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The global popularity of scooters dates from the post-World War II introductions of the Vespa and the Lambretta. Scooters are popular for personal transport, partly based on their low cost of purchase and operation and on benefits that include convenience in parking and storage. The classic scooter design features a step-through frame and a flat floorboard for the rider's feet.
Scooters usually feature bodywork, including a front leg shield and body that conceals all or most of the mechanicals. Traditionally, scooter wheels are made of pressed steel, bolt on easily, and are often interchangeable between front and rear. For all legal purposes in the United States of America, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) recommends using the term motorcycle for all of these vehicles. The Cushman Company produced motor scooters from 1936 to 1965.[28] Cushman was an engine manufacturer that started making scooters after Salsbury found their offer to supply engines to be unacceptable.
Small numbers of the 165 cc Harley-Davidson Topper scooter were produced from 1960 to 1965 using the engine from their line of light motorcycles based on the DKW RT 125. After World War II, wartime aircraft manufacturers were forbidden from making aircraft, and had to find other products to make in order to stay in business. In post-World War II Italy the Piaggio Vespa became the standard for scooters, and has remained so for over 60 years. Months after the Vespa, in 1947, Innocenti introduced the Lambretta, beginning a rivalry with Vespa. In the United Kingdom, Douglas manufactured the Vespa under licence from 1951 to 1961 and assembled them from 1961 to 1965.[47] BSA and Triumph made several models of scooter including the BSA Dandy 70, the Triumph Tina, and the Triumph Tigress.
In India, Bajaj Auto manufactured its line of scooters from 1972 to 2009, which included the Chetak, Legend, Super and Priya. In the 1980s new versions of scooters began to be released and become popular, especially in Japan and far-east Asia.
The classic styling of the Vespa never lost its popularity, and remains the most-popular and most-imitated scooter design. Trends around the world have seen new developments of the classic scooter, some with larger engines and tires.
During World War II, Cushman made the Model 39, a three-wheeled utility scooter with a large storage bin between the front wheels. A maxi-scooter[53] or touring scooter[54] is a large scooter, with engines ranging in size from 250 cc (Honda CN250) up to the latest 839 cc machine (the Gilera GP 800), and using larger frames than the normal sized scooters. With increasingly strict environmental laws, including those of the United States and Europe, more scooters are using four-stroke engines again. An underbone is a motorcycle built on a chassis consisting mostly of a single large diameter tube. The engine of an underbone is usually fixed to the chassis under the downtube, while a scooter usually has its engine mounted on its swingarm.
The engine of an underbone typically drives the rear wheel by a chain of the kind used on a conventional motorcycle.
An underbone is usually fitted with near full-size motorcycle wheels, which are often spoked. While the engine and suspension layouts described here for scooters and underbones are typical, they are not rigid definitions. Motor scooters are popular in most parts of the first world, Europe (particularly Italy and the Mediterranean), Japan and Taiwan, but not the US.[57] They are even more popular in most parts of the developing world, particularly in countries such as India, Vietnam and China where there is local manufacture. In Taiwan, road infrastructure have been built specifically with two wheelers in mind, with separate lanes and intersection turn boxes. According to the Motorcycle Industry Council, sales of motor scooters in the United States have more than doubled since 2000. Significant scooter references in Mod culture include the 1973 rock musical Quadrophenia by The Who,[66] which spawned a 1979 motion picture. The idea of an Acura-badged Honda HR-V is picking up steam, as the Japanese company's premium brand registered a trademark for "CDX," with the US Patent and Trademark Office. Acura is at least looking at an entry in the increasingly important compact CUV market, with a vehicle based on Honda's upcoming HR-V.
In its most economical form, the new Honda HR-V ranks as the most fuel-efficient, conventionally-powered crossover on the market, with an EPA rating of 28 miles per gallon in the city, 35 on the highway and 31 on the combined cycle. Reported comments and users are reviewed by Autoblog staff 24 hours a day, seven days a week to determine whether they violate Community Guideline.
Poteet Architects in San Antonio, Texas recently constructed this shipping container house for a local client to use as a tiny guest house in her artist community. I love this excontainer design ( except the colour !)It just goes to show how easy it is to make these containers into an exciting and novel place to live.Somewhere to let the designer in you let loose. The green roof alredy does a lot for insulation of the top area, in moderate climates 2 inch thick cork slabs glued to the liteira walls would probably be more than enough. I would encourage anyone to learn to weld, its an awsome skill that will pay on spades but this is a medium to advanced welder project – something you might take on after 1 year or so of practice on smaller jobs. Please remember welding is a skilled trade and custom, potentially structural modification – like the green roof is NOT a project to learn on.
The largest we use here in the UK is 40 feet long and they are commonly converted into Buiding Site Offices, club houses etc. Wow, that WaterMill condensation device on the Ecopod site is interesting, as long as you can get an offgrid model. A recent study found that Bamboo flooring had three times the embodied energy of Concrete in Denver markets. There was its raft of SEMA concepts this year, and the division plans to show the iM concept car—which it teased late last month—at the Los Angeles show in mid-November. The first car will be the production iM, which is essentially a rebadged version of the Toyota Auris, a small hatchback sold in Europe. A quick scan of Toyota’s European lineup shows two potential candidates: the Aygo small hatchback and the Verso, a compact tall hatchback that still manages to offer three rows of seats. According to Harbuck, Scion sales peaked in 2006 at 173,000 but since then have been sliding. This version of the story has been updated to reflect that the iM will be a rebadged Auris hatchback, not the longer, more-wagon-like Auris Touring Sports as originally reported.


Elements of scooter design have been present in some of the earliest motorcycles, and motorcycles identifiable as scooters have been made from 1914 or earlier. These post-war scooters were intended to provide low-power personal transportation (engines from 50 to 250 cc). Licensing requirements for scooters are easier and less expensive than those for cars in most parts of the world, and insurance is generally cheaper.
This design is possible because most scooter engines and drive systems are attached to the rear axle or under the seat. There is often some integral storage space, either under the seat, built into the front leg shield, or both.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmuller produced the first motorcycle that was available for purchase.
This was basically a step-through motorcycle with an armchair instead of a traditional saddle. Foster Salsbury and Austin Elmore developed the Salsbury Motor Glide, a scooter with a seat above an enclosed drivetrain, and began production in 1936 in California. Cushman and Salsbury competed against each other, with both companies advertising the economy of their scooters. Fuji Sangyo, a part of the former Nakajima Aircraft Company, began production of the Fuji Rabbit S-1 scooter in June 1946. The scooter was designed by Innocenti, his General Director Giuseppe Lauro and engineer Pierluigi Torre.
NSU made Lambrettas under licence from 1950 to 1955, during which they developed their Prima scooter. Beginning as a joint-venture with Piaggio in 1983, LML, in addition to being a large parts supplier for Piaggio, produced the P-Series scooters for the Indian market. This style of scooters began to reflect that of larger, sporty, higher-performance motorcycles of the time and the trend has continued till now. High-end scooter models now include comprehensive technological features, including cast aluminum frames, engines with integral counter-balancing, and cross-linked brake systems.
Unlike most motorcycle trikes, it has two front wheels, with tilting suspension to allow the body to lean when cornering, as for a two-wheeled motorcycle. This arrangement improves handling by allowing bigger wheels and less unsprung weight, also tending to move the centre of gravity forwards. This has a slanted downtube, which defines an underbone, and no foot platform, the presence of which defines a scooter. An underbone differs from a conventional motorcycle mainly by not having a structural member connecting the head stock to the structure under the front of the seat and by not having a fuel tank or similarly styled appendage in the space between the riders knees. This final drive is often concealed by a chain enclosure to keep the chain clean and reduce wear. There have been scooters with fixed engines and chain drive, and there have been underbones with swingarm-mounted engines.
Parking, storage, and traffic issues in crowded cities, along with the easy driving position make them a popular form of urban transportation.
In Thailand, scooters are used for street to door taxi services, as well as for navigating through heavy traffic. The CUV debuted in Japan late, last year, and the company has trotted various versions to shows around the world since then. Accounts are penalized for Community Guidelines violations and serious or repeated violations can lead to account termination. Shipping containers are a readily available resource for building because they are usually abandoned by shipping companies.
Jim Poteet opened the office with the hope that the firm could further the sustainable revitalization of downtown San Antonio. I researched this as an option my only concern is the ventilation, my suggestion is to make sure you have plenty window that open and a good air exchange system Does a metal container have a greater chance of be struck by lightening? Although it does not rot or degrade, when soaked it looses a lot of it’s insulation capability and in freezing climates it just cracks to pieces. Outside of the Subaru-built FR-S, Scion offers an aging product line that all together won’t break 100,000 sales this year.
Two new production cars are then scheduled to bow at the New York auto show next April, says Scion corporate manager Dave Harbuck. While the funky Aygo fits Scion’s mission perfectly, to be a laboratory for new concepts and segments aimed at younger buyers, the car is a joint-venture project with PSA Peugeot Citroen (it’s also sold as the Citroen C1 and Peugeot 107) and perhaps doesn’t meet U.S. With an average transaction price of around $24,000, Scion as a brand has stayed firmly in the budget end of the market where it began, but neither the latest xB nor the tC have taken off like their predecessors.
Unlike a conventional motorcycle, in which the engine is mounted on the frame, most modern scooters allow the engine to swing with the rear wheel. Their motorcycle had a step-through frame, with its fuel tank mounted on the down tube, its parallel two-cylinder engine mounted low on the frame, and its cylinders mounted in line with the frame. In 1938 Salsbury introduced a more powerful scooter with a continuously variable transmission (CVT).
D’Ascanio's 98 cc scooter had various radical design concepts, including a sleek, stress-bearing structure. The Heinkel Tourist was a large and relatively heavy touring scooter produced in the 1960s. In 1999, after protracted dispute with Piaggio, LML bought back Piaggio's stake in the company and the partnership ceased. With the release of the Honda Ruckus, new trends towards dirt-bike scooters are just beginning. The trend toward larger, more powerful scooters with fully automatic transmissions converges with an emerging trend in motorcycle design that foreshadows automatic transmission motorcycles with on-board storage.
Later on, more brands, including Derbi and Peugeot, started using direct injection systems for their scooters. Underbones are commonly referred to as "step-throughs" and appeal to both genders in much the same way as scooters. The final drive of a scooter with a swingarm-mounted engine runs in a sealed oil bath and is shorter. A twenty-first century example of variance from the typical scooter layout is the Suzuki Choinori, which had both its engine and its rear axle rigidly bolted to its frame.


The extensive range of cycle tracks in the Netherlands extends into parts of Belgium and Germany and is open to all small powered two-wheelers. The time has finally come for all of the details about the US version to be revealed at this year's Los Angeles Auto Show.
The owner enjoys the shipping container house for its uncluttered, sunlit appeal and the wonderful blue color.
The architects mounted the container on recycled telephone poles, and the floor and walls were covered with bamboo. The firm’s portfolio of completed work includes residential, commercial and institutional projects, but is perhaps best known for the sensitive adaptive reuse of existing buildings and a fresh, rigorous approach to modern interior design. It is also 100% natural, durable, resistant to practily any weather conditions and is nice looking too. While the rear-drive FR-S has serious sporting credibility, the supply from Subaru is limited. However, Harbuck says the two new products Scion is introducing should raise the division’s sales back to its peak.
Maxi-scooters, with engines from 250 to 800 cc have been developed for Western markets. Most vintage scooters and some newer retro models have axle-mounted engines with a manual transmission and the gear shift and clutch controls built into the left handlebar. This was the first use of a CVT on a scooter.[26] It was such a success that Salsbury attempted to license the design to several European manufacturers including Piaggio.
It provided good weather protection with a full fairing, and the front wheel turned under a fixed nose extension. LML continues to produce (and also exports) the P-Series variant known as the Stella in the U.S.
In 1988, Honda introduced a large, touring scooter design, the 250 cc Helix (also called Spazio, Fusion or CN250). Furthermore, having an engine mounted on the swingarm gives a typical scooter more unsprung mass than a typical underbone. The bigger wheels of an underbone allow more ventilation and better cooling for the brakes than the smaller wheels of a scooter. Motor scooters are popular because of their size, fuel-efficiency, weight, and typically larger storage room than a motorcycle.
Sliding doors, windows, heating, air conditioning and an 8 foot by 4 foot bathroom with a composting toilet and red sheet metal walls were also added. The Verso would give Scion yet another five-door box, but one with seven-passenger seating, assuming the rearmost row can pass U.S.
It became the first mass-produced and publicly-sold powered two-wheel vehicle, and among the first powered mainly by its engine rather than foot pedals. It was in production for about ten years, in three engine sizes, 150 cc, 175 cc and 200 cc. Although it was bulky to handle at low speeds and was derisively called a "Barcalounger on wheels", it was designed for riding long distances in comfort. A garden storage room was also added at the end of the container, which retains its original access doors.
She put $3,000 down and drove off in a 2007 Ford Fusion, agreeing to pay $387 a month for four years. The typical fork support was replaced by an arm similar to an aircraft carriage for easier tire-changing. Now nearly all major scooter manufacturers produce such models, called "maxi", "GT" or "touring" scooters.
A patio with a cantilevered overhang was added to the front of the house and a rooftop garden with a drip system was installed by Madrone Landscape Architecture. The rear wheel was driven directly by rods from the pistons in a manner similar to the drive wheels of steam locomotives. The elegantly-styled body protected the driver from wind and road dirt, and bore little resemblance to uncomfortable and noisy motorcycles. So she was relieved when the dealership called and offered to make her loan more affordable. The smaller wheels and shorter wheelbase provide improved maneuverability through narrow streets and congested traffic. Combining the best elements of automotive, aeronautical and motorcycle design, the Vespa quickly became an icon of design and economy.
It had a single cylinder piston-port two stroke engine, with four foot-operated gears and centrifugal fan cooling. The name reportedly originated when Piaggio's president upon seeing the prototype, remarked "Sembra una vespa", "It looks like a wasp". Buy Here Pay Here dealers make $80 billion in loans every year, according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp.Although dealers are loath to open their books, profit margins average nearly 40%, according to a trade group, the National Alliance of Buy Here Pay Here Dealers. In the world of Buy Here Pay Here, it's just another avenue for profit: The car can be repossessed and put back on the lot for sale in short order.
A new buyer makes a down payment, takes on a high-interest loan and the cycle starts anew.Provided they don't get wrecked, these recycled vehicles just keep paying dividends. At some dealerships, cars have been sold and resold over and over a€” three, four, even eight times apiece, motor vehicle records show.
A growing empire Although little-known outside the auto and finance industries, Buy Here Pay Here dealers are grabbing a bigger share of the market.What's more, these hand-me-down wheels hold their value remarkably well. The sale price is sometimes higher the second or third time a car is sold, records show a€” a testament to the desperation of buyers and the market power of Buy Here Pay Here lots as lenders of last resort.Default and repossession are so central to the business that many dealers plan on both.
They equip cars with hidden GPS devices and remote-control ignition blockers to make the repo man's work easier.Many pursue their customers for years after they've seized and resold the vehicles. He doesn't plan for a rainy day,a€? Chuck Bonanno, a Buy Here Pay Here consultant in Florida, told dealers at a recent industry conference in Las Vegas.



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