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Conceptually, the idea of owning the land we live on—owning our homes—may not seem too foreign for most of us.
When pioneers began moving to America, the idea of buying and owning land and houses became popular and common. In the 1900s, mortgages were widely popular and easy to attain in America, as long as a person was able to put down about 50% of the money and pay the rest of the house off in about five years.
The United States is still the land of opportunity in many ways, and while mortgages change with societal norms, owning one’s own home remains an American goal—part of the ever-changing American dream. About US Lease OptionWe are dedicated to helping you find the perfect rent to own home by connecting you with more rent to own listings than any other site!
Multichannel Television Sound (MTS) is an innovation that brought new dimensions in sound to American television from the 1980s to the 2000s. Following its introduction in 1984, stereo television was a revelation in the United States. In John Ellisa€™s account of television in the early 1980s, he emphasized that television had remained a sound-based medium with a a€?stripped-down imagea€? (Ellis 1982: 131).
Given that television was established as a monaural medium and it had a widespread adoption rate in the United States, the technical challenge that arose concerned how to overlay a new stereo standard without making existing television sets obsolete. In 1985, Stan Prentiss predicted some potential problems with the introduction of broadcast stereo television sound when the implementation of MTS was not made mandatory for the cable television industry. In other scholarship, we can observe the tendency to give scientific explanations for how the system works and how it is incorporated into the broadcast transmission (Eilers 1984).
There is more than three decades separating the FCCa€™s establishment of a color television technical standard and their action on stereo television sound. ABC was the lowest-rated network in this period and the last of the major networks to convert its full programming schedule to color in the 1960s. Some of the most ardent support for stereo television can be identified amongst hi-fi enthusiasts with their home stereo systems. The consumer electronics industry took advantage of this growing awareness of stereo and multichannel sound, as terms like a€?cable-readya€? and a€?stereo-compatiblea€? began to appear on consumer electronics devices aimed at the growing home theater consumer marketplace. Even though television and AM radio continued to broadcast in mono, consumers began to adopt VCRs and cable television at a very fast pace. Among the stations interested in stereo telecasts was Chicagoa€™s Public Broadcasting System (PBS) station and program producer WTTW, which produced the live music program Soundstage into the 1980s. The launch of commercial stereo broadcasts was planned by ABC for the 1984 Summer Olympics telecast of the opening ceremonies. Broadcast hardware is usually adopted by the general public only after the television industry has provided software in the form of programming. NBC emerged as the most innovative and aggressive of the networks to provide software for its audiences and RCA set buyers. Tonight Show was the first series to have a stereo telecast, its rather staid interview format would not be the most compelling to sell consumers on the benefits of stereo sound.
The program was pitched as a€?MTV Cops,a€? as it was understood from the beginning that contemporary music would be an important component (Rodman 2010: 248-249).
Another series that was significant in the transition to stereo was NBCa€™s Friday Night Videos. During 1986, NBC clearly emerged as the leader in MTS, broadcasting 24.5 hours of stereo programs each week compared to ABC, which had one prime-time half hour in MTS with the sitcom parody Sledge Hammer!
With television stereo being a standard feature on every large screen set sold by the early 1990s, ABC and CBS finally transitioned their schedules to stereo. In order to understand the mixing practices of this period, it is instructive to draw on a recent interview with Josiah Gluck, who was an audio mixer for NBCa€™s Saturday Night Live and Last Call with Carson Daly and for the late night music program Night Music (Gluck 2011).
MTS mixing in the period around 1990 can also be examined in relation to Cop Rock, the short-lived musical police series produced by Steven Bochco. Another major program contributing to the development of MTS mixing was Star Trek: The Next Generation (TNG). Enhanced technology and advancement in microphone placement techniques were very important to television series, but they were perhaps even more prevalent in the coverage of live sports. The sound techniques of the stereo era that were used for television coverage of professional American football, baseball, basketball and other sports became the framework for 5.1 audio that would be used in high-definition television (HDTV) in the late 1990s and into the post-MTS era.
As the above examples have demonstrated, MTS mixing was established and refined in the context of 1990s television production. The transition from analog to digital television transmission in the United States in 2009 also meant the end of the NTSC video system. One salient point concerning MTS is that most audiences listening on cable systems, satellite, or even some VCRs may have never actually heard MTS. A final caveat is instructive in confirming the significance of MTS for both audiences and audio professionals.
Since the series was produced in the stereo era, everything from the memorable Danny Elfman theme to the closing credits were available with separation.
David Sedman is Associate Professor of Film and Media Arts at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas. This is a brilliant overview of the last thousand years and what it lacks in a catchy title, it makes up for in compelling prose.
This entry was posted in 1000's, 1100's, 1200's, 1300's, 1400's, 1500's, 1600's, 1700's, 1800's, 1900's, 2000's, Books, Time period and tagged Buildings, Chartists, Co-op, Community, Coop, Development Trusts Association, Housing, John Ball, land, Land Settlement Association, land value tax, Locality, Steve Wyler, The Diggers, The Peasants' Revolt, William Blake on January 18, 2015 by cow. I am utterly in love with this song about John Ball, one of the leaders of the Peasants’ Revolt in 1381. The melody is a traditional Northumberland tune, with lyrics written on the 300th anniversary in 1981 by Camden-based folk-singer Sydney Carter who died in 2004. This entry was posted in 1300's, Music, Songs and tagged concertina, Dolly May, female, folk song, guitar, harmonies, John Ball, male, Nick Hart, peasants revolt, singing, sydney carter, voice on December 26, 2013 by cow.
Miami Marlins: How Marcell Ozuna Became a Part of the Core by Justin KoonceNew York Yankees: Is Mark Teixeira a Hall of Famer? Even though it has been quite some time since the Wrigley family owned the Chicago Cubs, they still have a presence with the franchise. The Tribune Company, although they did not get the team to the World Series, certainly had a solid run. The Tribune Company helped bring the Chicago Cubs into the modern era, and saw quite a bit of success during their tenure as owners. One day she complained of strange noises coming from the engine bay, I told her to take it to a garage to have it checked out, as it didn’t sound healthy. My sister then parked the car on the road, it had been off the road for a while and she had forgotten to tax it.
If you enjoy what we do and want to help keep us going, please consider buying us a cup of liquid awakeness. Swann stated that while Britain had only 59 gun-related homicides in 2011 (versus over 8,500 in the United States), this didn’t mean that gun control reduced overall violent crime, since, after all, Britain almost completely banned handgun ownership* in 1997. This claim is made by people on both sides of the debate, so we can perhaps forgive his error, but the statistic he used to justify it does not prove what he claimed.
The same is true for guns: while there may be as many as 300 million guns in the US, less than half of American households own one. What Swann either doesn’t know, or simply doesn’t bother to tell his viewers, is that the definitions for “violent crime” are very different in the US and Britain, and the methodologies of the two statistics he cites are also different.
The British Home Office, by contrast, has a substantially different definition of violent crime.
When you look at how this changes the meaning of “violent crime,” it becomes clear how misleading it is to compare rates of violent crime in the US and the UK. But of the 871,000 crimes against the person, less than half (401,000) involved any actual injury. Due to fundamental differences in how crime is recorded and categorized, it’s impossible to compute exactly what the British violent crime rate would be if it were calculated the way the FBI does it, but if we must compare the two, my best estimate‡ would be something like 776 violent crimes per 100,000 people. Besides the misleading data Swann used, it’s interesting to note the statistics he didn’t give you.
And it’s also worth noting that while Swann implied that the UK is more violent than the US because of its handgun ban, violent crime has been declining in Britain since the mid-1990s, and it continued to do so without interruption after the 1997 Firearms Amendment went into effect.
None of this disproves the “more guns, less crime” hypothesis (though the statistical evidence on whether gun ownership directly affects local crime rates, up or down, appears to be a wash), nor does it make any of the gun control proposals currently being debated any more attractive. His job is not to be an advocate for a particular policy, but first and foremost to represent the truth. It’s impossible to know exactly how many of the assaults occasioning ABH would be considered aggravated under the US definition, but if we were to arbitrarily excluded half of them, the rate would fall to about 591 violent crimes per 100,000, and if we excluded all of them it would be 271.
For example, if we look at Earth’s diverse animal life we can see a consistent want of ownership of territory. The law was relatively simple: it protected the creditor by allowing them to hold the title of the house until it was completely paid off, but also protected the debtor, allowing him to sell the home to someone more affluent who could pay off the rest of the debt if he could not. Many settlers would purchase land and build a family home which would be home to many generations. We also believe in real estate education so our resource center jam packed with information covering every aspect of real estate from credit repair and contract negotiations to how to use a realtor and whether or not rent to own is right for you. This article explores the brief history of MTS and its rise to prominence, with a particular focus on both the early a€?experimentala€? years of MTS sound and its short-lived a€?golden era.a€? The article concludes with an evaluation of the lasting impact of the technological shift from monaural to multichannel sound design. Stereo technology was a critical success and resulted in production studios updating their audio production and post-production techniques to incorporate the new system. Indeed, television began as a medium with a monochromatic picture and a single channel of audio. In the field of film studies, Gianluca Sergi has examined four decades of Dolby sound usage. In response, the leading industry lobby group, National Cable Television Association, expressed hope that the publica€™s interest in stereo would push the marketplace into bringing MTS into general usage without government intervention calling for mandatory carriage of a stereo signal. Shelley Craiga€™s 1987 thesis, for instance, discusses the specific post-production differences between visual formats including film, A?a€? U-matic videotape, 1a€? tape and D-1 tape. For this reason, one might assume that there was simply no demand for stereo telecasts in the intervening years. However, when examining this period, it is apparent that the network showed a marked interest in the potential of stereo television sound. The adoption of stereo speakers and stereo-capable consumer electronics, such as turntables and reel-to-reel tape recorders, led to an increase in stereo recordings throughout the 1960s.[4] As a result of this existing development, the potential transition to stereo television appears to have been a related project. Television rights to modern films with stereo and multichannel mixes were also being sold to the broadcast networks. The aspiration towards a a€?home cinemaa€? experience was thus promoted by the consumer electronic industry, which emphasized audio-centric video hardware. However, producers still used the process of providing radio stations across the continent with four-track audio tape for the purpose of simulcasting. An article in May 1984 said that ABC was the a€?odds-on favoritea€? to be the first network to commence stereo broadcasting with NBC following in 1985 and CBS thereafter (Stereo TV 1984). In turn, the industry is hesitant to provide the hardware necessary to provide an enhancement to their broadcast transmissions until it proves profitable and until consumer electronics makers commit to producing well-priced electronics (see Hilmes 1990). As a cable provider, MTV was not eligible for multichannel sound, but its representatives were keen to convert to stereo sound since its music videos were provided on stereo videotape.
Show creator Michael Mann observed that a€?[t]he intention of Miami Vice was to achieve the organic interaction of music and contenta€? (Newcomb 2004: 1577). Stations not broadcasting the series in stereo were required to look for simulcast stations in their market region so that viewers could get the program through NBC.
During this interview, Gluck noted that there was a period of experimenting and upmixing taking place that was a€?trial and errora€? (Gluck 2011). Foxa€™s Late Night, which won the 1990 Emmy for sound mixing, is indicative of this development. Indeed, Tonight Show MTS sound professional Ron Estes was highly involved in this seriesa€™ creative sound design concept. In the mid 1980s the operations vice-president for NBC Sports predicted that a€?audio advancements are the next frontiera€? and that a€?eventually stereo could be as important an innovation as color videoa€? (Television Sound 1985: 15). The period also provided a great deal of competition between networks, which encouraged further creativity in audio production.
However, it no longer represented a selling point for consumers buying television sets, nor provided additional motivation for audiences to watch a particular program. With NTSC gone, it would also ultimately spell the end of MTS as well, which was supplanted by the digital 5.1 mix. While logos made them aware of stereo sound and lights may have illuminated on receivers or VCRs, MTS was only available over the air on stations broadcasting in stereo. In other words, the creation of the DVD set and mix to 5.1 audio in the 2000s was achieved thanks to the production techniques established during the formative years of MTS. Also included in the MTS standard was one channel used as a second audio program side-channel for stations wishing to run content in a different language or some other alternate programming. One exception that deals with technological standards in television sound is a recent essay by Shawn VanCour on television music (VanCour 2011: 57-79), although only passing reference is made to MTS. For an extensive discussion of the ties between the film, television, radio and recording industries in the 1950s, see Michele Hilmesa€™ Hollywood and Broadcasting (Hilmes 1990).
For a discussion of the cultural prestige associated with stereo and high fidelity sound in the domestic home in the period 1948-1959, see the work of Keir Keightley (Keightley 1996). For more on this, see Shawn VanCoura€™s recent account of television sound (VanCour 2011: 57-79).


Group W cable television in Chicago, for instance, was one of many cable systems that allowed users to pay a monthly fee to receive stereo simulcast signals being offered as part of the FM radio service (Ripco 1988).
Alan Bernarda€™s work, combined with the original scores, were among the most dynamic MTS mixes of the period and earned Bernard eight Emmy nominations, three Emmy wins, five Cinema Audio Society nominations and one CAS award. A more cinematic style of sound design can be seen in programs like The Sopranos, which had an expanded music and sound budget (see Creeber 2004).
In the matter of amendment of part three of the Commissiona€™s rules and regulations to permit FM broadcast stations to transmit stereophonic programs on a multiplex basis. Multichannel Television Sound Transmission and Audio Processing Requirements for the BTSC System. Dolly May came up with some lovely harmonies and then one cheeky Sunday we ended up recording the song with the brilliant Nick Hart on concertina. However, on this day in 1981, Bill Wrigley began the process of selling the team to the Tribune Company, as the National League owners approved of the sale.
The venerable Wrigley Field is still named for the family, making them synonymous with the Cubs although they sold the franchise years ago.
Forced to sell the team due to the large estate taxes upon the death of his parents, Bill Wrigley entered into an agreement to sell the Cubs to the Tribune Company for $20.5 Million. They would reach the postseason for the first time in 40 years only three years later, and in 1989, the first night game in the history of Wrigley Field would be played. Those failures would sting however, perhaps none more than in 2003, when needing five more outs, Steve Bartman snagged a foul ball from in front of Moises Alou, leading to an eventual collapse and subsequent series loss.
Yes, the Cubs did not make it to the World Series during their time, but they were brought to a much better place. I should have drawn a line under it, vowed never to mix business with pleasure again, and left it at that. Local busybodies reported the car as abandoned, and it was taken away and crushed by Haringey Council.
I learned more about mechanics tinkering with the 106 than any college education could have taught me. Swann states, correctly, that the US has an average of 88 guns per 100 citizens (it might be higher–nobody knows exactly how many firearms there are in the US, and figures range from 270 million to over 300 million). This is the rate of gun ownership that matters: how many Americans actually possess a firearm? I suspect the same is true for many of the poorer and more violent countries high on the list of guns per capita, like Serbia and Yemen†, which, after the United States, have the most firearms per person. Swann: when you see statistics that look unbelievable, you probably shouldn’t believe them, at least until you dig deeper into the data.
Second, and more importantly, the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports defines a “violent crime” as one of four specific offenses: murder and nonnegligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. The remainder were mostly crimes like simple assault without injury, harassment, “possession of an article with a blade or point,” and causing “public fear, alarm, or distress.” And of the 54,000 sexual offenses, only a quarter (15,000) were rapes. While this is still substantially higher than the rate in the United States, it’s nowhere near the 2,034 cited by Swann and the Mail. For instance, Swann correctly pointed out that it is no surprise the UK has fewer shooting deaths than the US, since handguns are almost totally banned. Meanwhile, in the United States, gun ownership has been falling steadily, even as the US experienced the same sharp decline in violence beginning in early ‘90s.
What it does mean is that Swann’s argument here is disingenuous, factually inaccurate, and fundamentally flawed.
Swann is a journalist who regularly does a segment called “Reality Check,” and by appearing on television as an objective reporter, he is purporting to have looked into and thoroughly vetted the information he passes on to his viewers. Unfortunately, in his last report, he did not make an honest effort to look at empirical evidence and draw conclusions from it; rather, because he felt he already knew the answer, he simply regurgitated comforting confirmations of his personal biases, and the internet being what it is, sent them viral.
Considering how differently crime is treated and defined in the two countries, it’s not possible to parse the data any further, in my opinion. It does not include Scotland or Northern Ireland, which are also part of the United Kingdom. As I suggested might be the case, he concludes that Britain’s violent crime rate is still higher than the US. It should be noted, however, that this is the highest estimate I calculated, although the one I made in the initial post.
The land they lived on would often be their means of support and sustenance as many grew their own food, raised their own animals, and cleared their land for wood. Many settlers had come from countries where they hadn’t had the money or the opportunity to own the place they lived in and felt secure in.
Although there were numerous technical and industrial challenges to MTS sound, its introduction was essential to the development of television sound design prior to the introduction of Digital and Dolby surround sound in the early 2000s. The creative enhancements brought about by stereo to television production were so important that just two years after regular stereo broadcasts began, the Academy of Television Arts and Sciences awarded five Technical and Engineering Emmy Awards both to the inventors of the technology and to the two networks a€“ NBC and ABC a€“ that had aggressively utilized stereo sound in their broadcasts (Rivlin 1986: 1).
Transforming television from black-and-white to color was an imperative even in the early period of television broadcasting. The American television stereo system utilized the normal mono television information, which consisted of left plus right (L+R) information that was compatible with all receivers, and then added a second signal consisting of left minus right (L-R), which was the signal received by any MTS device including television sets, video cassette recorders (VCRs), set-top boxes, and amplifiers with loudspeakers. Sergi describes how Dolby stereo enjoyed a novelty era followed by a period of maturity in which sound aesthetics and technology developed fairly rapidly (Sergi 2004). Cable providers, as Prentiss suggested, would a€?likely provide multichannel sound where it is technologically feasible but that the decision should be left up to the cable operatorsa€? (Prentis 1985: 119). Audio, as Craig concludes, a€?is no longer the poor cousin of the video industrya€? (Craig 1987: 31). However, a number of television producers and performers explored the creative possibilities of stereo sound for the public prior to its official introduction.
This interest is evident in ABCa€™s decision to launch its own record label, ABC-Paramount, in 1955 and a deal formed with Disney, itself a producer of soundtrack and licensed-character records. In the United States, the introduction of FM radio broadcasting was an important catalyst in popularizing stereo sound.
When such films were given broadcast dates, audiences may have had the expectation that they would experience stereo with their television receivers.
WTTW installed a prototype broadcast stereo modulator using a standard created by the Broadcast Television Systems Committee (BTSC) combined with a noise reduction system promulgated by dbx Inc. NBC, however, pressed Johnny Carsona€™s The Tonight Show into broadcast stereo production in order to beat ABC, even though its own affiliates were unprepared (Stereo TV 1984). The early involvement of both NBC and RCA in MTS established their respective roles as innovators in producing multichannel programming and manufacturing new television models.
MTVa€™s marketing and stereo goals also inspired NBCa€™s Miami Vice, a stylistic drama series that was heavily influenced by the success of music television (see Figure Three).
Episodes were built around songs by popular artists of the time, such as Glen Frey and Phil Collins.
Just as MTVa€™s audience grew in the 1980s with the rallying cry a€?I Want My MTVa€? aimed at persuading audiences to call cable operators failing to carry MTV, viewers of Friday Night Videos were instructed to call their NBC station hoping to convince them to transmit in stereo. Both CBS and ABC turned their attention to sporting events, which were a significant driver of change in the MTS market.
The series which may best exemplify the experimentation taking place in MTS was Rick Deesa€™ Into the Night.
He made the observation that there was a a€?Blue Light Speciala€? mentality at broadcast stations to ensure that they were passing stereo telecasts to the public. The programa€™s spatial separation of sounds was established in the studio and demonstrated the maturing of MTS in live and live-to-tape program production: the a€?Dog Pounda€? calls of a€?Wuff! Although failing to become a critical or a commercial success, Estes and colleagues Mark Server and Gary D. When Fox Sports became involved in professional football and baseball, one of the more noticeable advances they made was in the mixing of sports telecasts. We can observe this shift in audience expectation, since the a€?In Stereoa€? bugs that had been ubiquitous in the past started to disappear as stereo sound mixing became the norm rather than the exception. The impact of MTS, though rarely discussed much past the 1980s in the trade press and not marketed much past that period, was profound. The technology was introduced in 1984 at a time when cable penetration in the United States was just 34%, but cable grew to 60% by the end of the MTS period, along with further competition from satellite and telephone services that did not actually offer MTS (NCTA 2012). Smith noted that in the remastering of television series of the stereo period, there may not be enough of a return on investment to have personnel from the show participate in discussions about a€?upconvertinga€? stereo mixes to multichannel mixes (Smith 2012). Though the MTS service was terminated in 2009, its impact on the audio post-production of entertainment series, sports, and live music for the medium of television cannot be underestimated. In Los Angeles, for example, KTLA ran the ABC series The Love Boat audio track in Spanish on its SAP channel. On the broader introduction of multi-track sound recording, see Michael Chanana€™s Repeated Takes (Chanan 1995). He has published articles related to new technology in such publications as the Journal of Broadcast and Electronic Media, Standards Engineering and the Journal of Media Economics.
That sale was agreed upon on this date by the rest of the owners in the National League, leading to the sale being completed three weeks later.
The family had resisted installing lights, making Wrigley Field the last stadium to have a night game. My sister expressed an interest in getting a car, so I sold her the Rallye for about a grand.
Given that there are 132 million households in the United States, this would imply that 59 percent of US households own a dog. Guns are expensive, so in countries that are both poor and violent, we may expect more people probably feel the need to own one for self-defense, while fewer people can afford to keep more than one, thus leading to a more equitable distribution of guns across the population.
Based on these figures, it appears that Britain is over 4 times more violent than the US, and since this is all he gives you, that is exactly what he leads his viewers to believe.
This makes it abundantly clear that the naive comparison of crime rates either wildly overstates the amount of violence in the UK or wildly understates it in the US. But he neglects to mention that Britain doesn’t just have fewer gun-related homicides–it has a dramatically lower murder rate all around. At best, he is giving gun enthusiasts bad reasons to support the Second Amendment when perfectly good reasons are already available. While I cannot fault his fans for innocently accepting his claims at face value, there is no excuse for the kind of lazy journalism and ideologically blinkered reporting Swann displayed in this segment.
My point was simply to show how incredibly wrong it is to make comparisons of two rates that are measuring fundamentally different crimes. But the same problems of definition hold there as well: any effort compare their violent crime rates to the US will suffer from the same flaws as I demonstrated for the rest of Britain. But the US does have noticeably higher assault deaths per capita than Britain or other Western European countries.
I’m pleased that he is willing to admit his mistake, but I remain fundamentally skeptical of precise comparisons of the two countries crime rates.
I suspect it is an overestimation, and the true figure is likely to be closer to the low-end estimate of 271.
As people learned to farm, they learned which types of lands were desirable for growing different types of crops, but tended to keep their connection with the land.
The term “mortgage” comes from the words “mort,” which means “dead” and “gage,” which means to “forfeit something of value if debt is unpaid” in Latin. TV stereoa€™s co-inventor, Carl Eilers (Zenith), was inducted into the Consumer Electronics Hall of Fame for his work on stereo television sound and his earlier work on stereo FM radio broadcasting (CEA 2000: 1). A standard for color broadcasting was formalized in the 1950s, but an equivalent standard for stereo sound lagged far behind. When the two audio channels were added together, the second signal would provide the left channel and the first signal would provide the right channel through the process of phase reversal.
During this time, audience interest generated by Dolby contributed to the development of a healthy consumer market for home stereo and multichannel sound equipment. Trade press articles at the time focused more on adoption patterns and marketing within the consumer electronics industry, rather than reflecting on the fragile position of the nascent technology within the U.S. She also points to changes in the production process, since the changes ushered in by MTS meant that sound editors could no longer work until the morning of a final mix. Band leader Lawrence Welk, for instance, expressed disappointment in 1958 that audiences were not getting the full impact of his series, which aired on ABC.
On January 30, 1959, Walt Disney himself introduced an episode of Walt Disney Presents using simulcast stereo. By the late 1950s, a number of companies proposed an FM standard to the FCC that could transition from monaural to stereophonic.
By the decadea€™s end, cable had surged to more than 50% of the nation and VCRs above 60% (Television Set Ownership 2001).
This ultimately helped the FCC move toward approving the Zenith system, as the BTSC standard was considered robust enough to warrant authorization of its use in 1984.
One of the pioneers of MTS, Ron Estes, helped to establish stereo sound for The Tonight Show.
RCA mounted an aggressive marketing campaign with print and television advertisements for its new a€?Dimensiaa€? line of TV sets that emulated an early home theater (see Figure Two). Recording engineer Steve Sykes, who mixed the music for three seasons, observed a€?that as much care and attention to detail was put into the most dramatic stereo imaging possiblea€? (Sykes 2011). Producing stereo broadcasts was integral to productions of the Masters Golf Tournament (for CBS) and the Olympic Games and car racing (for ABC).


Dees, known mostly as a popular Los Angeles radio disc jockey, was given a nationally broadcast late night talk show on ABC. This reference simply meant that the audience member saw an LED light that said the stereo sound was being transmitted but it made no difference in the experimental period to certain producers if the quality of the stereo mix was perfect or even accurate.
Wuff!a€? emanated from one side of the set, while the host Arsenio Hall was present at the center, welcoming the audience and performing the opening monologue.
Fox Senior Vice President Andrew Setos said the networka€™s goal was not to make audiences feel like they were in the stands but to make them feel like they were on the field.
Almost as soon as stereo mixes became the norm, however, a series of consumer electronic innovations were established.
As I have argued in this essay, audiences had experienced television with very poor mono sound for more than three decades.
Further, the introduction of MTS was potentially compromised by syndicators and television stations unable to maintain the proper MTS requirements throughout the entire broadcast cycle. As a result, the integrity of the original mix is guided by the mix designed for MTS delivery in the hands of professionals who either grew up during the MTS era or already functioned as practitioners.
He has also published book chapters on such topics as media programming and scheduling, video production, telecommunications regulations, and the publicity machine behind the comedy team of Abbott and Costello. I had maintained the car religiously, it was one pampered pooch; new springs and dampers, regular oil changes and valve adjustments, a new clutch (all done by yours truly on the parents’ driveway). It was on the way out, forewarning its impeding demise, and when it finally seized up, pistons and valves got intimate. While the US has the most guns per capita, it does not have the highest rate of gun ownership. Based on the 2010 population of 55.6 million, this gives a staggeringly high violent crime rate of 1,797 offenses per 100,00 people. By spreading myths, distorting data, and exaggerating the case, Ben Swann is doing libertarians and Second Amendment advocates a disservice. My high-end estimate for England and Wales’ adjusted violent crime rate was 776 per 100,000 and the low-end was 271. My point was not that my number was exactly right, only that the differing definitions meant the comparison Swann made greatly exaggerated violence in the UK . Private land ownership developed as communities grew larger and nobility tried to protect their power. A short explanation of this is: the borrower must forfeit the property if the debt is unpaid, and the pledge to forfeit something of value is “dead” if the debt is paid. In the United States, radio broadcasting didna€™t incorporate stereo sound until the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) formalized it for FM radio in 1961. Technically, this standard is known as multichannel television sound (MTS), but it generated an equivalent stereo experience for consumers. Though writing about cinema sound, it is clear that Sergia€™s comments could easily apply to the widespread interest in television stereo during the 1980s and 1990s.
Following the release of several stereo record albums, Welka€™s series became the first program to transmit in stereo sound on October 1, 1958 (see Figure One). In his introduction, Disney explained in great detail how viewers could view the a€?Peter Tchaikovsky Storya€? in stereo using both an AM and an FM receiver.
In April 1961, the FCC standardized the systems proposed by General Electric (GE) and Zenith, arguing for a€?a single set of national standardsa€? to help speed up the adoption of FM stereo (FCC 1961: 1615). As a result of such developments, consumer expectations of television sound were being dictated less by broadcast transmissions themselves. The BTSC standard was referred to as Multichannel Television Sound (MTS) and effectively opened the stereo television broadcast era in the United States (FCC 1986).
As Audio Director, Estes noted that for one episode he had to add more than thirty microphones to properly bring out the sounds of the band (Joy 1986: A2). These systems were complete with large screen stereo televisions, receiver, turntable and additional electronics that updated the consumera€™s living room. As for the mono mix, Sykes added that a€?no concessions at all were made for mono other than the fact that I would check the mixes every now and then on one single speaker to make sure it still worked on a mono TVa€? (Sykes 2011). Large events were used at the point of purchase to sell stereoa€™s benefits to the consumer, a development that was consistent with sporting events and television sales from the late 1940s onwards (Neal-Lunsford 1992). When watching the seriesa€™ opening credits, the use of sound effects is striking, with the movement of sounds from left channel to right channel coinciding with graphic movements on the screen.
Some of the local programs, such as newscasts, would perform tricks to make it appear as if they were broadcasting properly mixed stereo sounds.
The various contemporary musical acts appearing on the talk show ranged from heavy metal to hip hop, which required challenging mixes that would be delivered to audiences with high expectations.
In an article reflecting on the program, George Plasketes praised the various efforts to solve complicated post-production issues, including musical direction and mixing (Plasketes 2004).
Within five years, microphones were being placed all over the sporting venues as surround sports was promoted as the best way to watch sports at home. Commenting on the networka€™s football coverage in 1994, Sato said: a€?Wea€™re doing some super secret stuff to bring this experience to peoplea€™s homes.
By making audiences aware of the benefits of stereo television, audiences gained an awareness that aided the introduction of MTS, but also later facilitated the notion of a a€?home theatera€? with multichannel sound. Some stations simply multiplexed their audio signal on left and right creating a€?pseudo stereoa€? or a€?faux stereoa€? that was not MTS. I even resprayed the wheel arches to bring them up to a nice shiny red, they having faded in the sunshine.
I took the head off, strapped it to the back of my CBR600F (not having a car at the time) and rode down to Haywards Heath to get it reconditioned and skimmed. Sell them to a stranger and sever the emotional connection, or keep them and maintain them yourself. So it might be higher, it might be lower, but it’s almost impossible to say with certainty. I made a rough estimate purely to demonstrate just how large a difference it made, not because I believed it was an exact figure.
Nobility could control the peasants living on their land and gain more wealth, profiting from their tenants’ work.
There are many different ways Americans can buy homes these days, whether through a home loan deal or a lease option deal, so become a home owner and don’t let your dream die.
The influence of stereo television still resonates in contemporary broadcasting even though the entire broadcast sound era known as multichannel television sound (MTS) lasted for just over a decade. A report authored by sound engineer Josiah Gluck, for instance, emphasized the importance of stereo VCRs in generating consumer awareness of stereo broadcasting and stereo television equipment. Welk reported that ABC had anticipated that television audiences would want to switch to stereo fairly quickly, with Welka€™s popularity providing a catalyst for this transition (Welk 1958: 13).
Citing previous innovations, such as Steamboat Willie (the first sound cartoon) and Fantasia (the first stereophonic film), Disney observed a€?wea€™re the first to bring stereo and widescreen to televisiona€? (Disney 1959).
A 1962 article suggested that listeners were immediately impressed by the stereo mediuma€™s sound a€?presencea€? and adopted the technology because they liked the sensation of being surrounded with music (Loehwing 1962: 42). Instead, the domestic experience of television sound was determined more by the provisions of videocassette audio recording, cable system audio services, and the television set purchased. NBCa€™s President of Operations and Technical Services asserted that experimentation with MTS would eventually result in a complete introduction: a€?Ita€™s one thing to bring it here and another to do it right.
They also added computer technology to the system and a remote that would be a multi-function remote controlling all components.[9] Such marketing campaigns may have popularized the notion of stereo broadcasting for consumers unfamiliar with this innovation. In what follows, I will pay attention to the shift from isolated uses of MTS to its more widespread adoption for television series and sports programming. Audience awareness of stereo sound was recognized by the networks, which each had a visible logo (or a€?buga€?) on the series broadcast in stereo.
Even though the series ultimately failed to gain widespread appeal, Plasketes emphasized that it should be remembered for its a€?cross-genre formula and aesthetic advancesa€? (Plasketes 2004: 65). In other words, even though the series had memorable visuals ranging from costume and set design to special effects, Bernard stressed the importance of the sound design concept, since the technology of the MTS era was markedly better than what was available just a decade prior. Even though the Olympics of 1984, 1988 and 1992 had featured some aspects of stereo sound, sound designer Dennis Baxter argues that during the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta stereo audio design entered a€?the golden age of teleproductiona€? (Baxter 2000: S10). Furthermore, the 8-channel mix pioneered by Miami Vice after its first season would actually serve the industry well as it made its transition to 5.1 sound. This article has argued, however, that the audio practices dictated by the industry were ultimately instrumental in transforming American television sound from a single channel to a complex multichannel design.
I replaced the cylinder wet liner gaskets, I put the head back together, checked the valves and started her up. In this article, I will argue for the enduring impact of MTS, despite the fact that many viewers had never been aware of hearing it. Multichannel audio in television, as Gluck argues, was popularized not only as a technological project but also for providing an aesthetic experience for electronics consumers (Gluck 2009). In 75 regions the series was offered in association with a local radio broadcaster in order to provide multiple audio sources.
During the 1960s and 1970s, hi-fi audiences could listen to FM stereo radio, while a number of television stations catered to the needs of audiophiles by simulcasting recurring music series and events. As Stan Prentiss had predicted in the mid 1980s, many cable systems did not carry stereo sound or they made it difficult for their subscribers to receive stereo sound. Ita€™s going to be expensive getting stations ready for stereo - $100,000 to $200,000 per station. However, the large size of the command center remote control also indicates that it allowed early adopters to show off their new purchase. Contemporary writers said that if there was one single program that could be said to have been the a€?killer applicationa€? in the selling of stereo televisions it was Miami Vice. Further, the audio mixers who collaborated on series like Cop Rock, which pushed the boundaries of sound mixing within MTS, went on to work on other series and play a role in the multichannel audio mixing era of the early 1990s.
As Baxter points out, mixing techniques had been refined and novelty techniques had given way to a more natural, organic sound with a a€?continuity that had never been heard beforea€? on broadcast television (Baxter 2000: S11).
As a result, the stereo mixdown became secondary in the post-production process in much the same way that the mono mixdown had become secondary in the first ten years of stereo television. Series creator Michael Mann realized this when he said that a€?because the negatives to Miami Vice are all [multichannel mixes], they will be far more valuablea€? when the show is repurposed for syndication and home video. In other cases, viewers may have thought they heard stereo sound when they never actually received MTS audio. The existing scholarship provides a departure point for the present article, which will establish a critical-historical perspective on broadcast stereoa€™s rise to prominence with a particular focus on both the early a€?experimentala€? years of MTS sound and its short-lived a€?golden era.a€? The article will consider the role of technology, program production and audience reception for evaluating MTSa€™s influence in the transition from monaural to multichannel mixes in American television.
Newspapers like The Oregonian also gave instructions to television consumers: a€?You can receive the three dimensional sound by placing your radio set 7 to 10 feet to the right of your TVa€? (a€?A TV firsta€? 1958). Browne similarly said that when consumers saw a stereo light turn on, they felt that the stereo television station was superior to those stations that failed to light the light (Browne 1989). Server, for example, received Emmy nominations for his later audio design for NYPD Blue and Law & Order, while Rogers received eight Emmy nominations and three Emmy awards for NYPD Blue, The West Wing and Mad About You. In this period, we can thus identify an emphasis on microphone techniques, microphone selection for talent, separation of audio, and a combination of sound effects and sounders, all of which have continued to be important in sports audio mixing up to the present. From a mixing standpoint, the move from mono to stereo gave audio professionals a chance to attach placement of actors onscreen to an audio space. Regardless of how many viewers received this format, the MTS standard transformed audio practices in television sound from a single channel of audio emanating from a tiny speaker to a more cinematic aesthetic with multiple channels. The only opportunity in most cases to experience a stereo television broadcast was with simulcasts like those conducted by Welk and Disney in the 1950s.
Despite network assertions about improved sound quality for music and sports programming, some commentators were skeptical about the merits of MTS.
Thompson added that a€?it almost singlehandedly created the consumer market for stereo televisiona€? (Lyons 2010: 24).
The experimental stereo broadcasts thus served a marketing purpose if not a sonic advantage. In response, this article examines the impact that the audio dynamic known as MTS had on television production during the multichannel television sound era.
In such cases, a radio station broadcasting in FM could allow a synchronized live feed of a simultaneous televised broadcast. A journalist for the New York Times, for instance, posed the question, a€?If The Tonight Show is transmitted in stereo and nobody hears it, did it really happen?a€? (Kaplan 1984: 46). While these experimental uses may represent a dated approach to sound design, they indicate that producers were paying close attention to the audio presentation for a stereo-ready audience, particularly when they were not involved in spectaculars, music video based or sports events.
Andre Perreault, Technicolora€™s senior mixing engineer, confirmed this: a€?The key to a good HDTV mix is to use film-style techniques with no compromisea€? (qtd.
Until satellite broadcasts were commonly used in radio broadcasting, the synchronization of reel-to-reel tapes remained a persistent problem for live simulcasts. By 1990, when Miami Vice was discontinued, television sets with stereo sound were the predominate market for color sets 19a€? and above and 490 stations were equipped to transmit stereo sound.
In 2004, five years prior to the end of MTS broadcasts, programs with Dolby Digital 5.1 mixed television were awarded five Emmy Awards including HBOa€™s Deadwood for Outstanding Sound Editing for a Series.



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