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Nabateans common-ware pottery was simple and similar to the pottery used by the civilizations around them. As stated earlier, while the Nabataeans were nomads, they had little use for pottery and used water skins and wooden bowls. Their painted pottery was unique, with figures of ancient mythology, flowering vines, flowers, and even birds with bright plumage.
In 1980 a series of Nabataean pottery kilns was discovered near the government rest house in Petra, when a new road was being constructed. Jericho is a city located near the Jordan River in the West Bank of the Palestinian territories. Demographics have varied widely depending on the dominant ethnic group and rule in the region over the past three thousand years.
In the first census carried out by the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), in 1997, Jericho's population was 14,674. Based on PCBS projections, Jericho presently has an Arab Palestinian population of over 20,000. Described in the Old Testament as the "City of Palm Trees", copious springs in and around Jericho have made it an attractive site for human habitation for thousands of years. The Arabs knew the city of Jericho referred to in the Bible by the name "Raiha" and "Ariha".Yaqut, the writer of "Mu'jam al-Buldan," mentions that it is the city of Al-Jabbarin (the Mighty) in the Ghaur, and that it was called Ariha Ibn Malik Ibn Arfakhshad Ibn Sam Ibn Noah, may peace be upon him. Excavations have revealed that the ancient city was inhabited during four successive intervals during this age. People in this age were a great deal more advanced than their predecessors, as they lived in huts built of clay and manufactured earthenware in inclined lines. By about 4,000 B.C, there existed small settlements of farming people who built mud-brick houses and some underground dwellings. The town were surrounded by peasant farmers growing a range of local horticultural products, along with commercial growing of olives, grapes for wine, and pistachios, surrounded by extensive grain cropping, predominantly wheat and barley. The collecting of these numerous bone skeletons followed, with the skulls being symmetrically arranged in a row round the tomb's chamber with their faces directed towards the inside.
We have nothing about those people except that they were the pioneers of the following age, that is the First Bronze Age, which was the most prosperous one in Jordan and Palestine. It is believed that they brought horses with them, and perhaps the chariot, to Palestine and Egypt. The tombs of this period are generally characterized by being the tombs of ancient people reused. Wooden tables, baskets, seats, stuffing and artificial hairs, and even pieces of votive offerings' flesh were found, all remaining in a good condition.
The Battle of Jericho is an incident in Bible's Book of Joshua,(Joshua 6:1-27) the first battle of the Israelites during their conquest of Canaan. Before crossing into the land west of the River Jordan, Joshua sent two spies to look over the land. The woman with whom the spies were staying was named Rahab and she protected them by hiding the two men on her roof.
Rahab agrees to the conditions: she hangs a scarlet rope outside her window to distinguish her house from the others.
The biblical account describes the Israelites being led by Joshua and crossing the Jordan into Canaan where they laid siege to the city of Jericho. On the seventh day, after marching around the city the seventh time, the priests sounded their ram's horns, and Joshua ordered the people to shout.
In the 8th century BCE the Assyrians invaded from the north, followed by the Babylonians, and Jericho was depopulated between 586 and 538 BCE, the period of the Jewish exile to Babylon. Jericho went from being an administrative centre of Yehud Medinata under Persian rule to serving as the private estate of Alexander the Great between 336 and 323 BCE after his conquest of the region. One of these forts, built at the entrance to Wadi Qelt, was later refortified by Herod the Great, who named it Kypros after his mother. The city came to be ruled by the Hasmoneans, following the success of the Maccabean Revolt, and remained such until the Roman influence over the area brought Herod to claim the Hasmenean throne of Judea.
Herod originally leased Jericho from Cleopatra, after Mark Antony gave it to her as a gift. The dramatic murder of Aristobulus III in a swimming pool in Jericho, as told by the Roman Jewish historian Josephus, took place during a banquet organized by Herod's Hasmonean mother-in-law.
The rock-cut tombs of a Herodian and Hasmonean era cemetery lie in the lowest part of the cliffs between Nuseib al-Aweishireh and Jebel Quruntul in Jericho and were used between 100 BCE and 68 CE. The Christian Gospels state that Jesus passed through Jericho where he healed one or two blind beggars and inspired a local chief tax-collector named Zacchaeus to repent of his dishonest practices. After the fall of Jerusalem to Vespasian's armies in the Great Revolt of Judea in 70 CE, Jericho declined rapidly, and by 100 CE it was but a small Roman garrison town. Jericho, by then named "Ariha" in Arabic variation, fell under the Bilad al-Sham in district (jund) "al-Filastin".
By 659 that district had come under the control of Mu'awiya, founder of the Umayyads as a dynasty.
The tenth caliph of that dynasty, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, built a palatial complex known as Khirbet al-Mafjar about one mile north of Tell as-Sultan in 743, and two mosques, a courtyard, mosaics, and other items from it can still be seen in situ today, despite its having been partially destroyed in an earthquake in 747. Umayyad rule ended in 750 and was followed by the Arab caliphates of the Abbasid and Fatimid dynasties. The city flourished until 1071 and the invasion of the Seljuk Turks, followed by the upheavals of the Crusades. In 1187, the Crusaders were evicted by the Ayyubid forces of Saladin after their victory in the Battle of Hattin, and the town slowly went into decline.
In 1226, Arab geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi said of Jericho, "it has many palm trees, also sugarcane in quantities, and bananas.
In the late years of Ottoman rule, Jericho formed part of the waqf and imerat of Jerusalem. For most of the Ottoman period, Jericho was a small village of farmers susceptible to attacks by Bedouins. After the collapse of the Ottoman empire at the end of World War I, Jericho came under the rule of the British Mandate. Jericho was captured by Israel during the Six-Day War of 1967 along with the rest of the West Bank. In 1994, Israel and the Palestinians signed a sweeping agreement laying the foundations for economic relations between Israel, Jericho and other cities under Palestinian self-rule.
After Hamas assaulted a neighborhood in Gaza mostly populated by the Fatah-aligned Hilles clan in response to their attack on Hamas which killed six of its members, the Hilles clan was relocated to Jericho on August 4, 2008. The earliest settlement was located at the present-day Tell es-Sultan (or Sultan's Hill), a couple of kilometers from the current city.
Epipaleolithic - construction at the site appears to predate the invention of agriculture, with the construction of Natufian culture structures beginning earlier than 9000 BCE, the very beginning of the Holocene epoch in geologic history. After the PPN A settlement-phase there was a settlement hiatus of several centuries, then the PPN B settlement was founded on the eroded surface of the tell. Other finds included flints, such as arrowheads (tanged or side-notched), finely denticulated sickle-blades, burins, scrapers, a few tranchet axes, obsidian, and green obsidian from an unknown source. In the late 4th millennium BCE, Jericho was occupied during Neolithic 2 and the general character of the remains on the site link it culturally with Neolithic 2 sites in the West Syrian and Middle Euphrates groups. The Jericho Synagogue (Wadi Qelt Synagogue) in the Royal Maccabean winter palace at Jericho dates from 70-50 BCE. A synagogue dating to the late 6th or early 7th century CE was discovered in Jericho in 1936, and was named Shalom Al Israel, or "peace unto Israel", after the central Hebrew motto in its mosaic floor. The Na'aran synagogue, another Byzantine era construction, was discovered on the northern outskirts of Jericho in 1918.
A rare ceremonial yew-wood club given to Captain James Cook by the Nuu-chah-nulth people of Vancouver Island in 1778 during his third and final voyage has returned to Canada for good. The artifact, a club in the shape of an arm and hand holding a sphere, was carved with stone tools or possibly mussel shells years before it was given to Captain Cook, probably around the mid-1700s. Cook’s third voyage of exploration on his trusty ship, HMS Resolution, took him from Plymouth around the Cape of Good Hope to New Zealand to Hawaii (1776–1777).
Cook’s personal collection of objects acquired on his final voyage, including the club from Vancouver, was given to his widow Elizabeth. Well aware that there were no Cook artifacts in Canada, Ellis contacted Michael Audain, whose foundation has repatriated several important First Nations artifacts to Canada, offering him first crack at this unique and significant piece of Canadian history.
A colossal Roman statue of Juno was lowered through a dismantled skylight in the roof of the Italian Renaissance Gallery in Boston’s Museum of Fine Art (MFA) on Tuesday. In 1622 Cardinal Ludovisi bought some vineyards in what was then a suburb of Rome and built the Villa Ludovisi, various smaller buildings, and elaborate gardens on the grounds. Given Juno’s hugeness, it would make sense if she were one of the pieces discovered on the spot rather than one of the acquisitions. A few years before that picture was taken, in 1885, Don Rodolfo Ludovisi, Prince of Piombino, heir to the Cardinal’s great patrimony, sold the villa and much of its property to real estate developers. Living outdoors in Boston is very different from living outdoors in Rome, however, and that century plus of New England winters has been hard on Juno. In December of last year, the MFA team, including structural engineers, stone masons and steel manufacturers as well as conservators, moved her to a storage unit. The conservation team also constructed a custom protective steel cradle to keep her stable during the moves and storage. Next up: removal of the steel frame and in situ conservation to deal with surface issues and to reattach the head and arm. For more about the conservation process, including lots of great pictures, see the MFA’s Conservation in Action pages. Whitey met Marilyn, then still Norma Jeane Baker, when he was assigned to do Marilyn’s makeup for her first screen test for 20th Century Fox in 1946.
The photographs are getting a great deal of the press because most of them have never been published before and because not just the pictures themselves are for sale, but also the publishing rights to them.
When Marilyn died in 1962, her ex-husband Joe DiMaggio took care of the funeral arrangements.
The United States has taken a census of the population every 10 years without fail since 1790. Throughout the whole of the 19th century and half of the 20th, political districts were responsible for sending out census takers, called enumerators, armed with forms and pencils to canvass door to door. The 1940 Census, its 72 years come round at last, slouches towards the Internet to be born. I searched for the tiny town my father was born in just three years before the census and I got three written documents and two maps.
For a three minute period overview of the census, see this film created as part of the training for enumerators.
The National Archives YouTube channel has three other videos from this film that go into further detail on the census-taking process. In a rare instance of a court ruling in the interests of justice rather than on the precise merits of the law, Germany’s top federal appeals court has decided that the German Historical Museum must return a collection of 4,529 rare late 19th, early 20th century posters to Peter Sachs, the son of the original collector. Hans Josef Sachs’ lifelong passion for graphic art began when he was a teenager in the late 1890s.
By the time he was 24 years old in 1905, he had the largest private collection of posters in Germany. After an attic fire that threatened but thankfully did not damage his collection, Sachs began to work on finding a way to display the posters so that the public could see them.
A dentist by profession, Sachs continued to practice until 1935 when his Jewish heritage ran afoul of the Nuremberg Laws. On November 9, 1938, Hans Sachs was arrested during Kristallnacht and sent to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp outside of Berlin. After the war was over, Hans assumed the collection had been destroyed, so he applied for reparations under the Federal Republic of Germany’s refund policy. In 1966, Sachs discovered that about 8,000 posters from his collection had survived the war and were in an East Berlin museum.
Peter Sachs took the case to district court, but in 2009 they agreed with the decision of the Advisory Committee. The museum has accepted the ruling with good grace, even though they’re bummed because the collection is of course a huge resource for scholars. Some news outlets are pouncing on this story as omg maybe the earliest Christian grave ever found in Britain omg. The Anglo-Saxons who swept in to pluck the undefended fruit of southern England after the Romans vacated, on the other hand, had their own polytheistic religion which they adhered to consistently for the next two centuries or so. The only other grave remotely like hers, the one found in Ixworth in the 19th century, was not excavated or documented with archaeological practices, so archaeologists are tremendously excited to have an opportunity to examine in detail with all modern technology a grave from this important transitional period in British history.
A small number of structures associated with the burials seem to represent part of a settlement that was in use at the same time. On Friday, March 9, a mass grave containing the remains of 167 people was found in a remote cave near the southern Mexican town of Frontera Comalapa. Over the past few years, Mexican authorities have found multiple mass graves containing victims of the brutal drug cartels.
Treating the cave like a crime scene, investigators removed the bones and brought them to the state capital of Tuxtla Gutierrez where forensic experts tentatively estimated that the remains were about 50 years old. It was only then that the prosecutor’s office contacted the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH). The Maya used planks to intentionally flatten and elongate the skulls of infants and the Maya are known to have used that cave for ceremonial purposes at various times, but we can’t say yet if the remains were Maya or another ancient pre-Columbian civilization. Unfortunately the police weren’t thinking about preserving a potential archaeological site when they collected the bones, so essential historical clues have been lost. INAH experts have taken over the site now to excavate it thoroughly and will continue to analyze the human remains to determine the age, gender and cause of death. Katie Taylor, the house steward of National Trust estate Dunham Massey, was going through a folio of letters in storage when she unexpectedly came across two royal letters, one from King Henry VIII, the other from his third wife Jane Seymour. Taylor notes that the letters are in excellent condition, a notable feat given that they were written decades before the first Dunham Massey house was built. The letter from Henry VIII was written on February 10th, 1543 to George Booth, Esq., the grandfather of the Sir George Booth who built the first Dunham Massey estate in 1600.
Trusty and well-beloved we greet you well, letting you know that forasmuch as by the manifold injuries, wrongs and displeasures done unto us, our realm and our subjects by the Scots, we have been forced lately to enter into open war and hostility with the same, which we intend and purpose, god willing (unless the nobles of Scotland conform themselves to reason), to prosecute with such force as shall redound to our honour and to the commonwealth of our realm and subjects.
In the summer of 2010, experts from RMS Titanic Inc., the company that has legal custody of the wreck of the Titanic, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution returned to the famous wreck site off the coast of Newfoundland armed with the latest and greatest submarine imaging technology. The wreck site had been surveyed before, but none of the previous efforts combined covered more than 60% of the total area.
Once the sonar map was done, researchers used it to determine which areas have the greatest debris concentration or pieces of particular interest. It took them almost two years to piece together the full picture of the wreck site from over 130,000 individual images, but the deed is done.
The square halfway down the map on the far right edge of the picture has been dubbed the deckhouse debris.
The History Channel, in a shocking break from their laser-like focus on ice road trucking, will be airing a special about the new discoveries on the hundredth anniversary of the sinking of the Titanic. In 1979, an aerial survey found an extensive archaeological site in the town of Acy-Romance, 20 miles north of Reims in the Champagne-Ardenne region of northeastern France.

Acy-Romance is one of the only completely excavated Gallic villages, and it is the only one where the full layout of the town is discernible. Archaeologists found artifacts and organic remains that give us a unique glimpse into the daily life of the Gallic villagers.
The livestock raised in the village were mainly horses and cows, both of which were consumed. The French government, as part of its outstanding program of digitizing Great Archaeological Sites, has funded the creation of a truly exquisite website about Acy-Romance.
Rob Mitchell first became interested in pottery through his studies at Saint Johns River Community College in Palatka, Florida in the late 60’s. Famed Florida potter Charlie Brown was an influence at that time, and though Rob maintained a fascination with pottery, he spent the next 23 years working as a firefighter and EMT for thecity of Orlando, only dabbling in pottery throughout those years. After his retirement in 1993, he turned his full attention to pottery once again, working as a studio assistant and learning through his association with several professional potters.
As more churches have embraced the use of hand-crafted pottery vessels for eucharist, the gift of a wheel-thrown stoneware communion set has become a wonderful gift choice for the seminary graduate or for a newly-ordained minister, as well as an excellent pastor Christmas gift.
Shown above is our 2 piece "Otoe" communion set (Intinction Set.) For 1st Communion or Confirmation, the chalice separately or the 1st Communion Set, a small goblet and plate, would make a great gift. Some of the finest and thinnest of Nabataean painted pottery was found underneath the paved floor of the central altar-shrine of Khirbet Tannur, and is dated no later than the end of the first century BC. The kilns were of a late date, probably first century AD, and were abandoned before the Byzantine period. In a 1945 land and population survey by Sami Hadawi, 3,010 inhabitants is the figure given for Jericho, of which 94% (2840) were Arab and 6% (170) were Jews. It is known in Judeo-Christian tradition as the place of the Israelites' return from bondage in Egypt, led by Joshua, the successor to Moses. Jericho had developed into a large settlement which may have contained as many as two thousand individuals, and was defended by a substantial wall.
Harvest in early summer was a season when transhumance nomadism was practiced - shepherds staying with their flocks during the wet season and returning to graze them on the harvested stubble, closer to water supplies in the summer. By the end of the Early Bronze Age, some towns were surrounded by double and triple walls, for defense. We see the features of the First Bronze Age, which extends from 2900 B.C, evidently clear in Jericho especially with regard to defensive fortifications in the town. In any case there appear on these walls during that period the traces of destruction and ruin, but traces of repairs and renewed building are also apparent on then. According to the narrative, the walls of Jericho fell after Joshua's Israelite army marched around the city blowing their trumpets. The king of Jericho heard that two Israelite spies were within his city and ordered them to be brought out to him. She tells them how the citizens of Jericho had been fearful of the Israelites ever since they defeated the Egyptians via the Red Sea miracle (some 40 years prior), and agrees to cover for them on condition that she and her family are spared in the upcoming battle.
There, God spoke to Joshua telling him to march around the city once every day for six days with the seven priests carrying ram's horns in front of the ark.
The walls of the city collapsed, and the Israelites were able to charge straight into the city. Cyrus the Great, the Persian king, refounded the city one mile southeast of its historic site at the mound of Tell es-Sultan and returned the Jewish exiles after conquering Babylon in 539 BCE.
In the middle of the 2nd century BCE Jericho was under Hellenistic rule of the Seleucid Empire, when the Syrian General Bacchides built a number of forts to strengthen the defences of the area around Jericho against the revolt by the Macabees.
After their joint suicide in 30 BCE, Octavian assumed control of the Roman Empire and granted Herod free rein over Jericho, as part of the new Herodian domain.
After the construction of its palaces the city had functioned not only as an agricultural center and as a crossroad but as a winter resort for Jerusalem's aristocracy. A fort was built there in 130 and played a role in putting down the Bar Kochba revolt in 133.
Irrigated agriculture was developed under Islamic rule, reaffirming Jericho's reputation as a fertile "City of the Palms".
The villagers processed indigo as one source of revenue, using a cauldron specifically for this purpose that was loaned to them by the Ottoman authorities in Jerusalem. The British built fortresses in Jericho during World War II with the help of the Jewish company Solel Boneh, and bridges were rigged with explosives in preparation for a possible invasion by German allied forces. The Jericho Conference, organized by King Abdullah and attended by over 2,000 Palestinian delegates in 1948 proclaimed "His Majesty Abdullah as King of all Palestine" and called for "the unification of Palestine and Transjordan as a step toward full Arab unity." In mid-1950, Jordan formally annexed the West Bank and Jericho residents, like other residents of West Bank localities became Jordanian citizens.
It was one of the first cities handed over to Palestinian Authority control in 1994, in accordance with the Oslo accords. On 14 March 2006, the Israel Defense Forces launched Operation Bringing Home the Goods, in which it took captive six inmates from a Jericho prison following a 10-hour siege. Ernst Sellin and Carl Watzinger excavated Tell es-Sultan and Tulul Abu el-'Alayiq between 1907?1909 and in 1911, and John Garstang excavated between 1930 and 1936. In Arabic and in Hebrew, tell means "mound" - consecutive layers of habitation built up a mound over time, as is common for ancient settlements in the Middle East and Anatolia. The site is a 40,000 square metre settlement surrounded by the Wall of Jericho, with the Tower of Jericho in the centre of one wall. The architecture consisted of rectilinear buildings made of mudbricks on stone foundations. This link is established by the presence of rectilinear mud-brick buildings and plaster floors that are characteristic of the age.
It was controlled by Israel after the Six Day War, but after the handover to Palestinian Authority control per the Oslo Accords, it has been a source of conflict.
While less is known of it than Shalom Al Israel, it has a larger mosaic and is in similar condition.
Philanthropist Michael Audain donated it to the University of British Columbia’s Museum of Anthropology (MOA) where it was unveiled Tuesday.
That puts it in the last generation of First Nations objects made before contact with Europeans. He left Hawaii for parts north seeking the elusive Northwest Passage, landing at Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island on March 28, 1778. When Charles Clerke, the commander of the second main ship (HMS Discovery) died, they gave up the Northwest Passage and turned back for home. His family gave it to the Leverian Museum in London where it was on display along with other artifacts from Cook’s voyages. She’s 13 feet tall including her plinth and weighs 13,000 pounds, making her the largest Classical marble statue in North America.
Those vineyards turned out to have once been the Gardens of Sallust, a vast garden of renowned beauty built in the first century B.C. They demolished everything, creating one of Rome’s toniest neighborhoods where the American Embassy now stands. The next thing to go was one of the world’s greatest art and antiquities collections. Before she could be moved, conservators had to do an in-depth analysis of her condition using X-rays and ground penetrating radar to find her weaknesses.
They formed an immediate bond which would become a lifelong working and personal relationship.
Years before her death, Marilyn asked Whitey to promise her that he’d do her makeup for her funeral should she predecease him. Census figures determine how many seats in the House of Representatives are allocated to each state. The enumerators would return completed forms to the precinct office where they’d be entered in ink in bound ledger books.
Summaries and statistical reports are released as soon as the data is tabulated, but the information about John Smith at 100 Maple Lane is kept under wraps for three score and 12. This is the only census taken during Franklin Roosevelt’s many presidential administrations and the only one to tabulate the statistical realities of the Great Depression. The census records are indexed by enumeration district — the geographic area a single census taker could cover in two weeks in an urban center, or in one month in a rural location.
I now have both of their enumeration district numbers good to go so I can look up my adorable toddling parents on April 2nd.
This Michigan public library, for instance, is offering a workshop on locating your family members on the census two days after the release.
Notice the strong emphasis on the confidentiality of the data and on how a full and honest response is the duty of all patriotic citizens.
They’re a tad on the dry side, but fascinating for genealogists, statisticians, social historians, archivists and other assorted nerdly species. His roommate at the Breslau Gymnasium had posters plastered all over the walls and Hans was enchanted. That year, he and five other poster lovers founded the Verein der Plakat Freunde (the Society for Friends of the Poster). To protect his collection, he transferred technical ownership of it to banker Richard Lenz who was not Jewish.
He was released 20 days later and wasted no time collecting his wife Felicia and his one-year-old son Peter and getting the hell out of Germany.
In March 1961, the West German government paid him about $50,000 (225,000 German marks) as compensation for his loss. He wrote to the East German authorities not even asking for the posters back, but just offering to meet museum officials to offer his expertise.
After the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, the poster collection, now mysteriously reduced to fewer than 5,000 pieces, was transferred to the German Historical Museum in Berlin where it remained mainly in storage, with just a handful of posters on display at any given time. He kept appealing to higher courts, and now the Federal Court of Justice has ruled that Peter Sachs is the rightful owner of his father’s poster collection. Peter Sachs, now 74 years old, wants to fulfill his father’s dream of seeing the posters on public display, so his top priority is to find a museum where the entire collection can be showcased in all its glory.
Discovered in the village of Trumpington Meadows three miles south of Cambridge, this is only the 15th bed burial ever found in Britain, and only three of those were discovered in the last twenty years. All of the bed burials that have been found were of high status people, primarily women, and she was found with particularly valuable grave goods. Fragments of fabric were found on the knife and chain, which archaeologists are hoping will allow them to figure out what she was wearing when she was interred.
That means she was Christian, either converted or born, less than 80 years after the first Anglo-Saxon conversions. Analysis of the finds from these will help to determine the nature and function of that settlement; initial assessment of the pottery has suggested the presence of some high status imports, of a type usually only associated with high status ecclesiastical centres. I love how the archaeologist who was excavating the skeleton when she first brushed dirt off the edge of the cross thought it was a pound coin one of her colleagues had thrown in as a joke. Local farmers had stumbled on the cave earlier in the week and alerted the Chiapas Attorney General’s office. That put them outside the temporal range of drug cartels, but Frontera Comalapa is only 11 miles from the Guatemalan border, so investigators theorized that the dead were victims of the civil war that raged in Guatemala from 1960 to 1996. INAH anthropologists examined the skeletal remains and found that they are not contemporary crime victims at all, but rather pre-Columbian and between 1000 and 1300 years old.
Some clay artifacts discovered in the cave might help shed light on who exactly these 167 people were. Most of the letters kept in the home were transferred to the John Rylands University Library at the University of Manchester after the last Earl of Stamford died in 1976 bequeathing the estate to the National Trust. To the intent that we may better know the forces of our said realm and thereby put the same in such order and readiness as they may serve us in this enterprise as the case shall require, we have thought meet and necessary to have special musters taken of all our people and thereupon to have all such plan and perfect certificate made as shall declare what be trusted to in that behalf. And forasmuch as by the inestimable goodness and grace of Almighty God, we have been delivered and brought to child-bed of a Prince conceived in most lawful matrimony between my lord, the King’s Majesty, and us, doubting not but that for the love and affection which you bear unto us and the commonwealth of this realm the knowledge of which you should be joyous and glad tidings unto you, we have thought good to certify you of the same, to the intent that you might not only render unto God condign thanks and praise for so great benefit, but also pray for the long continuance and preservation of the same here in this life to the honour of God, joy and pleasure of my lord the King and us, and the universal peace, quiet and tranquility of this whole realm. The aim of the expedition was to map the entire 15 square mile debris field using high definition 3D and 2D photography and high resolution sonar. They then dispatched remote operated vehicles equipped with high definition cameras to photograph those areas. It was one of the parts of the wreck that had never been seen before, and it turns out to be an important clue to understanding how the ship broke apart. Excavations began on the site in 1980 and continued until 1988, unearthing a complex of tombs and religious monuments dating from 1100 B.C. A great number of postholes show where houses were built, their size and therefore the social standing of their inhabitants.
Although evidence suggests there were still scattered people living in the area, they weren’t living together in a town but rather homesteading on their own.
Their diets consisted primarily of fish, livestock, legumes, wild fruits and a wide range of grains including spelt, emmer, einkorn, barley, millet and oats. In fact, the remains of meat in the kitchen waste tell a complex story about the community’s overall wealth and social strata. You can enjoy virtual tours (accompanied by the sound of metal being hammered, lowing cows, singing birds and the ocean) of the village, complete with pictures of the excavations and extensive digital reconstructions of how the town must have looked in its prime. Church groups traveling on mission trips often take a communion set as a gift to the visited parish.We have tried to provide an assortment of sets and individual pieces that will fit the needs of most communion services - in the church building and elsewhere - by designing worship service size and travel size vessels. Then, suddenly they began to produce their own pottery, both common-ware pottery for every day use and very fine thin pottery for the wealthy and for religious usage. Recently archeologists have discovered near complete pottery trays, bowls, and other objects in an unrobed tomb in Jordan.
Situated well below sea level on an east-west route 16 kilometres (10 mi) north of the Dead Sea, Jericho is the lowest permanently inhabited site on earth. Archaeologists have unearthed the remains of more than 20 successive settlements in Jericho, the first of which dates back 11,000 years (9000 BCE), almost to the very beginning of the Holocene epoch of the Earth's history.
In this it was inhabited by a folk called " An-Natifiyyun ", who depended for their food on collecting wild seeds.
They erected in them a circular huge tower, nine metres ( thirty feet ) in diametre, and ten metres high. They were usually of a rectangular shape built in an open yard, seven metres long and seven metres wide and used for cooking. They introduced the manufacture of pottery to their homes, but it was a primitive and rough one painted in red in geometrical figures. This goes to show that the inhabitants of the town lived a life devoid of security and stability.
They used to accumulate the bone skeletons and first offerings in the corners to leave room for the new dead. The spies were charged with ascertaining where the guards were placed, whether anyone disliked the king and could help them, what weaponry and armor the guards had, when the guards changed shifts, how much food, water, and other supplies the city had, and the height and width of the walls so as to determine how to overcome the city.
On the seventh day they were to march around the city seven times and the priests were to blow their ram's horns.
HerodOs rule oversaw the construction of a hippodrome-theatre (Tel es-Samrat) to entertain his guests and new aqueducts to irrigate the area below the cliffs and reach his winter palace built at the site of Tulul al-Alaiq. A decade later the pilgrim Arculf visited Jericho and found it a ruin, all its "miserable Canaanite" inhabitants now dispersed in shantytowns around the Dead Sea shore.
Al-Maqdisi, the Arab geographer, wrote in 985 that, "the water of Jericho is held to be the highest and best in all Islam. They also built another two churches and a monastery dedicated to John the Baptist, and are credited with introducing sugarcane production to the city.

George of Koziba and John the Baptist were refounded and completed in 1901 and 1904, respectively. Israel's reason for the siege was to capture PFLP general secretary, Ahmad Sa'adat and five other inmates for the assassination of Israeli tourist minister Rehavam Zeevi. Extensive investigations using more modern techniques were made by Kathleen Kenyon between 1952 and 1958. Along with Tell Qaramel, this is one of the first walls ever to be discovered, thus suggesting some kind of social organization. Not all the skeletons are completely articulated, which may point to a time of exposure before burial. Other items discovered included dishes and bowls carved from soft limestone, spindle whorls made of stone and possible loom weights, spatulae and drills, stylized anthropomorphic plaster figures, almost life-size, anthropomorphic and theriomorphic clay figurines, as well as shell and malachite beads.
On the night of October 12, 2000, the synagogue was vandalized by Palestinians who burned holy books and relics and damaged the mosaic.
It was the last Canadian artifact from Cook’s personal collection still in private hands. Cook stayed in a Nootka Sound cove now called Resolution Cove for less than a month, trading with the Nuu-chah-nulth village in Yuquot.
It was sold to a private buyer in 1806 and passed through another museum and various private hands for the next two centuries. She was purchased for the MFA by an anonymous donor last year, but her enormous size and delicate condition required a great deal of study before she could be moved. Her first appearance in the historical record is in the 1633 inventory of the famed Ludovisi Collection, an immense collection of art and antiquities collected by Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi and his uncle Alessandro Ludovisi, aka Pope Gregory XV.
Peter’s Square was moved there in 1586 and that bugger is 83 feet tall and weighs 331 tons, so who knows? Thankfully much of it was purchased by the state and is in Roman museums today, but in 1897 Juno was bought by Charles Franklin Sprague and his wife, Mary, of Boston. They also took samples of stone from various parts of her to determine which pieces are original to the statue and which were added in later restorations.
The waist has a deep crack and the arm was attached with an iron bracket at some point after its Renaissance rediscovery. The first census takers were federal marshals who went door to door recording the name of the head of the household and the number of people in each household.
This is why historical census records have all kinds of transcription errors and misspellings, not to mention many omissions particularly in rural areas where enumerators would have to travel for miles to find remote farms, many of whose inhabitants made themselves intentionally unreachable. You’ll get any written descriptions of 1940 Census enumeration districts that include the place you searched for, plus any maps that include it.
The early focus of his collection was Parisian posters designed by the likes of Art Nouveau master Alphonse Mucha. In the summer of 1938, before Lenz could take possession, Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels confiscated the entire collection, which had grown to an astounding 12,500 individual pieces. It seems a small amount now, but at the time it was a generous offer that everyone advised Hans accept. There was a reported bed burial and pectoral cross discovered in Ixworth during the 19th century, but the find was poorly documented so it’s not certain what exactly was uncovered there.
Most notable is the gold cross, 1.4 inches square, inlaid with red garnets in the same style as the weapon fittings from the Staffordshire Hoard. Our maiden could therefore be the first Anglo-Saxon Christian burial ever found, and she’s without question one of the earliest. Two of the graves also held the remains of young women and the third held a person whose sex has yet to be determined. Authorities located the cave on the Nuevo Ojo de Agua ranch and discovered piles of bones stacked on top of each other. The cave is on a route frequented by Central American migrant workers traveling north, and migrants have been targets of mass slaughter by the cartels before, so police suspected the human remains were evidence of a contemporary crime. Taylor was almost sure she recognized the signatures as those of Henry and Jane, but to be certain the National Trust called in an expert from John Rylands Library to examine them. Wherefore our pleasure and commandment is that you, by virtue and authority hereof, shall with all convenient diligence take the musters of all the able men, both horsemen and footmen, which you can make and furnish, both of our tenants inhabiting upon farms, holdings and tenancies within any office under us of which you have the stewardship, if you have any such, and also of your own servants and tenants dwelling upon your own tenancies. She was in no state to be writing birth announcements after two days and three nights of labor, nor would she ever be again.
This time around, however, the Waitt Institute for Discovery provided cutting-edge robot surveyors called autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) to capture the entire field with high-resolution side-scan sonar. When the ship sank, the stern snapped off and dropped to the ocean floor 2.3 miles below, so that spot is ground zero of the sinking of the Titanic. Grain pits, cemeteries, temples, and courtyards testify to not just the physical construction of the village, but also the political, cultural and social structures of the settlement. There is no sign of a concentrated population living on the site again until about 180 B.C. Fair warning: the default site is Flash heavy, but they also have a Flashless version so you can browse this incredible treasure trove of information about Gallic life without all the geegaws and slow load time.
This pottery, especially the later kind, was produced in huge quantities, and large mounds of broken Nabataean pottery lie in Petra today. Jericho has a young population, with nearly half (49.2%) of the inhabitants being under the age of 20.
In some instances the bodies were complete, but in others the skull was removed and treated separately, with the facial features reconstructed in plaster. It is probable that they did not plant seeds in reality, but owned scythes with flint edges, straight bone handles to harvest wild seeds, and stone mortars with handles for grinding them.
The existence of these heavily fortified city walls, is evidence that this was not a peaceful period. This Joshua did, and he commanded his people not to give a war-cry until he told them to do so.
Only Rahab and her family were spared, because she had hidden the two spies sent by Joshua. Shortly thereafter the built-up area of the town was abandoned and a Byzantine Jericho, Ericha, was built a mile to the east, around which the modern town is centred.
Bananas are plentiful, also dates and flowers of fragrant odor." Jericho is also referred to by him as one of the principal cities of Jund Filastin. Apparent cult involving the preservation of human skulls, with facial features reconstructed from plaster and eyes set with shells in some cases. The Nuu-chah-nulth were cordial, but they drove a hard bargain, turning up their noses at the low value trinkets Cook was accustomed to fobbing off on First Nations he encountered during his voyages. He turned around and headed back to Hawaii where on Valentine’s Day, 1779 tensions with the Hawaiians would erupt over the matter of a stolen boat.
In 1967 it made its way to New York, where last year Canadian dealer Donald Ellis bought it from the $40 million estate of antique dealer George Terasaki. Some of the works they purchased, and others, some of the most famous, Cardinal Ludovisi found during construction of his stately pleasure dome. We do know that Juno remained on the grounds of the Villa Ludovisi where she was photographed in 1890. The statue was shipped to Boston first, then in 1904 carted by a team of 12 oxen to the Sprague’s estate in Brookline.
A 3D laser scan of the entire statue helped conservators model the potential stresses of transportation. The head was also attached to the statue using adhesives and a thick iron pin, and the neck is so thin that simple vibrations from movement could have snapped the head right off. He took many pictures of her on set; apparently having her picture taken calmed her stage fright. Starting with the 1950 census, enumerators were replaced with forms mailed out to every address on file with the United States Post Office. With the rise of the Internet and the explosion of online genealogical research, many of those historical census records have been digitized, but researchers had to drag their cookies to a National Archives and Records Administration branch office and go through all the microfilm by hand. Track down the address and you’ll see a two part number separated by a hyphen labeling the area. As German artists in Berlin and Munich began to modernize the form, Sachs’ collection embraced them.
The East German government replied to him in July of 1966 rejecting his offer because discriminatory West German legislation made collaboration between their experts impossible. He took the case before the Advisory Committee for the Return of Nazi-confiscated Art in 2007, but since the government had paid reparations, the letter of the law was not on his side. The four other pectoral crosses that have been discovered in Britain were all pendants, hung from a loop on the top arm.
Britain was already largely Christian when the struggling Roman Empire left it to its own devices in 410. Augustine of Canterbury, so named because he would become the first archbishop thereof, to convert ?thelberht, the pagan King of Kent whose wife was a Christian Merovingian Frank.
The remains will all be radiocarbon dated to confirm that they were indeed contemporaneous burials. And the same so taken, to certify in writing to our right trusty and right entirely beloved cousin and counsellor the Duke of Sussex, lieutenant general in the northern areas, with all possible diligence, with a special note and declaration to be expressed in the said certificate, how many of the said persons are furnished with horses able to occupy [carry] a spear or javelin, how many are archers and how many billmen, and how many principal men may be picked out of every sort of the whole number.
The stern debris includes the ship’s galley, upper decks, boilers, luggage cranes and cylinders. Its location, off-set from the bulk of the wreck, underscores the violence with which Titanic tore itself apart.
Between 1988 and 2003, archaeological teams staffed mainly by volunteers working on a shoestring budget focused on excavating the later Gallic village on the site.
Livestock farmers lived in the northeast, agricultural farmers in the east, artisans in the southeast and manual laborers in the north of town. The other grains were ground up in a mortar and eaten in preparations like porridge or soup.
Over time the quality and quantity of the meat declined, with what meat there was to distribute coming mainly from older animals and cheaper cuts. Some of these groups lived in caves, while other groups occupied primitive villages excelling in the art of architecture. They used stones to build the foundation, and the rest of the building was built of sun-dried bricks.
After this, Joshua burned the remains of the city and cursed any man who would rebuild the city of Jericho would do so at the cost of his firstborn son.
Christianity took hold in the city during the Byzantine era and the area was heavily populated. Before the siege, British and American monitors were guarding the prison but withdrew, citing lax security arrangements. Since 2009 the Italian-Palestinian archaeological project of excavation and restoration was resumed by Rome "La Sapienza" University and Palestinian MOTA-DACH under the direction of Lorenzo Nigro and Hamdan Taha. The identity and number of the inhabitants (some sources say 2000?3000 dwellers) of Jericho during the PPN A period is still under debate, though it is known that they had domesticated emmer wheat, barley and pulses and hunted wild animals.
This is the first time it’s been home since Cook took it with him on his way back to Hawaii 234 years ago.
When Cook and his men attempted to take King Kalani?opu?u hostage to exchange him for the stolen boat, they were rebuffed by the King’s men. Workers building Ludovisi’s villa turned up an incredible bounty of ancient statuary, including the Dying Gaul. It was the centerpiece of their Italianate garden for the next 107 years until it was purchased for the MFA.
Cesar Romero, the future Joker to Adam West’s Batman, pitched the census in a public service film. This one has loops on the back of each arm, three of them rubbed shiny, indicating that it was sewn into an article of clothing and worn daily. Augustine reached Kent in 597 and converted ?thelberht and a great many of his subjects before the year was out. Isotope analysis on their teeth will determine where they lived as children and what kind of diets they had.
Forcing [taking care] that in these musters and certificate you do not meddle in any way with any mariners, forasmuch as we intended to reserve the same of our furniture by sea [i.e. The bow came to its final resting place 1,970 feet away from the stern and facing in the opposite direction. Despite their lack of resources and only being able to dig during the summer months, over time the researchers were able to excavate the entire village of 20 acres. There’s no single large structure indicating a single king or ruler, but there are a number of houses considerably larger than average that suggest a wealthy social caste.
Nabataean fine thin-ware pottery was all made locally, and some was plain, but the majority was painted.
So they started to build round huts from sun-dried bricks flat at the bottom curving at the higher edge. These folks practised agriculture, the domestication of animals, and weaving the making chains and mats, as well as animal hunting.
It is generally accepted that the biblical date for the fall of the walls is the 28th of Nisan, according to the Hebrew calendar. A number of monasteries and churches were built, including St George of Koziba in 340 CE and a domed church dedicated to Saint Eliseus.
The siege caused an uproar amongst the PFLP members and supporters as well as other PLO factions, and as a result Palestinian militants raided and kidnapped British and European citizens in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
Posters in his collection advertised food, movies, theatrical performances, political propaganda, museum exhibitions, every one of them rare, printed in very small original runs. Researchers are also hoping to pinpoint the causes of death and any other illnesses or injuries they suffered in life.
Their consistently large size suggests they were individually speared rather than trapped in weirs or nets. The last villager died, was cremated and buried in Roman style in the early first century A.D. It seems that these folks practiced the worship of ancestors as nine skulls were found whose facial features were painted with lime with two mother-of-pearl eyes placed on their faces. At least two synagogues were also built in the 6th century CE.The monasteries were abandoned after the Persian invasion of 614. The floor formed was of a mud layer topped by a layer of lime, followed by soft lime dyed red or light blue.
Given under our signet [seal] at our Palace of Westminster the 10th day of February, the 34th year of our reign. It has been suggested by some that their taste in fine pottery came from pieces they might have imported from China. These groups had started to expand from their settlements in search of new homes outside their boundaries.

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