Checking 12v car battery,car deals young drivers ed,my car check free valuation service - PDF Books

The 110V AC to 12V DC Car Cigarette Lighter Socket Charger Adapter US Plug carries a 6-months warranty and a 30 day no questions asked money back guarantee(No restocking fee).
If your home address (habitually receiving address) has been changed, please edit your PayPal address in time to avoid editing receiving address repeatedly while checking out with PayPal. Normally, dropshipping order will be shipped out in 1 business day and non-dropshipping order 2 business days. Quite often when your battery stops charging you are left wondering why subsequent attempts at component replacement fail to cure the problem. Second, when talking about current, in the automotive field we more often mean conventional current which states that current flows from positive to negative. The charging system is made up of 3 components: (A) the battery, (C) alternator and (C') voltage regulator. The alternator charges the battery while the engine is running; without it, the battery would run down very quickly. How and when to charge the battery is determined by the voltage regulator which controls the current flow from the alternator to the battery.
Because the battery, alternator and VR are so closely coupled, figuring out which one is at fault can be difficult without following the proper diagnostic steps. In the wiring schematic you can see how the alternator is indirectly connected to the battery via the starter solenoid.
Because the battery is the easiest to test and the most essential, we'll figure out how to test it first. The stock size battery for the bus is a Group 42 or Group 41 as rated by the Battery Council International (BCI). As you can see, of the two batteries the dimensions are very similar with the Group 41 being about 2" longer. Cranking Amps (CA) - How many amps that can be delivered in the same scenario but for 30s at 32F (zero C). Reserve Capacity (RC) - This is the time in minutes that the bus can be driven with the headlights on after the alternator fails.
The rule of thumb with regard to battery selection is to favor CCA in cold climates and RC in warmer climates when comparison shopping. As you can see the amount of running time you'll have at night will be slightly longer than the RC rating of you battery because the load is less than 25A specified by the standard.
Beyond size, there are two basic types of batteries that are constructed differently: starter and deep cycle.
Because we are so used to hearing about 12V automotive electrical systems, we tend to ignore the exact battery voltage. When batteries go bad, the plates inside sulphate and interfere with the normal chemical reaction. It's also possible for vibration and deep discharging to cause the lead plates to shed their coating and eventually short out the cell. Low electrolyte levels and sulfation from deep discharging are reported to account for over 50% of battery failures yet they are easy to prevent. Once you turn on the engine and the alternator kicks in, the battery voltage will rise near 14V. Be sure to test the voltage at the battery posts and not at the clamps because there maybe corrosion that will affect the true reading. A seemingly good battery when tested for voltage can exhibit a large voltage drop under load. A battery like this will often spring back to a 12.xx voltage after you turn the lights off which demonstrates the importance of taking multiple voltage readings and watching the results while the lights are still on. It is much easier to notice these decremental voltage drops on a digital meter compared to an analog one.
If you can't figure out why your battery is running down when your let you bus sit you may have a current drain issue. Anytime the current draw is greater than 35mA you should suspect an accessory or wiring problem. A lead acid battery is so named because it consists of lead plates and a sulfuric acid solution. If you have a sealed battery it will often have an indicator on the top that indicates the battery state of charge along with a legend to read it.
Many batteries are not sealed and you have to check on the electrolyte level by popping the sealing caps.
The filler caps are designed to let hydrogen gasses escape and allow the acid mist to condense and drop back into the battery. The state of the electrolyte is measured using a hydrometer which measures the specific gravity of solution.
Specific gravity (SG) is a term from chemistry that indicates the weight of a solution relative to water which is given the value of 1.000.
If the difference between the higher and lowest value from all six cells is greater than 0.050 you also have a bad battery.
Be sure your battery is secured properly: vibration has been known to cause them to fail prematurely. If you've determined your battery is dead and is too weak to start the engine, you've got to charge it. Connect the -ve jumper cable from the good battery to the engine block or a good ground away from the dead battery to avoid sparks. Your VR won't be able to tell you've got a good or bad battery while connected to the other booster car. Remember to always disconnect the ground cable if you are going to charge the battery in the bus to avoid voltage spikes and limit the voltage that is seen by accessories because the chargers operate above 14V during some of their charging phases. While voltmeters and hydrometers are good diagnostic tools, once you determine that your battery is at least 75% charged, it's safe to load test without further charging.
If you still aren't sure if your battery is bad after testing and attempting to recharge, you can have it load tested at the local auto parts store. Most of these load testers are NOT compatible with the newer AGM style batteries like Optima.
Midtronics is a company that makes a new kind of battery tester that is starting to appear at auto parts stores. As the battery terminals corrode, the electrical resistance that builds up is enough to impede both the charging and starting system. A majority of charing and starting difficulties can be traced to the wiring in the form of corrosion or damage to terminal or sometimes it's as simple as loose connection.
When measuring resistance you want to first determine what reading you get by simply touching the probes together.
In addition to the braided cable connecting the battery negative to the body you must also check the transmission ground strap that connects the starter (via it's casing) to the body. Heavy corrosion can be neutralized and cleaned with a wire brush and a solution of baking soda and water.
When terminals are clean and dry, reattach the cables and coat the terminals with petroleum jelly or a special purpose battery terminal spray. Some people insist that you replace the entire cable but that depends on the condition of the cable and if they sell cables! In addition, you need to make sure you've got good continuity between between all the starter terminals because if you can't start you can't charge either. Lastly, the battery case itself should be clean because voltage can leak from the positive terminal to the battery body to ground through the dust and acid that collects on top. Before I explain how to test the voltage regulator and alternator I need to explain how both work. The alternator charges the battery by reversing the current flow through it and reversing the chemical reaction inside as a result.
If you let your old beetle idle, the battery tends to run down more easily with a generator. An alternator consist of a moving coil of wire called the rotor and a stationary coil of wire called the stator. DC current is supplied to the rotor by the voltage regulator and this generates a current in the stator. To make the alternator more efficient, three sets of wires make up the stator and because of the way they are wrapped, voltage is produced in 3 separate phases much like transmission in city power lines.
The shape of the rotor is a claw-pole design consisting of an magnetic iron shell that keeps the wiring inside from flying out (exploding) at high rpms. Just above the idle speed is the cut-in speed at which the alternator begins to deliver current for the first time. There is also a speed rating for the maximum current output, typically 6000 rpm (3000 engine rpm) and there is a maximum rpm at which the alternator can spin which is dictated by the roller bearings and carbon brushes inside as well as the fan because it take power to pull air through. Finally, the alternator can't run all day long at 100% duty cycle (80% is more reasonable) so you should factor your current load requirements with that in mind.
The earliest voltage regulators installed on baywindows were mechanical relay based devices but they have been replaced by longer lasting more accurate solid state versions. In the diagram the left image shows the basic wiring layout and the 3 diagrams on the right show how current flows in the 3 stages of operation. The blue wire leads to the warning lamp in the instrument panel and the red wire at B+ leads to the battery (via the starter solenoid).
In stage 2 (alternator on) the engine has started, the alternator spins up at 2x engine speed and near the alternator's zero-ampere speed (around 500 engine rpm), it begins to produce voltage at B+ through one set of diodes which is fed to the battery and also to D+ which is picked up at the voltage regulator. The voltage at D+ is fed to DF by the VR and the increasing magnetic field in the rotor induces an alternating current in the stator which is rectified into DC and fed to the battery via B+. In the 3rd stage (alternator idle) the output voltage has reached the 14V set point at which time the relay (coil) inside the regulator energizes and breaks the contact inside which connects D+ and DF and shunts DF to ground via D-. As the voltage drops at B+, the relay contacts re-open and the VR cycles to stage 2 and the process begins all over again.
When the regulator fails, the battery is either a) in danger of being overcharged or b) fails to charge. If the lamp is not coming on when you turn the key to on you need to verify that the bulb is good. To test the regulator you need a voltmeter and a set of probes that can reach into the underside of the connector to touch the terminals. It takes very little time for the engine to spin the alternator fast enough to generate full output voltage. If the VR seems to be charging the battery correctly then a full-field test of the alternator should be performed. Inside is a field coil (solenoid), a choke and a pair of contacts that resemble a set of Bosch ignition points. If you have the later style VR with a real power transistor mounted on the bottom (solid state), then your readings will be very different so don't worry. On the bottom is a thermal resistor that drops in resistance as the intake temperature decreases. It's not possible to test the thermistor without switching the contacts inside because the current from your ohm meter takes the path of least resistance which is between D+ and DF. If the regulator checks out, then you need to perform a full-field test of the alternator to rule the VR out completely.
Engine on - attraction means magnetic field is present so brushes and rotor are making good contact. Be sure to test that the screwdriver has no residual magnetic pull before you test it against the alternator. A Bosch alternator has 9 diodes: 3 negative and 3 positive power diodes form the full-wave bridge rectifier that convert AC to DC. Disconnecting the battery while the alternator is running can fry the diodes inside so never do that even when the engine if turned off. If the alternator checks out electrically, you still need to inspect the parts so you don't get stuck on the road. Try our new Category View for Detailed topics segregated by their topic.Now it's even easier to find the information you need. You can also receive our Detailed Auto Topics, delivered to your computer, as soon as they are written. The Antilock Braking System or ABS helps the driver maintain the steering control during hard braking. An alternator supplies the electric power for the vehicle's electric systems and charges the battery when the engine is running. If the alternator fails, the warning light "CHARGE" or a red battery-shaped icon comes on in the instrument panel. Symptoms of a bad ball joint include knocking, clunking or popping noise from the front end when driving over bumps. The blower motor is the 12-volt electric fan that provides the air flow in the vehicle Heating and Air Conditioning System. The blower motor resistor controls the speed of the blower motor in the vehicles with a manual HVAC system. Part the vehicle emission control system, the catalytic converter is installed in the exhaust, right after the exhaust manifold. One of the main components of the front suspension, the control arm connects the front wheel to the vehicle's chassis.
Crankshaft Position Sensor (CKP) is the primary sensor of the electronic fuel injection and ignition systems. CV Joints are used to transfer the torque to the drive wheels, while accommodating the up-and-down movement of the suspension and steering action. A drive belt runs the accessories installed on the engine, such as a water pump, alternator, power steering pump and air conditioner compressor. In any car, an engine is supported by a few mounts that not only hold the engine in place, but reduce the engine vibration transferred to the body of the vehicle.
The IAC valve controls the engine speed by allowing metered amount of air past the closed throttle.
Turbocharged and supercharged engines have an intercooler, installed between the turbo- or supercharger and the engine intake. This belt is vital to the engine operation as not only it runs the camshaft(s) but synchronizes the timing of the valve train with the piston movement. Vent Control Valve (also known as vent valve or vent solenoid) is a part of the vehicle's Evaporative Emission Control (EVAP) System. Self drive cars take over the road Modify tyres and suspension legally Part 2 ARB Fridge-Freezer and Battery Life – How long will it last?
When I was originally installing my dual battery setup, my cousin and I removed the trim in the boot and I mentioned to him how much space there was back there.
His design didn’t quite fit my requirements but only some very minor modifications were required to get me on track. Basically, the difference between mine and his was that he purchased a battery tray whereas I designed in a rectangular frame that the battery would fit into.
So on the day, I provided the design and he provided the know-how and we put together a frame that will be the last thing left of my car when they drop a bomb on it.
In addition to wiring up an anderson plug on the tow bar, I also wired in a small fuse box. Eventually I’ll also run a cable from the second battery to my UHF radio in the dash.
Wow, it seems like an awful lot of trouble for just 3 sockets in my boot… But once the camper comes along and I get around to finishing off my other plans, then there will be more.
Hi I have pb Challenger and want to fit dual bat,,, your idea to fit it behind the rear panel is a great solution.
I’ll need to pull my trim off again soon because my fuse box is borked and needs replacing.
Yeah I think I’ll run a cable to the existing 12v cigarette lighter socket too eventually. G’day I have a PB challenger also and am definetly going to be installing a dual battery tray the same as yours as my secondary fuel filter is occupying the typical duel battery location. Is there any chance you could provide me with some measurements and specs of materials and battery used. I’m really loving your website, I’m getting a Pajero NP soon and have gotten so many great ideas of what to do and where to go!
I was wondering if you could tell me how you wired up the rear power ports to the AUX battery? I've provided a set of detailed steps to follow to help you determine which parts have failed.
First, VW wiring systems are negative ground which means that the negative post of the battery is connected to the vehicle body.
In reality, electrons (which are the charge carriers) flow from negative to positive but the conventional system is illustrated in more texts (a hold over from the early days of science).


The battery is the heart of the system that produces voltage and provides storage for electrical current. Although the alternator is a source of current, you might think that once you start the engine you could disconnect the battery but the system is not designed to operate that way. The alternator tries to power the electrical system and charge the battery at the same time but because the alternator's output is somewhat dependent on the engine rpm, when loads are high the battery can instantly supply more current when necessary. You can also see how the ignition switch is battery powered and activates the warning lamp which serves a dual purpose: it completes a circuit that also energizes the alternator via the voltage regulator even before the engine has been started. These are European style batteries: they look the same but the terminals are reversed compared to an "American" battery.
Always apply the minimum BCI group ratings in your selection process before you elect to choose another battery group that fits the battery clamp so you don't end up picking an underpowered battery. A deep cycle battery can be discharged almost completely and recharged over and over but only with moderately low current draw.
They are not designed to recharge a dead battery so you must test the battery before you attempt to diagnose the rest of the charging system. This is because the bond between the sulphate and the plate requires more electricity to break than can be generated thru normal charging. Since the battery electrical chemistry is based on surface area, it becomes weaker in the same way that a low electrolyte level cause the battery to underperform (low voltage and low current capacity). Before taking any readings, with the engine off, turn on the headlights for 15 minutes to remove any surface charge from the battery then turn the lights off and take your measurements. The higher voltage is necessary to charge the battery (push the electrons against the battery voltage).
A battery with a higher level of surface charge would show a much lower final value after the headlights had put the battery under load so you can see why testing the initial voltage isn't sufficient. The factory clock and draws only a few mA and if you have a stereo it might draw some current to keep it settings. The best way to attempt to isolate the issue is to pull fuses one and a time and watch your ammeter to see where the largest drop in current occurs.
Some sealed batteries will let you open them but only attempt this if there are caps on top. More often that not the electrolyte level is too low from the heat having evaporated the water inside the battery. Keep the area around these caps clean and do not allow any contaminants to fall into the battery. You may be able to fill, recharge and return the battery to normal but you will find that it slowly discharges and strands you within 2-3 months. You insert the hydrometer into the cell, squeeze the bulb to suck up the electrolyte and take the reading at the eye level of the fluid. The ones with colored balls or a floating strip are hard to read the exact specific gravity. It is because a) the acid solution already had some water content and b) those number are based on a standard temperature which is much lower than the ambient temperature that you are taking your measurements at. Sometimes a cell fails completely and naturally results in a substantial total voltage drop (either 0V or any reading below 11V) so again it's time to replace that battery. Once you disconnect, run your engine at speed for 30 minutes or so and will you be able to determine if your battery is charging properly by turning it off and attempting to restart. These are great for keeping shelf batteries charged because they slowly drain down on their own.
If you wait 5 minutes after the test the battery should regain it's 50% charge voltage level. They will often use a carbon pile based load tester that simulates a large current like a starter would draw. AGM stands for Absorbed Glass Matte and the electrolyte is suspended in a gel so the battery doesn't leak. It's made by Johnson Controls (one the largest battery manufacturers) and is the closest yet to a leakproof design. A small 0.1 ohm resistance at the battery terminals can reduce the starter's output by 92% because of the enormous current drawn.
Either way, you are bound to experience this on a 25-30 year old vehicle like a baywindow bus.
Start by measuring the resistance between the terminal and the battery posts and then each end of the cable.
Turn on the headlights when testing the voltage because a load on the battery will make voltage drops easier to witness. Wires and internal components that are part of your meter have resistance that you have to account for in your measurements. A large enough voltage drop there will also cause starting difficulties (more about this below).
Lead based terminals should be avoided because they don't hold their shape and corrode badly.
A simple terminal replacement like this can bring your electrical system back to life and prevent the unnecessary purchase of a new starter or alternator. This means that unlike DC generators it produces AC and turns it into DC instead of producing DC directly. A slip ring on the rotor is in continuous contact with a pair of brushes as it spins which connect the rotor to the voltage regulator. There is a zero-ampere speed at which the alternator reaches its rated voltage before it can generate any current.
The exact speed depends on the battery voltage, voltage from the alternator warning light (pre-excitation power), the rate of change of rotational-speed and the magnetic remanence of the rotor's magnets.
On average this limit is 20,000 rpm (10,000 engine rpm): much higher than any stock VW engine can reach and any that do are drag racers who have no need for an alternator (substitute a dry cell battery or magneto powered ignition system). Both styles are configured to produce 14V from the alternator and no more, hence their namesake. Yellow arrows indicate small current flow while orange arrows indicate a larger current flow. Using the legend in the wiring diagram section of Bentley's electrical chapter, you can learn to read the VR internal wiring schematic: inside is a relay controlling two contacts and a few resistors. The first stage (key on) initiates when the ignition key is turned to the on position but before the engine is started (alternator off). The voltage at D+ follows B+ but varies slightly because D+ receives its signal from the stator through a separate set of diodes. It's also interesting to note that the zero-ampere speed is largely determined by the power rating of the warning lamp. The output voltage varies according to the input voltage (fed back into the rotor by the VR) and the engine rpm.
While the majority of current flows to ground, a small current is fed through the rotor so the alternator isn't completely turned off.
At low rpms the field voltage can be set high to help the alternator keep the battery charged because it's less efficient at low rpms. When the battery voltage is low (high current drain) the rotor voltage is increased to increase the output.
When the voltage level is too high most batteries will give off gas as the sulphuric acid and water in the electrolyte decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen.
To change the bulb you don't need to remove the instrument cluster but I would advise you to disconnect the battery before you accidentally short out the instrument panel and smoke the instrument wiring harness or start a fire. Undo the right-side mounting screw and the let the VR rotate 90 CW so you can more easily access the underside of the connector.
If you try to measure the AC voltage at DF with the engine running you should see only a few mV. If you have to rev the engine to get the warning light to go out you will probably confirm an alternator problem by measuring a battery level voltage at D+ with the key on and the engine off. The purpose is the alter the charging set point because batteries can be charged to higher voltages in the cold. This involves, disconnecting the plug from the VR and connecting the battery positive via patch cable (preferably at the B+ terminal on the alternator) to the DF (green wire) terminal of the plug. You need to disconnect the harness plug from the alternator to test the resistance of each wire. I recommend using the same colors and be sure not to get the colors mixed up when you reattach the terminals to the plugs or you'll smoke the alternator. If there is little or no pull on the screwdriver, unplug the VR and short the red and green wires together. The alternator should produce 90% of its rated output during the test to be considered good.
When you drive the alternator with full input voltage at DF you risk damage to it unless the test is brief. You should not do this in order to test the alternator by seeing if the car still runs or by checking the voltage at the battery. Often the bearings are so old that the grease inside has dried up, become contaminated or no longer contacts the bearings.
With the engine running your cannot hear the noise from worn brushes although you can hear it when you spin the rotor by hand as well as see it on an oscilloscope. Designs vary from one vehicle to another and sometimes, there will be more than one small terminal. Neither the service provider nor the domain owner maintain any relationship with the advertisers. It's a large rectangular heat exchanger installed in front of the vehicle, right in front of the radiator. Without the ABS, a car would spin out of control when the wheels lock up during hard braking, especially on slippery surface. The most often symptom of a failed blower motor resistor is when the heating system fan only works at the highest speed setting.
The purpose of the catalytic converter is to chemically convert harmful exhaust emissions into harmless gases.
The Evaporative System (EVAP) prevents the fuel vapors from the fuel tank from escaping into the atmosphere. It determines the position of the engine crankshaft and measures the engine rotation speed (RPMs). The purpose of the EGR System is to reduce the combustion temperature to control nitrogen oxide emissions (NOx).
The EVAP system traps the gasoline vapors from the fuel tank and stores them temporarily in the charcoal canister. It is a powerful DC (Direct Current) motor attached to the engine and connected to the vehicle's battery by thick copper cables. In cars with an interference engine, if a timing belt breaks while driving, the engine could be destroyed in seconds. The EVAP system traps the gasoline vapors from the fuel tank, preventing them from escaping into the atmosphere. So using Trimble Sketchup, I made the changes I needed and ended up with something that I thought would be perfect for what I needed. This involved drilling some holes at appropriate places and attaching it with 8mm bolts and nylock nuts. At the moment the UHF is wired to my cranking battery and turns on and off with the ignition. My son will then be able to plug in his iPad Mini and keep it charged when we’re out and about. My guess is the adapter you bought is different than the one you use to plug your PUP in at home. It still only gives you 120V as the adapter only has one leg of the 2 hot legs of the 240V connected inside.
Do you mean that he didn't want you to use a 30 amp to 15 amp (household) adapter?Yes, thats what I mean.
Just lights, fridge, power winch.Let the PU and house breakers do their job, hot outlet is usually from a loose connection.
This may seem natural but positive ground systems exists (like vintage British made Jaguars) which can be confusing to people who have worked on the opposite system.
You should not run the engine without the battery connected especially if you have FI or sensitive electronics that always expect 12-14V.
It's the electrical "shock absorber" in the system which is essential a huge capacitor (measured in F not uF!). Generally battery tests are simple but determining whether the alternator or VR is at fault can be complicated unless you understand how they work. What's important to note from the beginning is that there are a lot of electrical contacts involved. When handling batteries, use all precautions because the contents are a highly corrosive potentially explosive poison.
For Europe, positive is on the right and negative on the left with the terminals facing towards you. While driving, a 3A load is below the typical current draw which is why batteries run down so easily. As you can see the group 42 is going to last about an hour if your alternator fails at night where as the slightly large group 41 will last 50% longer.
The last entry in the table is the most interesting as it shows the alternator powering all of the electrical loads (minus the lights) while charging the battery at the same time. Each cell, contains positive lead plates that are coated with lead and negative plates that are coated with lead dioxide.
Simply leaving a battery on the shelf for a month will cause a light level of sulfation that can be reversed by recharging. The voltage should hold fairly steady on a good battery while the lights are on but would 0.01V drop every 1-2s on a weak battery.
These accessories are called parasitic loads and they will eventually drain your battery down to the point that it cannot start your engine.
From there you can examine the wiring diagram for that part of the wiring harness to try and pinpoint the problem.
If you get this solution on your clothing it will eat through it so always be careful around an open battery. Because the battery has large plates inside any portion of the plates not covered by electrolyte, will not participate in the electrical reaction. As the battery discharges, the sulphate ions in the solution combine with the lead plates and the solution becomes weaker. Luckily this variation is small enough that you can largely ignore it unless you are performing your tests at temperature extremes.
If you don't understand the manufacturer's spec on your battery you may damage it by supplying too much current. The power to the headlights is also reduced by 32% which reduces the visual intensity by more than 50%.
Any other electrical connection in the undercarriage that is protected by a boot is usually in great shape after 25-30 years. Fully testing the alternator requires an understanding of how it operates and when it generates voltage and current. This is unlike the mechanical switching that occurs in the commutator of a generator which is limiting. Current flows through the windings of the rotor and the exact amount flowing determines how much current is induced in the stator following the laws of electromagnetism. If you've started your engine and "heard" the alternator slow down the engine at the beginning of fast idle warm-up this is the cut-in speed heard in action. This inverse relationship between the voltage regulator and the alternator is all that's required to keep the battery charged and the electrical system powered most of the time. The mechanical versions are the easiest to understand so I'll skip the details of the microcontroller and NPN power transistor wiring in the solid state version. Power from the ignition switch flows through the warning lamp and through the rotor field winding in order to excite the alternator.
The diodes inside the alternator protect it from the battery at all times during these switching operations. All this happens instantaneously as the solid state VR monitors the battery and alternator as the electrical load and rpms change.
What is often misunderstood is the back of the instrument cluster is not made from a single piece of metal.
A reading of 1-2V reading at both D+ and DF after the engine starts indicates a diode problem in the alternator. When the ignition is on, battery voltage at D+ comes from the ignition switch and flows through the points to the rotor.


Similarly when they get too hot, the set point is lowered in order to keep them from boiling over. Now turn on the key and this will provide the rotor with a direct 12V field which should increase the magnetic pull. In the photo you can see the technician at the rebuild shop just uses a large electric motor to spin up the alternator. The last 3 are the ones that control D+ on the voltage regulator but most auto part stores have no inclination of testing them: they apply a voltage to DF, spin it up, the alternator puts out 90-100% rated amps at B+ and they say it's good but that test doesn't prove the alternator is working correctly!
If the test is skipped, you may simply get back home with your alternator, reinstall it, replace the regulator on the advice of the auto parts store and still have charging problems. The battery also acts like a huge capacitor that smoothes out the power delivery from the alternator. In there is excessive endplay it means that the rotor is not press fit to the bearing anymore or the drive end bearing retaining cap has come loose and the bearing is no longer press fit to the drive end plate (housing).
Bearing grease can dry out long before the expected life of the bearing is reached, so you may have worn bearings after 100k miles if your alternator sat unused for many years.
When the springs are fully extended (about 4-6mm of wear) they no longer make good contact with the slip-rings. You can turn the slip rings if they are not too worn but the mileage of the alternator will depend on how much copper is left.
In this case, you will need to determine, which connects to the starter switch and operates the solenoid.If there are more than one small terminal, a check should be made for current between each and ground. In case of trademark issues please contact the domain owner directly (contact information can be found in whois). Problems with a blower motor resistor are very common in many cars; the repair is not very expensive. The EVAP system draws the fuel vapors from the fuel tank and temporarily stores them in the charcoal canister. Symptoms of a bad engine mount include engine vibration felt through the vehicle and jolts when shifting gears. Based on the mass air flow sensor readings, the engine computer determines how much fuel to inject. When the engine is running and other conditions allow, the gasoline vapors are purged from the canister and burned in the engine.
Installed close to the EVAP charcoal canister, the vent valve controls the air flow through the canister. The most common symptom of a failed window regulator is when you hear the window motor running, but the window doesn't move.
Knowing how to check the basic electrical components can make auto repair easier.How to check fuses Fuses protect the electrical circuits on vehicles. I’d also be able to arrive at a destination and carry the fridge and the battery away from the car if need be. I was discussing this dilema with a friend of mine at the 4wd club and he told me that he was a plumber and welding was part of his job. I then put the battery in place and noticed that the upper rear corner of the battery touched the outer shell of the car. And be careful because the plastic pegs that attach the trim to the body work break easily, especially when you’re putting the trim back on again. I know I didn’t need to, but the cable I bought had two conductors so I used them both. But if you are just running normal stuff, there shouldn't be a problem unless the CG is wired weird. As it is so far from the supply, the worst is our house in the woods where the voltage is 105 using a quality meter. When you are trying to start the engine, the battery powers the starter and ignition system. When the alternator is spinning at high rpm it is easily producing enough electricity to meet all of the current requirements. If you purchase another group battery for your bus, the cables might not reach if you flip it around so the terminals face the body, especially on a 73-79 bus.
Whenever the battery reads 11.99V or lower it is basically a "dead" battery that has lost almost all of its charge.
When the battery is connected to a load that causes current to flow, the hydrogen and sulphate ions in the electrolyte combine with the plates to form lead sulphate which form as crystals. The longer the battery size that more layers of crystals build up and eventually the battery dies. After 15min if the battery voltage is in the 9.xx range and still dropping you can be sure that it is time to replace the battery because it cannot deliver power for electrical loads anymore.
Connect your ammeter between the battery negative cable and post to test for excessive loads.
It's very important to keep the hydrometer clean otherwise you will contaminate the electrolyte and the mineral deposits will interfere with battery cell operation.
When you finally turn off the engine, you should check the voltages and SG again to confirm if the battery has been partially restored to health. If you use the motorcycle units to charge a car battery they will taken a long time but still work effectively (good to know if you have both types of vehicles because the average auto charger will over-charge a motorcycle battery).
This tester measures the conductance of the battery instead of simulating a real load like the carbon pile testers. They cost more than a normal battery but they also last longer because they don't lose water long before you've noticed with a regular battery. They don't corrode and provide a soldered moisture proof connection from the cable to the terminals. The constant contact is possible because the solid state power diodes in the rectifier circuit of the alternator provide the current polarity switching function. The frequency of the AC is derived from the speed of the rotor which is governed by the engine speed. Precisely metering the output current is the job of the voltage regulator which monitors the battery voltage to determine its load and state of charge. I came up which the second figure because the alternator pulley on the bus is half the size of the engine fan pulley and so the alternator spins at twice the engine speed. It's hoped that a) any sudden changes are absorbed by the battery b) a 10V "dead" battery won't be present to force the alternator to run 100% duty cycle trying to charge it. You don't not want any sparks to occur when this is happening which is why the jump starting tips recommend that you connect the negative jumper cable to a good engine ground away from the battery negative post. You will see ~5V on a fully charged battery and up to 12V as the SOC of the battery decreases. You'll find that the mechanical voltage regulators have trouble keeping the voltage right at 14V when the system is under load.
It should read about 2.3 ohms at 68F and decrease with temperature (a quick blast of cold spray will confirm). This should only be done for an instant because the voltage coming out of the alternator will be unregulated but it will determine if the VR needs to be replaced or if the alternator is at fault.
Corrosion is usually heavier on the alternator side but you should also examine the voltage regulator plug including the wiring that leads to the indicator light on the dash. They all seem to have this kind of home made setup and usually have some hard to read oscilloscope.
Current between the terminal and ground, without the switch turned to crank, means this is not the switch terminal. If any of the wheels lock up during braking, the ABS quickly releases then applies the braking pressure to the affected wheel, preventing it from locking. SUVs and minivans with a separate Rear Heating and Air Conditioning System have a second blower motor installed in the rear HVAC unit.
To improve the engine performance and prevent the engine knock (detonation), the intake air temperature must be reduced. Symptoms of a failed or dirty mass air flow sensor include lack of power, stalling and the Check Engine light on the dash. Installed in the engine compartment, the purge valve controls the flow of gasoline vapors from the charcoal canister into the engine.
They design a fuse to burn or blow out, at an amperage below the point where damage occurs in the circuit.
So I asked on a forum if anyone had any idea about how this might be possible and got exactly the response I needed almost immediately. So leaving it like that would eventually bulge the body work outwards. To fix this, I needed to lean the battery inwards a little so I cut come pieces off and old towel and put them into the back of the batteyr bracket. Into these I’ll plug in my car fridge, some LED light strips when I need them, and anything else that comes along.
It also energizes the alternator which begins to produce its own current when the alternator nears the engine's idle speed. Note that the 68-72 models have the battery cables reversed (ground strap is behind the taillight) so you could use a US battery. Because it's not deigned to deliver high current loads for short periods of time to run the starter. As the electrolyte becomes devoid of ions, it becomes weaker and the ability to pass current lessens. If you overfill them, they make leak on you if the battery boils over from being overcharged. The conductance (inverse of resistance) changes as the surface condition of the plates inside change. They can also deliver a huge amount of starting current compared to a normal battery because they have a very low internal resistance of 3 milliohms. The large terminal where the battery (black) and alternator (grey) cables meet is terminal 30. Six volt electrical systems were even worse: the headlight output would increase as you revved the engine because the generator was so poor and providing current to keep the battery charged at idle. This also means that no output current passes through the brushes to wear them out prematurely.
Next in the series of important events during alternator spin up is the idling speed: typically at 1500 rpm (750 engine rpm) the alternator must be able to satisfy the needs for long term consumers (basic electrical demands) without running down the battery.
These are two reasons that solid state regulators are so much better: the better ones are microcontroller based and understand a lot more about the state of the electrical system than a simple relay. You'll see a tab on that insulated section to provide 12V just for those lights instead of the usual ground. When the engine is off it will also depend on the battery voltage (SOC + electrical load) and the reading will be less than 1V. To remove the cap, simply cut the tape in the middle all the way around with a utility knife and carefully wiggle the top off. When the alternator starts producing the 14V set point voltage, the coil energizes, breaks the contacts and the field current goes almost to zero. Use a pick and bend the tabs inside from the front to remove the uninsulated terminals from the rear. When the engine is running and other conditions allow, the fuel vapors are purged from the canister into the engine to be burned.
A control arm may also need to be replaced if control arm bushings wear out or a car has been involved in a frontal collision or slid into a curb.
The most common symptom of a bad wheel bearing is a humming or rumbling noise that gets louder when driving on the highway. The forum member had not only successfully built a battery bracket, but had installed it and also designed it in Trimble Sketchup, an application that I have recently started playing with. The battery now leans inwards slightly and is about 8mm off the body work so hopefully that will be OK.
Drilling through the trim and cutting large holes in it to put the 12v sockets into was exciting. When the battery is recharged (current reversed) the lead sulphate returns to solution leaving lead behind on one plate and lead dioxide on the other.
All batteries have some internal resistance inside and the microprocessor inside the tester put the battery through a series of tests before rendering a decision. You just have to make sure you invest in one from Bosch (0 192 062 007) pictured right and not a piece of junk from Autozone. As a side note, even though the alternator output is rectified from AC to DC, some of the AC leaks through the diodes and appears as a DC ripple.
If your engine is fuel injected I recommend that you take the alternator to an alternator repair shop for a full field bench test instead (tests are usually free).
Badly corroded terminals can be replaced easily because this harness tends to have a lot of slack in it.
The proper terminal energizes the starter solenoid when voltage is provided in crank position.  As with the external model, battery voltage is present on one large terminal all of the time and on the other when cranking the engine. For instance, if a device normally draws 10 amps, a fuse roughly 20 amps in size might protect it. If I were to make the bracket agian, I’d move the battery tray about a centimetre inwards, away from the bodywork. Not difficult, but there was a lot of checking and rechecking to make sure that the back of the sockets would fit once the trim went back on.
I ordered two 100 amp fuses online and will see how the 60 Amp fuses go before replacing them. Do not connect your ammeter if you are not 100% sure that the current draw is less than the current rating of your ammeter if you are not using a current clamp and instead measuring it directly.
Because its results are table lookup based, if it asks for the CCA of the battery and you can't find it on the battery label you won't be able to test it and depend on the results. The latter contains an underpowered switching transistor and only about $1 worth of electronic parts inside. In either setup, the passing air is directed through the intercooler fins reducing the intake air temperature.
I suspect the only time I would have an issue is if I had to start the vehicle and didn’t wait for some charge to flow the other way into the starter battery. They show fuse amperage by the color of the fuse, and a number marked on the exposed face.Finding a blown fuse is not always easy. The other end of the plunger moves the drive gear into a mesh position with the gear on the flexplate, which turns the engine. Full voltage at the solenoid terminal and at the large terminal and no cranking, shows the starter or solenoid are bad. A click when the key is turned to crank, and no voltage on the lower-large terminal, usually indicates a bad starter solenoid. Voltage on the lower terminal, and no cranking means the starter motor is bad.No signal to the starter when crankingNo voltage on the small terminal when turning to start, means the starter signal is being interrupted.
Try holding the key in the crank position and shifting the gear selector from park position into neutral.
This means the key may need to be on, or another problem exists upstream of the fuse.  If both sides of the fuse read current, the fuse is good. The park position can wear out, and the neutral contact may still work.A vehicle that still has no current to the starter, will usually have a bad ignition switch, an open circuit or a security system that is blocking the starter. It may be less expensive to have a professional diagnose these problems.Please see our Detailed Topic, Why Does The Engine Not Crank? for details on other things to check. Another problem with pulling fuses is, keep-alive power for the various modules on the vehicle may be lost. This results in poor idling, a loss of diagnostic information and sometimes accessories that do not work.The terminals in a fuse box are fragile, and we may damage them by twisting and pulling on hard to remove fuses. Using a voltmeter to check fuses will be far more certain, quicker and will avoid these problems.How to check a standard relayA relay is a magnetically operated switch. The computer may supply power or a ground to a low-amperage relay that turns a high-amperage device on or off.In the diagram above, the computer supplies current to the relay, which is grounded.
This arrangement allows the computer to control the pump which is too heavy to control directly.A typical automotive relay has four or five terminals.
Next power and ground are applied to 85 and 86 while checking number 30 for continuity to 87.With fuel pumps, testing can be a bit tricky.
In the fuel pump diagram, current at terminal 87, when the switch is turned on, indicates a good relay and fuses.
If there is power at connection 30, power and ground would be checked at terminals 85 and 86.The relay is used to control a great many things on automobiles.



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01.12.2013 admin



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