas of responsibility. This is why Public Safety Canada has developed this Emergency Management Planning Guide, which is intended to assist all federal government institutions in developing their all-hazards Strategic Emergency Management Plans (SEMPs). Many federal government institutions already have specific planning documents or processes to deal with aspects of emergency management that relate to their particular mandates; many also have a long track record of preparing and refining BCPs. As a matter of process, the Emergency Management Planning Guide will be reviewed annually or as the situation dictates, and amendments will be made at that time. The Guide includes a Blueprint (see Annex A), a Strategic Emergency Management Plan (SEMP) template (see Annex B), and supporting step-by-step instructions, tools and tips to develop and maintain a comprehensive SEMP—an overarching plan that establishes a federal government institution's objectives, approach and structure, which generally sets out how the institution will assist with coordinated federal emergency management, including response.
As such, federal institutions are to base EM plans on mandate-specific all-hazards risk assessments, as well as put in place institutional structures to provide governance for EM activities and align them with government-wide EM governance structures. It reflects leading practices (such as those provided by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Standards Association) and procedures within the Government of Canada, and should be read in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Response Plan, the Emergency Management Framework for Canada and the Federal Policy for Emergency Management.
Each of these functions addresses a need that may arise before or during an emergency.
Emergency Management resource requirements should be identified as early as possible to integrate into plans. Inputs should ideally be assembled, reviewed and well understood prior to engaging in each distinct planning activity as they form an important foundation for the work to be completed. The SEMP should be central to the federal government institution's EM activities and provide clear linkages for integrating and coordinating all other intra-departmental and inter-departmental emergency management plans. The size and composition of the team may vary between federal government institutions; however, the planning team should ideally have the skill and experience necessary to develop the SEMP.
Training is available to address EM requirements at the Canadian Emergency Management College (CEMC) and the Canada School of Public Service. Training is available to address EM requirements at the Canadian Emergency Management College (CEMC) and the Canada School of Public Service.


These TOR can identify the responsibilities assigned to each team member and the requirements to allow that member to carry out the assigned function. After completing the above steps, the planning team should consider developing a detailed work plan that includes a schedule with realistic timelines, milestones that reflect the institutional planning cycle, and a responsibility assignment matrix with assigned tasks and deadlines. It entails a process of gathering and analyzing information and typically considers both internal and external factors (see Figure 3: The Planning Context for additional information on the factors to consider). The key to any emergency planning is awareness of the potential situations that could impose risks on the organization and on Canadians and to assess those risks in terms of their impact and potential mitigation measures.
If gaps are identified, these should ideally be gathered and presented as part of Step 3 when developing the EM Planning Framework and confirming the institution's strategic EM priorities.
For further information, you may wish to consult the Canadian Disaster Database, which contains detailed disaster information on over 900 natural, technological and conflict events (excluding war) that have directly affected Canadians over the past century. It is a formal, systematic process for estimating the level of risk in terms of likelihood and consequences for the purpose of informing decision-making. A risk register will typically describe each risk, assess the likelihood that it will occur, list possible consequences if it does occur, provide a grading or prioritization for each risk, and identify proposed mitigation strategies.
It is usually used for analyzing threats with less tangible intent (judgements on terrorism, sabotage, etc.). Subject matter experts can also assist in evaluating likelihood from a qualitative perspective, for instance by using a Delphi technique (a group communication process for systematic forecasting).
Prioritization can be shown graphically in a logarithmic risk diagram, risk-rating matrix or other forms of visual representations. These treatment options, forming recommendations, would be used to develop the risk treatment step in the risk management or emergency management cycle. The resulting SEMP building blocks will reflect strategic priorities—the desired balance between developing measures that respond to emergencies versus mitigating the risk. The EM planning governance structure may include representatives of an institution's senior management team, from all functional areas (such as programs) and all corporate areas (including communications, legal services and security). It is also crucial that roles and responsibilities, lines of accountability and decision-making processes be aligned and well understood by all concerned. For example, an institution can be constrained by the availability of training for EM planning team members and by the number of EM positions they have staffed. Use the information you put together in your disaster plan and the supplies you organized in your disaster kits.
This section describes the protective actions for your employees and visitors in the event of an emergency declaration. The Plan should commit to conducting a certain number of drills and exercises to ensure personnel are proficient in their emergency response roles and that equipment is operationally ready.
This should include an overview of command and control, personnel safety, communications, emergency organization, and emergency facilities. Announce in advance upcoming media briefings and coordinate media releases with offsite emergency response agencies.
Including offsite emergency responders in these drills and exercises is very beneficial in familiarizing them with your facility and building relationships with your personnel.
Most if not all federal, state and local emergency responders will be adopting ICS within the next year.
It does not lay out the requirements for preparing related EM protocols, processes, and standard operating procedures (SOP) internal to the institution; however, these should be developed in support of the SEMP and related plans. As outlined in the Preface, many federal government institutions already have specific plans or processes to deal with aspects of emergency management; many also have a long track record of preparing and refining BCPs, which endeavour to ensure the continued availability of critical services.
Planning can be triggered by the EM planning cycle or it can be initiated in preparation for, or in response to, an event that is induced either by nature or by human actions. Those federal government institutions that have mandated emergency support functions (ESFs) under the FERP should have these clearly identified.
Scanning can be done on a regularly scheduled basis, such as annually, or on a continuous basis for environmental factors that are dynamic or that are of greatest interest to the institution.
It can be a useful tool for managing and addressing risks, as well as facilitating risk communication to stakeholders. Descriptive scales can be formed or adjusted to suit the circumstances, and different descriptions can be used for different risks. The Business Emergency Plan (The Plan) is a formal document that describes how your organization plans to respond in an emergency. At a remote location, an Emergency Support Organization should be established to assist the Incident Commander in support of the response process. An Emergency Operations Center should be established for the Emergency Support Organization to be located. EM planning, in particular, aims to strengthen resiliency by promoting an integrated and comprehensive approach that includes the four pillars of EM: prevention and mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. In addition, there are other existing EM planning documents and initiatives that apply to a range of federal government institutions, such as the Federal Emergency Response Plan (FERP) and deliverables under the National Strategy for Critical Infrastructure. This is also an ideal time to develop an initial budget for such items as training, exercises, research, workshops and other expenses that may be necessary during the development and implementation of the SEMP.
Stakeholders may include First Nations, emergency first responders, the private sector (both business and industry), and volunteer and non-government organizations. However, in a declared emergency, The Plan will more than likely stay on the shelf and personnel will refer to the "Emergency Plan Response Procedures" that more succinctly lay out, in checklist fashion, the steps that need to be immediately taken. Review and update any Letters of Agreements that your organization is relying on for services or equipment during an emergency. The Plan should be discussed with the local Emergency Management Agency to ensure coordination. With ICS, the Incident Commander is the person assuming command and control of the emergency and has the authority to declare and closeout an emergency, establish incident action plans to mitigate the consequences of the emergency and ensure the health and safety of personnel. In addition, providing an orientation on The Plan and a site tour to offsite emergency responders will facilitate their response to future emergencies.



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