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Audi is presenting a revolution in the top class – the first 12-cylinder diesel engine in a high-performance roadgoing sports car. The V12 TDI is closely related to the engine in the Audi R10, the two-time Le Mans winner – so it catapults the Audi R8 into supercar terrain concerning performance too.
The new V12 TDI belongs to Audi's family of V engines but has the ideal included angle for this engine type of 60 degrees between cylinder banks.
Thanks to their high performance and pulling power, all Audi TDI engines are ultra-dynamic sources of power.
Audi's engineers were in an ideal position to use their experience building the racing engine to develop the road version. The V12 TDI crankcase is made from gray cast iron with vermicular graphite – a high-tech material referred to as GJV-450 that is already used on the V6 and V8 TDI engines.
As is the case in the Audi V engines, the no-maintenance chain drive is mounted at the back of the engine, where it occupies little space. The two new dual-piston high-pressure pumps form part of the common rail injection system supplied by specialty manufacturer Bosch.
The current generation of so-called inline injectors makes effective use of the piezo effect: piezo crystals expand in a fraction of a millisecond when an electrical voltage is applied.
The two turbochargers are located on the outside of the engine's V, each of them supplying one bank of cylinders. The Audi R8 TDI Le Mans already fulfills the Euro 6 emissions standard that is likely to take effect in 2014 and calls for sharply reduced nitrogen oxides.
The heart of the system is a special catalytic converter downstream of the oxidizing catalyst and the particulate filter. The dynamic character of a sports car depends not just on its performance and torque; the transmission ratios have to be right too.
The R8 TDI Le Mans with Brilliant Red bodywork looks even wider and more resolute than the core model. The continuous aluminum spoiler lip that connects the front and rear diffusers with side air baffles below the enlarged sills also pays tribute to this version's highly developed dynamic talents.
The V12 TDI is displayed as the beating heart of this sports car, like a work of art inside a large showcase.
The continuous line running from the front apron across the wheel arches and flanks to the tail end, then back down the other side, is one of the latest design hallmarks of the Audi brand. The passion expressed through the elaborate design of the lights is another typical Audi trait.
The interior's design is as sporty and exclusive as the exterior: the characteristic element here is the monoposto – an expansive arc running around the steering wheel and instruments, connecting the driver to the car. The three-spoke sport steering wheel of course remains the focal point of the car's controls. Concentrating on the essentials was the priority in the ergonomic arrangement of all Audi R8 versions. Compared with the production version, the R8 TDI Le Mans’s interior has much larger aluminum applications, especially around the center console. The R8's exceptional everyday practicality for a sports car is maintained in the study vehicle's spaciousness, even though the longer engine takes up more room. Audi has more expertise than any other manufacturer worldwide in the design and production of vehicles based on aluminum technology, and has channeled its accumulated know-how into this area. The aerodynamics experts at Audi have done their work so thoroughly on the study car that, as an added benefit of its elegant shape, the body actually generates downforce – unlike many other sports cars. Two large-format diffuser apertures in the rear bumper demonstrate just how much aerodynamics dictate the shape of the study vehicle.
The precision chassis of the Audi R8 TDI Le Mans remains supremely in control of the sporty performance, but is capable of assuring relaxed driving pleasure over long distances too. The ceramic brakes are identifiable at a glance by the special red, six-piston monobloc aluminum calipers and the fixed calipers at the rear. At the end of 1995 the output of this four-cylinder unit rose to 85 kW (115 hp) with the advent of pump-injector fuel injection. The 4.2 liter TDI launched in the A8 in 2005 is currently at the vanguard of Audi's TDI range. With extremely clean, ultra-low emission technology, Audi is continuing its tradition of leadership in diesel engine technology.
The Euro 4 European emission standard has reduced particulate emissions for cars by 93 percent. Following this week’s earlier reveal of the 2014 BMW X5, the third generation of BMW’s luxurious and dynamic mid-size SUV, the first photos of the vehicle equipped with its new M Sport package and in its high-performance diesel M50d trim have surfaced. The images are from an official brochure for the new X5, obtained by enthusiast site BMW Blog. It offers the typical M Sport upgrades such as a sporty body kit, dark Shadowline trim for the window surrounds and 19- or 20-inch M light alloy wheels.
For the interior, the upgrade includes a new sports automatic transmission with paddle shifters, an M-badged steering wheel, anthracite headliner, custom sports seats and M-badged door sills.
This is enough to rocket the latest X5 M50d from 0-62 mph in 5.3 seconds and see it easily reach its governed top speed of 155 mph. This model also dons plenty of M upgrades including the same sports automatic transmission included with the M Sport package, M-badging on the exterior and darkened exhaust tips. Start it up, and at tick-over you can barely tell the engine is on at all – testament to the work Hyundai’s engineers have done to improve the sound-deadening, and all part of the new i20’s grown-up appeal.
The standard six-speed manual gearbox has a slicker action than before, with new multi-cone synchro rings in the first two ratios and a guide plate to make it feel more precise, although it’s still too easy to select third instead of first by mistake, and be left grasping for the right gear as the lights change and the revs die away. High-strength steels make up a large proportion of the new body shell, and the extra rigidity has definitely made an impact on the new i20’s dynamic character.
Turn hard into a series of corners, and there’s more grip, it resists body roll, and the steering – while rather slow and lacking the precision of say, a Fiesta, has lost much of the wooly, vague dead-zone around the straight-ahead that you got in the previous i20. Speed bumps and longer undulations are well absorbed, but any sharp ridges or expansion joints expose a seeming lack of suspension travel, sending a big thump into the cabin. Performance-wise, there’s some turbo lag after planting your foot down, but above 1800rpm the diesel i20 pulls well and can make fairly brisk progress when needed.
Hyundai has made a concerted effort to improve noise, vibration and ride quality from the previous generation, but under heavy acceleration the engine sounds gruff and strained. The diesel groan only really settles down once you’re into sixth gear and cruising on the motorway, at which point you'll notice some wind noise from the door mirrors. There will be five trim levels, but most i20s will come in SE trim, which includes a lot of kit, including electric windows all-round, rear parking sensors, 16-inch alloys, voice activated Bluetooth, and cruise control, all for around ?1,000 less than a VW Polo SE. The i20's interior is bigger than the Polo, but the cabin materials are not up to the same standard, with less soft-touch plastics, and some oddly-coloured panels and textures. If you’re looking for a practical, well-made supermini with generous kit levels, and a big boot, then the new i20 deserves a place on your shortlist.
The new Vauxhall Corsa with a 1.4-litre turbocharged engine is a few hundred pounds cheaper, nearly as roomy inside, and feels much faster in everyday driving.

2016 Hyundai i20 Active 1.0 T-GDi 100 reviewOur continued thirst for anything and everything SUV prompts Hyundai to launch this new i20 Active. The 488's incredible engine and handling and open-top experience make for something very special indeed. The Isuzu D-Max is starting to show its age; after a drive in the range-topping Blade version, is it still competitive?
Its highlights include the new chain drive layout that includes the two newly developed high-pressure pumps for the common rail injection system.
For all the subtle smoothness that typifies this design principle, the twelve-cylinder unit is full-bodied and equipped with energetic overtones that make no secret of its performance potential. Its power and sturdiness immediately impressed both fans and experts, who were impressed by its restrained noise level.
The FSI engine of the R10's predecessor, the R8, captured five wins at Le Mans with a direct gasoline injection system.
GJV-450, made by a patented casting process, is about 40 percent more rigid and 100 percent more fatigue-resistant than gray cast iron. These are a base section made from a high-strength aluminum alloy incorporating the intake and exhaust ports, an oil-bearing upper section, and a reinforcing ladder frame supporting the two camshafts.
Map-controlled swirl variation of the combustion air has been adopted from the V6 and V8 TDI engines.
The result is that the ignition process is faster, more homogeneous and more acoustically refined. The number of injection processes per operating cycle can be varied across a wide range thanks to piezo technology – reaching as many as five fuel injection operations in the case of the V12 TDI. Thanks to their variable turbine geometry, the full flow of exhaust gas always passes through the turbine, so the chargers respond slickly – even at low engine speeds – and operate very efficiently. By also designing in ultra-precise fuel metering by the common rail system, Audi's engineers have made full use of current clean diesel technology.
The second component in the system is an additional tank containing an aqueous urea solution. In keeping with the character of a high-performance sports car with unbeatable torque potential, the transmission in the R8 TDI Le Mans has six manually operated gears.
Together with the small-diameter double-plate clutch, this means it can be installed low down. In the case of this mid-engine sports car, power is distributed variably between the front and rear wheels from a starting ratio of 40:60 to optimize the handling.
It shows its potential through its muscular proportions, accentuated wheel arches and even larger air apertures.
Much wider in the bottom third, it visually accentuates the engine's position as well as acting as an enlarged air deflector. The selective but always precise use of lines is another typical Audi characteristic, as is the curved arc of the roof. Its look, underscored by the air deflectors located beneath the restyled rear glass lid, differs clearly from its production counterpart. Nor is anyone likely to overlook this Audi sports car from behind: the LED taillights have a three-dimensional look that can’t be missed. With their lenses and reflectors, not only do these innovative light sources have a ground-breaking appearance, they also have an enormous functional advantage: LED light, with its color temperature of 6,000 Kelvin, resembles daylight much more closely than xenon or even halogen light. The interior consequently picks up on the dynamism of the R8 TDI Le Mans and gives it tactile expression in a form that is accessible the moment you climb in. The latter controls the engine and transmission electronics as well as the magnetic ride dampeners in each of three different modes.
The navigation system shows a combined display with lap timer and navigation information for the racetrack being driven.
The most important consideration – particularly for high-speed driving – is short reach distances for all controls, to keep the time that the driver has only one hand on the steering wheel to a bare minimum. Low weight permits superior road performance, and rigidity is the crucial starting point for an agile driving feel allied to high precision.
In ASF technology, the body's supporting structure is made of extruded aluminum sections and die-castings.
The tailpipes of the exhaust system are located in pairs on the right and left above the diffuser apertures. The sports car is spontaneous and agile at obeying steering movements, always demonstrating exceptionally good driving safety. This adapts the chassis characteristic to the profile of the road and the driver's style within milliseconds. It applies a total of 24 pistons to the four brake disks, combining excellent performance with minimal weight and high durability. The brand with the four rings has been performing vital pioneering work in this area for the past three decades.
Slightly more than one year later, at the start of 1997, the world's first 2.5 V6 TDI appeared. Long before it came into force, Audi had models on the market that met this standard, even without a particulate filter. Dominated for years by the Ford Fiesta, the latest i20 now has to go toe-to-toe with not just the Ford, but the new Skoda Fabia, revitalized Vauxhall Corsa and Volkswagen Polo. Most are familiar from the rest of the Hyundai range, but a new three-pot turbo will join the range in the latter half of 2015, to try and compete with the excellent turbo triples from both Vauxhall and Ford. The 1.4-litre normally aspirated petrol engine we tested has been newly developed with this car in mind, and although it has to make do without a turbocharger – unlike all its major class rivals – 99bhp in a car that weighs just over a tonne should provide enough poke to easily nip in and out of town traffic. The longer, lower body is a lot wider than before, and in fact it looks and feels more like a car from the class above than a dinky supermini.
The Fiesta still strikes the best balance between ride and handling in this class, and the ride in the i20 is probably its weakest area. Its 0-60mph time is almost a second slower than that of the equivalent Skoda Fabia, while its claimed combined fuel economy of 68.9mpg is a way off the offical economy figures returned by a diesel Fabia, Renault Clio or Volkswagen Polo. It's fast enough around town and copes well at motorway speeds, but when the road opens out and you really want to make swift progress it starts to feel underpowered.
The 326-litre boot capacity – rising to 1042 litres with the rear seats down – has been increased from 295 litres in the previous generation, and is 36 litres more than that offered by the Fiesta. It also does without a touch-screen infotainment system, instead offering a smart phone dock, and a simple dot-matrix radio display. Yet despite its improved dynamics, it’s still not quite as fun or comfortable as the best cars in this class.
Hopefully the new 1.0-litre T-GDI engine will arrive sooner rather than later, and give the Hyundai a bit more of a fighting chance. The peak torque, reached at only 1,750 rpm, paves the way for effortless acceleration that is unrivaled even at this level. Audi is also looking to maximize the advantage by using the race-tested FSI principle in its production models.

In developing the six-liter engine, it was a clear priority to integrate it into the current family of Audi V engines, of which many thousands of versions with 6, 8 and 10 cylinders have already been built – both gasoline and TDI.
This enabled the developers to make its walls thinner, cutting its weight by around 15 percent compared with conventional gray cast iron.
The camshafts' sprocket engages in an intermediate gear via which two Simplex chains drive the camshafts.
The more efficient combustion process also increases power output, cuts consumption and reduces pollutant emissions.
Retarded post injections are designed specifically to increase the temperature of the exhaust gas, promoting regeneration of the two standard particulate filters. The intake system is similar in structure with one air cleaner per cylinder bank, with an airflow meter behind it.
The manual transmission has very short shift travel and utterly precise guiding of the shifter into the open gear lever gate.
The rhombus-pattern cover on the air inlets and outlets is the hallmark of Audi's sporty top models and a familiar feature of the current RS generation. One new aspect is the glass roof of the passenger compartment with two large transparent sections. The engine can even be seen after dark, when white light-emitting diodes illuminate the engine compartment – as on the production R8 version. Or supplementary information such as centrifugal force and boost pressure can be called up. In typical Audi style the monitor is well within the field of view, and the elements of the MMI operating system are located directly below it. This means the driver and passenger will always be able to find their perfect seated position, whatever their build. Aluminum panels are incorporated into this skeleton to form a positive connection and perform a load-bearing role. It is achieved partly by means of an extending rear spoiler that is much larger than on the production version, and also thanks to the fully clad diffuser underbody. The add-on, automatically extended rear spoiler also interacts with the air as it flows around the car. The suspension, with double wishbones at both the front and rear, is optimized for a neutral self-steering response and maximum ease of control. The disks are made from carbon fiber reinforced ceramic, a material that has repeatedly proven its worth in the aviation and aerospace sectors. The high abrasion resistance permits an operating life of up to 300,000 kilometers (186,411 miles). A new four-cylinder diesel appeared at that time in the Audi 100 and Audi 80, the 1.9 TDI developing 66 kW (90 hp) that has now become legendary.
The 3.0 TDI made its debut early in 2004 as the first V6 diesel with inline piezo injectors in the common rail system.
And the brand will be offering the world's cleanest diesel engines in production vehicles in 2008. The vehicle falls under BMW’s new M Performance umbrella and features a triple-turbo 3.0-liter straight-six diesel engine, just like the previous-generation X5 M50d. Americans will still be able to opt for a diesel-powered, in this case the X5 xDrive35d, which arrives sometime in early 2014. The diesel engine in the R10 sports prototype won its very first endurance race at Sebring, Florida, when it was pitted against an entire field of gasoline-engined challengers. The latest examples of this are the V8 with high-revving concept in the RS 4 and the production version of the Audi R8.
Two more chains drive the oil pump and the two high-pressure pumps actuate the common rail injection system.
The hot exhaust gases break the solution down to form ammonia that splits the nitric oxides into nitrogen and water. These, together with the glazed engine compartment behind, create a radically new formal element.
This is a further aspect of the auto racing feel in the Audi R8 TDI Le Mans, but one that also brings major functional benefits, facilitating entry and exit for the driver. Each individual component of the ASF space frame is optimized for its specific task by the use of widely differing shapes and cross-sections, combining maximum stability with minimal weight. The extra downforce it provides increases the efficiency of the air intake generated by the aerodynamic design of the underbody and diffusers.
The basis is very hard, frictionally resistant silicon carbide, with its diamond-like crystalline structure. The 2.5 liter five-cylinder power unit developed 88 kW (120 hp) and 261 Nm, catapulting diesel driving into an entirely new dimension. The TDI engines with the ultra-low emission system will be the first in the world to meet the forthcoming EU 6 emission standard as well as the toughest known statutory limits that apply in the U.S. Output is unchanged for the latest model, registering at 381 horsepower and 546 pound-feet of torque. Equipped with the expertise that Audi has built up through its motor sport activities, the R8 TDI Le Mans in Brilliant Red embodies superb road handling, pioneering technology and fascinating design. But its most crucial victories were surely in 2006 and 2007 in the 24 Hours of Le Mans, when it simply outclassed the international elite. The unmistakable NACA duct in the middle of the roof is a functional detail that is normally reserved for racing cars. The steering wheel is covered in fine Valcona leather, with a diecast magnesium core providing strength.
It adds up to a car that’s particularly light and rigid, an outcome that can be felt in the R8’s ultra-precise driving feel. Embedded in it are high-strength carbon fibers that absorb the stresses occurring in the material. Even on the racetrack, for example, the ceramic brakes always maintain their full reserve performance. Its ingenious shape accelerates the air drawn in here for the two cylinder banks of the V12 TDI engine. The intricate geometry of cooling ducts in the ventilated disks prevents extremely high temperatures. The ceramic brake disk ring is bolted by 10 spring-loaded elements to a stainless steel central element that acts as the connection with the wheel's hub.

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10.06.2015 admin

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