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Anka is a medium altitude long endurance (MALE) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system, primarily manufactured to meet the reconnaissance and surveillance requirements of the Turkish Armed Forces. Anka unmanned aerial vehicle designAnka's structure is of composite material construction, while some fittings and frames are built using high-strength material to withstand concentrated loads. The Hunter system is capable of carrying out the following missions: real-time imagery intelligence, artillery adjustment, battle damage assessment, reconnaissance and surveillance, target acquisition and battlefield observation. Since March 2003, Hunter UAVs, deployed in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom, have flown more than 600 reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition missions. The MQ-5B Hunter has a heavy fuel engine, a 'wet' or fuel-carrying extended centre wing with hard points capable of weapon carriage, a new avionics suite and automated take-off and landing capability. In November 2008, The US Army purchased an additional 12 MQ-5B Hunter air vehicles with six Block II ground control stations and eight tactical common data link systems. MQ-5C Extended Hunter (E-Hunter), a larger version of Hunter, has been developed for longer endurance and higher-altitude (up to 20,000ft) tactical missions.
In October 2002, a series of flight tests demonstrated Hunter's ability to carry and deploy the Northrop Grumman BAT (brilliant anti-tank) submunition.
The RQ-5A Hunter unmanned air vehicle is a fixed-wing, twin-tail boom aircraft with a dual rudder.
The unmanned air vehicle can be launched from a paved or semi-paved runway or it can use a rocket assisted (RATO) system, where it is launched from a zero-length launcher using a rocket booster.
The air vehicle can land on a regular runway, grassy strip or highway using arresting cables. The B-Hunter, produced by IAI for Belgium, has an automatic landing and take-off (ATLND) system.
The extended centre wing has two external hard points capable of carrying weapons such as the Northrop Grumman Viper Strike laser-guided munition. Hunter is capable of carrying other advanced mission payloads and has been used as a payload demonstration platform. The GCS-3000 ground control station, manned by two operators, tracks, commands, controls and communicates with the air vehicle and its payload. The communications uplink channels (UPL-1 and UPL-2) and the downlink channel (DNL) use fixed coded frame format. IAI Malat has developed a compact ground control system (CGCS) which can be adapted for airborne, small ship and forward tactical deployment. A remote video terminal is used at tactical operations centres to receive and display real-time video and telemetry from the airborne vehicle. Hunter provides real time intelligence for battlefield surveillance and target acquisition.
Hunter can be launched using a rocket assisted (RATO) system, for areas where space is limited. The Ground Control Station provides tactical mission planning as well as controlling the air vehicle and its payload. A larger version, Extended Hunter, has been developed for longer endurance and higher altitude missions. The Remote Video Terminal displays real-time video and telemetry from the airborne vehicle. Orbital Corporation Limited (Orbital) has delivered the first purpose-built ScanEagle Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) propulsion system to Insitu Inc, a subsidiary of The Boeing Company, for in-house testing and development. Orbital has been working with Insitu division of Boeing since January 2013 as part of an initial design, development and validation contract to supply UAV propulsion systems.
The delivered propulsion system was designed and manufactured by Orbital and incorporates Orbital’s new Argon Engine Control Unit (ECU) and control system. As the SUAS and Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) UAV markets continue to move to heavy fuel, working with Insitu ensures Orbital is well positioned to take the lead in UAV propulsion systems. The TAI Anka (English: Angha, a phoenix-like mythological creature) is a family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) developed by Turkish Aerospace Industries for use by the Turkish Air Force.
The whole composite airframe is composed of a monoblock fuselage, detachable wing and V-Tail, retractable landing gear, redundant control surfaces, avionics and payload bays and service doors. The platform is also equipped with a digital flight control system, electro-mechanical actuators, and flight control sensor systems such as GPS, pitot-static, air data computer, navigation sensor, transducers, temperature, pressure, displacement sensors, etc. All airborne and ground based flight control software is developed by TAI while payload hardware and software items are aimed to be developed by national sub-contractors, such as Aselsan and Milsoft.
TIHA operations are supported by highly sophisticated ground control system with complete redundancy, developed by a domestic defence company Savronik. In TIES, valuable intelligence information can be obtained by the analysis of bulky imagery data.

The contract regarding the development of an indigenous Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for the reconnaissance requirements of the Turkish Armed Forces became effective on 24 December 2004. On 30 December 2010, the first TAI Anka unmanned aerial vehicle completed its debut flight, with 14 minutes of cruising, at 15:45 local time. Turkish Aerospace Industries announced on the 25th of October 2011 that the ANKA had successfully completed its subsequent flight and landing tests and that it will now be in the Turkish Air Force inventory in 2012 that is much earlier than expected.
On January 5, 2012, Defence Industry Executive Committee authorized Undersecretariat for Defence Industries to commence talks with Turkish Aerospace Industries for the serial production of 10 Anka vehicles. On September 27, 2012, an Anka prototype crashed during a flight test due to a technical problem.
The TAI Anka will also eventually have an indigenous 155hp Turbo prop engine developed by Tusas Engine Industries (TEI) with cooperation with other Turkish companies in the future. A 5+ Ton, Turbo-fan powered, High Altitude Long Endurance version of the ANKA is also being planned.
TAI officials have announced that the Strategic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle version named ANKA-TP will feature a new mission computer, airframe and have the ability to carry between 1 to 1.5 Tons in armament.
On 23 November 2012, Egypt contracted with Turkish Aerospace Industries to purchase 10 Anka UAV’s. Arras is a WordPress theme designed for news or review sites with lots of customisable features. In 1989, the US Army, Navy and Marines initiated a joint unmanned aerial vehicle programme. In the first three months of Operation Allied Force, Hunters flew over 600 flight hours per 30-day period, providing imagery and real-time data. From November 2004, two US Army Hunter UAVs have been used for border patrol in Arizona by the US Department of Homeland Security.
The ATLND is based on a laser tracker sensor that is used to automatically guide the air vehicle to a flare point.
It is powered by two 'heavy fuel' diesel engines developed by Northrop Grumman, one to 'push' and one to 'pull' the air vehicle. The suite introduces a relay mode that allows one Hunter to control another at extended ranges or over terrain obstacles. US Army Hunters operating in Macedonia are being fitted with new sensors including a third-generation FLIR and a spotter for the day TV camera. The RVT is connected to a directional antenna to receive signals from the air vehicle flying up to a range of 40km from the terminal. Designed specifically for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUAS) class UAVs, it is the first reciprocating internal combustion propulsion system to be engineered from the ground up for unmanned aerospace application. Delivery of the first propulsion system will now allow a rigorous bench testing program to commence which will be followed by flight testing.
The Argon ECU has advancements not available on other aircraft in this class, including real-time monitoring and diagnostics of all critical systems, sensor and actuator redundancy, and extensive ‘black box’ recording capability. The global SUAS market alone is projected to reach $1.9B by 2020 according to the recent MarketsandMarket’s report, with increasing civil and military applications as the driving factors in this market.
The sandwich skin structure is reinforced by composite or metallic frames, ribs and supports. Various tasks are distributed along flight management computers and auxiliary control boxes.
Whole mission segments of the air vehicle can be managed, monitored and controlled by a GCS. Within the framework of the program, a total of three prototypes and ground systems will be designed, developed, manufactured and tested by mid 2011 as part of the prototype development phase. Footage released by TAI also shows the ANKA landing successfully putting all speculation abouts its crash landings to rest. The final acceptance tests were conducted near Ankara, and involved an 18 hour long, 200 Km ring flight. It will have a span of 23 meters, speed of between 200 to 250 knots and a cruising altitude of 40,000+ ft. Under the TUAV project, TAI is responsible for developing three prototype UAVs and the associated ground systems.The preliminary design review (PDR) was completed in May 2008. TRW (now Northrop Grumman) and Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI) Malat Division won a low-rate initial production (LRIP) contract in 1993 to supply seven Hunter systems. The Hunters operated in relay with two air vehicles airborne simultaneously for each mission.
B-Hunter UAVs were deployed by Belgium in July 2006, in support of the European Union Force (EUFOR) in the Congo.

In February 2006, flight tests confirmed the MQ-5B's endurance at more than 21 hours, nine hours more than the RQ-5A. E-Hunter has a new tail assembly, and a longer centre wing which extends mission endurance to 30 hours. In August 2003, Hunter successfully deployed a derivative of the BAT, the Viper Strike precision munition with semi-active laser seeker instead of infrared and acoustic sensors and 1.8kg (4lb) warhead.
These allow the air vehicle to operate at higher altitudes of 6,100m (20,000ft) and increase endurance from 12 hours to 15 hours.
An enhanced mission planner provides flexible automated tactical mission planning and access to digital terrain elevation data (DTED), CD ROM map data and data from the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Successful completion of the program is expected to lead to a low volume production contract to be supplied from Orbital’s facilities in Perth, and may evolve into a higher volume production business from new Orbital production facilities, which would need to be established in the United States.
The system also uses Orbital’s patented and unique FLEXDITM technology, which enables the highest level of performance for heavy fuel SUAS engine applications, significantly extending the range for the aircraft in flight. Propelled by a pusher type heavy fuel engine, the aircraft is furnished with fuselage fuel tanks and fuel system, ice protection system, environmental control system, lighting system, redundant electrical system with battery backup and harness system. Identification and communication units and interface computers are employed in order to establish real time wide band communication and provide test and diagnostics functions. A pre-programmed mission plan can be loaded before the flight begins or can be altered during the flight. Refined information flows to the upper command layer in order to assist the headquarters to monitor a network of TIHA systems and benefit from the gathered intelligence information. Subsequently in 2012, the serial production phase of Anka-A will be launched and additional 10 systems (meaning 30 air vehicles) will be built for the Turkish Air Force.
The other subsystems including avionics, electrical systems and the engine are housed in various serviceable sections.The wing and tail components include front and rear spars as well as ribs. The MQ-5B is fielded by the US Army in Iraq and Afghanistan and it has been reported that, in September 2007, the US Army used an MQ-B Hunter deployed in Iraq to drop a laser-guide bomb on a target – the first US Army use of an armed UAV. Electronic countermeasures payloads have included communications warning receiver, communications jammer and radar jammer supplied by Northrop Grumman.
The navigation control bay is equipped with a digital map display which traces the flight path and monitors the progress of the mission.
Insitu and Orbital have also combined technical capabilities to achieve benchmark low vibration and noise suppression. An air traffic radio is also integrated in the communication system for the integration of the aircraft into the civilian airspace.
All the imagery stream of the payloads can be displayed and recorded in real time and all the payloads can be controlled from the GCS. Another interface of the TIHA system is the RVT, with which other friendly units who are close to the target area can utilize the real time imagery that TIHA air vehicle broadcasts. The first Anka UAV successfully completed its maiden flight in December 2010.The UAV demonstrated its automatic take-off and landing capabilities in November 2011.
The UAV is equipped with dual redundant control surfaces driven by a dedicated electro-mechanical actuator. All flight critical equipment are dual or triple redundant and emergency modes of operational scenarios are taken into consideration for fail safe design. ATOLS allows the air vehicle to perform its operation without operator intervention, including the most critical phases which are landing and take-off. A technical issue caused the crashing of a prototype vehicle during final tests in September 2012. TAI completed the acceptance testing campaign of Anka in January 2013.TAI also plans to design Anka Plus A, an armed variation of Anka.
The maximum take-off weight of the UAV is 1,600kg.Payload of the Anka MALE UAVThe UAV can carry two payloads for the intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition and reconnaissance (ISTAR) missions. The nose unit is steered by an electromechanical servo actuator.GCS for the Turkish UAVThe flight operations of Anka are controlled and monitored using an advanced ground control station (GCS). The GCS is equipped with dual command and control consoles, as well as simulation and playback capabilities. The payloads of UAV are controlled in real time from the GCS during flight.The GCS is housed in a Nato compliant ACEIII type shelter. The control station can be interfaced with external command, control, communications, computers and intelligence (C4I) systems.The Global Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) Market 2011-2021This project forms part of our recent analysis and forecasts of the global unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) market available from our business information platform Strategic Defence Intelligence.

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