In the last two decades, Kenya has faced a rising degree of vulnerability to the risk of disaster.
The Government of Kenya also established the National Disaster Operations Centre in early 1998 at the height of El-Nino induced floods.
Many existing institutions deal with disaster management but their activities are uncoordinated, reactive and sectoral. One of the main shortcomings of current legislation is that it refers only to disaster response issues.
The National Disaster Management Authority is mandated to deal with all types of disasters; natural or manmade. It is clear that in some cases where disasters are recurrent, the level of disaster planning and management ought to be more advanced.
The management of disasters by government departments at various spheres of engagement is almost entirely reactive in nature. This was as a result of frequent incursions into our country by the Al Shabbab militia, and their abducting and subsequent murdering of tourists and Kenyans alike. Therefore in times of disaster, the response is directed at the provision of emergency need; rescue and evacuation and also attending to the recovery phase. This is necessary to ensure that planning, data collection, mobilization of expertise and setting up of disaster management structures can be done rapidly rather than in a reactive manner. Financial assistance can be given from the disaster relief fund to victims of a disaster on an ex gratia basis for damages or losses.
Each step in the disaster cycle correlates to part of the ongoing cycle that is emergency management. It must also incorporate and creatively explore the use of sociological and other human science approaches to dealing with disasters as part of long-term strategies. Moreover, they can go further to guard against discrimination in the design and implementation of disaster management programmes. These are distinct in many ways and the intensity of damage is usually very high, warranting effective Disaster Management plans. There are also envisaged specialized organizations and departments which have roles in search, rescue, antiterrorism, evacuation, planning and management, enforcement of crowd control, conflict resolution and fire fighting. Rather, each disaster is treated as a crisis, and preparations are conducted to deal only with emergency situations.
Policies and legislations on risk prevention and, in the unfortunate event of occurring, risk reduction and facilitation of relief activities can help to reduce the human sufferings and impact of disasters and health emergencies. Of late, there has been an alarming increase in such types of disasters such as fires, collapsing buildings, terrorist bombings and motor accidents.
More than 70% of natural disasters in Kenya are related to extreme climate events that are key causal factors for some emergencies that lead to disasters. Quantifying exact damages is difficult – some disasters impact far beyond the occurrence and restoration phase. Weaknesses at the policy, planning and legislative level To date, disasters are seen in the context of emergency responses and not part of the long-term planning and development government programmes.


In the absence of a clear policy framework, disaster management lacks a definite planning structure or approach. Past experience has shown that there is a need for a permanent risk reduction focus and disaster (emergency) management or coordination capability at national, county and local levels. The ability of government to deal with disasters is based on the idea that there is adequate institutional capacity. Coordination in disaster management involves bringing together the different elements of complex activities or organizations into a harmonious and efficient relationship and to negotiate with others in order to work together effectively for the benefit of those affected by the event. Natural Disaster relief Act, 1982 and the Local Government Act (LGA) Chapter 265, in the Laws of Kenya have provisions that give local authorities the mandate to provide disaster mitigation, although they do not mention disaster management in the main Act. Act: If the disaster is at the local level, the prime responsibility for handling the problem rests with the specific local authority. The Ministry of State for Special Programmes will advise the President who can declare an event to be a National Disaster. Presuming that the overall objective of disaster management is progressively to minimize the impact of disasters on populations, vulnerability to disasters can only be decreased if the factors that contribute to it are tackled. The disaster cycle or the disaster life cycle consists of the steps that emergency managers take in planning for and responding to disasters. Opportunities to be considered: Some financial practices such as disaster risk insurance, micro-finance and microinsurance, warranty on newly constructed houses and structures and linking safe construction with home loans ought to be considered for adoption.
There is a clear distinction between disasters that occur spontaneously, and those that are a result of cumulative effects. IT and communication: Communication and sharing of up-to-date information using state-of-the-art IT infrastructure remain at the heart of effective implementation of the disaster management strategy. Despite the many important disaster management initiatives undertaken in Kenya over the past two decades, an adequate level of preparedness required to address its significant risk profile has not been achieved. This is often reflected in the poor responsiveness to dealing with disasters, and mixed signals from sources of expert information. Currently, disaster management coordination is lacking resulting in gaps and duplications, inappropriate assistance, inefficient use of resources, bottlenecks and impediments, slow reaction to changing conditions, frustration of providers, officials, and survivors, poor information transfer to the public and other organizations resulting in a loss or lack of confidence. Although in the recent past a policy on disaster management has been developed, the main challenges for the Kenyan Government is to promote a culture of prevention, preparedness and resilience at all levels through knowledge, innovation and education, encouraging mitigation measures based on technology, traditional wisdom and environmental sustainability, mainstreaming disaster management into the developmental planning process. It is also clear that the full continuum necessary for disaster management, such as prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation is not an integral component of current disaster management systems.
Reliable, up-todate and faster sharing of geo-spatial information acquired from the field or the affected areas is a pre-requisite for effective implementation of disaster management strategies, this is one of the challenges that Kenya faces. The frameworks and legislations to facilitate the coordination of disaster management activites from the central level to local level have not been institutionalized. There are definite indications that climate change would increase the frequency and intensity of natural disasters like floods and droughts in the coming years. It is also clear from recent and past experiences that the population at large is ill-prepared to cope with disaster situations.
Hotel bookings got cancelled and foreign governments issued advisory notes to their citizens not to venture into Kenya.


Risk is the probability of a hazard turning into a disaster, with households or communities being affected in such a manner that their lives and livelihoods are seriously disrupted beyond their capacity to cope or withstand using their own resources, with the result that affected populations suffer serious widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses. We have been able to manage from one emergency to another without an effective disaster management system, albeit with a very high level of support from the international community, at great expense and diversion of resources from much needed social and economic development work. The Drought Recovery Project was phased out in 1996, and in its place the Arid Lands Resource Management Project I was put in place to carry out drought monitoring and management activities in 10 arid districts in Northern Kenya. In the Office of the President, there is the National Disaster Operations Centre, Arid Lands Resource Management Project, Relief and Rehabilitation unit, National Food Security Office and National Aids Control Council. It places great emphasis on dealing with the consequences of disasters (a reactive approach) and disregards the approach required for disaster management, which includes the proactive or risk reduction approach, through thorough preparation and insurance. The event was organized in Meru, Kenya, and counted with more than 70 participants from across Kenya, including representatives from national and local governments, public and community media broadcasters, and civil society organizations working with people with disabilities. UNISDR and the National Disaster Management Centre highlighted the importance of the framework of action of the National Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction and its coordination mechanism pertaining to disasters that facilitate collaboration among national and local government institutions.The Kenya Broadcasting Corporation provided insights on governance structures and guidelines pertaining to rapid reporting mechanisms and the ethical role of the media during emergency situations. The Centre has been retained to monitor disaster incidents on a 24-hour basis and to mobilize responses to the areas affected. Legislation needs to create an enabling environment, in particular at local government levels, which are institutions at the forefront and on the ground of disaster management. In view of the experiences gained and lessons learnt during the management of various hazards and disasters, the Government of Kenya formulated a draft National Disaster Management Policy to emphasize proactive and preventive strategies in addressing disaster situations. Other pieces of legislation include Environment Management Act of 1999, Kenya Red Cross society Act (Cap 256), the Water Act (Cap 372). This disaster cycle is used throughout the emergency management community, from the local to the national and international levels.
In order to meet these challenges in a sustained and effective manner, synergies in our approach and strategies for climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction ought to be encouraged and promoted.
Systems for disaster and risk management are still centralized and tall neck bureaucratic red tape, which have not yet been devolved to the counties, making meaningful and effective response impossible. For instance, public awareness campaigns have tended to be launched only after commencement of disaster measures. But this has not yet been finalized and yet it still needs revision to reflect the requirements of the Constitution of Kenya 2010 (CoK 2010).
Instead there ought to be more Integrated Disaster Risk Management (see model below) as opposed to Crisis Management which is the practice at the moment. Their programmes on Disaster Risk Reduction were presented and aired during the IDDR celebration. The organizations CBM and Sparks, emphasized the importance of promoting an inclusive society, in creating a dialogue in having significant representation in the planning processes to reduce disaster risks, prevent disasters or build resilient societies and communities through practical demonstrations. The media also have an important role to play in creating awareness and disseminating information about disasters and natural hazards.



72 hour kits food
Dr planning checklist


Comments

  1. 05.12.2014 at 17:19:47


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    Author: isyankar
  2. 05.12.2014 at 19:27:28


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    Author: evrolive
  3. 05.12.2014 at 23:58:39


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    Author: VirtualBaki
  4. 05.12.2014 at 17:57:51


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    Author: GUNESHLILI