Chicago police investigate a police-involved fatal shooting in the 7300 block of South Merrill Avenue in Chicago's South Shore neighborhood on Friday, July 29, 2016. Where forward thinking terrestrials share ideas and information about the state of the species, their planet and the universe, living the lives of science fiction.
Before Columbus, Dobyns calculated, the Western Hemisphere held ninety to 112 million people.
Dobyns estimated that in the first 130 years of contact about 95 percent of the people in the Americas dieda€”the worst demographic calamity in recorded history. From today's perspective, it is difficult to imagine the ethical system that would justify Soto's actions. To Elizabeth Fenn, the smallpox historian, the squabble over numbers obscures a central fact. I asked seven anthropologists, archaeologists, and historians if they would rather have been a typical Indian or a typical European in 1491. When scholars first began increasing their estimates of the ecological impact of Indian civilization, they met with considerable resistance from anthropologists and archaeologists.
Planting their orchards, the first Amazonians transformed large swaths of the river basin into something more pleasing to human beings.
Ecotourist brochures evoke the immensity of Amazonia but rarely dwell on its extreme flatness. Terra preta, Woods guesses, covers at least 10 percent of Amazonia, an area the size of France. SpaceCollective.org also logs non-personally-identifiable information including IP address, profile information, aggregate user data, and browser type, from users and visitors to the site. User Profile information including members' pictures and first names are displayed to people in order to facilitate user interaction with the SpaceCollective.org service. To facilitate the connection between members on the service, SpaceCollective.org allows users to search for other members using display names.
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Members who no longer wish to receive notifications may choose not to by selecting the appropriate checkbox in their personal account settings. SpaceCollective is a joint initiative of filmmaker Rene Daalder and designer Folkert Gorter. Education Scotland is the national body in Scotland for supporting quality and improvement in learning and teaching. Chicago police say they shot and killed an 18-year-old man who was in a stolen Jaguar that sideswiped a squad car and hit a parked car, injuring some officers, Thursday evening. Another way of saying this is that in 1491 more people lived in the Americas than in Europe.
Mann question the current notions about what America was like before the European conquest - how large were the native population, how advanced was their agriculture, and how much they modified the environment.
In addition to building up the Beni mounds for houses and gardens, Erickson says, the Indians trapped fish in the seasonally flooded grassland.
For four years his force, looking for gold, wandered through what is now Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Texas, wrecking almost everything it touched. Sicknesses like measles and smallpox would have burned through his 600 soldiers long before they reached the Mississippi. Smallpox, typhoid, bubonic plague, influenza, mumps, measles, whooping cougha€”all rained down on the Americas in the century after Columbus.


Whether one million or 10 million or 100 million died, she believes, the pall of sorrow that engulfed the hemisphere was immeasurable. The Spaniards gawped like hayseeds at the wide streets, ornately carved buildings, and markets bright with goods from hundreds of miles away. They were in the process of terraforming the Amazon when Columbus showed up and ruined everything.
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He was an ordained minister of the Church of Scotland, and has been described as Hume’s ‘most gifted antagonist within the European republic of letters’. Indians were here far longer than previously thought, these researchers believe, and in much greater numbers. Indeed, he says, they fashioned dense zigzagging networks of earthen fish weirs between the causeways. So complete was the chaos that Francisco Pizarro was able to seize an empire the size of Spain and Italy combined with a force of 168 men. He had grown very rich very young by becoming a market leader in the nascent trade for Indian slaves. The inhabitants often fought back vigorously, but they had never before encountered an army with horses and guns. But the same would not have held true for the pigs, which multiplied rapidly and were able to transmit their diseases to wildlife in the surrounding forest. Languages, prayers, hopes, habits, and dreamsa€”entire ways of life hissed away like steam. They had never before seen a city with botanical gardens, for the excellent reason that none existed in Europe. The river oozes like a huge runnel of dirty metal through a landscape utterly devoid of the romantic crags, arroyos, and heights that signify wildness and natural spectacle to most North Americans. Tropical rain doesn't leach nutrients from terra preta fields; instead the soil, so to speak, fights back. But the ones that did generated it rapidlya€”suggesting to Woods that terra preta was created deliberately.
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The same novelty attended the force of a thousand men that kept the crowded streets immaculate.
This sort of phrase still provokes vehement objectiona€”but the main dissenters are now ecologists and environmentalists. Even the animals are invisible, although sometimes one can hear the bellow of monkey choruses. Not far from Painted Rock Cave is a 300-acre area with a two-foot layer of terra preta quarried by locals for potting soil.
In a process reminiscent of dropping microorganism-rich starter into plain dough to create sourdough bread, Amazonian peoples, he believes, inoculated bad soil with a transforming bacterial charge. If, however, we are going to use users' personally identifiable information in a manner materially different from that stated at the time of collection, we will notify by posting a notice on our Website for 30 days. Over the centuries the burning created an intricate ecosystem of fire-adapted plant species dependent on native pyrophilia. Over time mutation spawns new diseases: avian influenza becomes human influenza, bovine rinderpest becomes measles. The disagreement is encapsulated by Amazonia, which has become the emblem of vanishing wildernessa€”an admonitory image of untouched Nature. He argues that Indians changed the assortment and density of species throughout the region. To the untutored eyea€”mine, for instancea€”the forest seems to stretch out in a monstrous green tangle as flat and incomprehensible as a printed circuit board.
The bottom third of the layer is never removed, workers there explain, because over time it will re-create the original soil layer in its initial thickness. Not every group of Indians there did this, but quite a few did, and over an extended period of time.
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In the long run, Fenn says, the consequential finding is not that many people died but that many people once lived.
The conquistadors had never heard of such a thing.) Central America was not the only locus of prosperity. Yet recently a growing number of researchers have come to believe that Indian societies had an enormous environmental impact on the jungle. So does Clark Erickson, the University of Pennsylvania archaeologist, who told me in Bolivia that the lowland tropical forests of South America are among the finest works of art on the planet. The reason, scientists suspect, is that terra preta is generated by a special suite of microorganisms that resists depletion.
Swine alone can disseminate anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis, taeniasis, trichinosis, and tuberculosis. The Americas were filled with a stunningly diverse assortment of peoples who had knocked about the continents for millennia. Indeed, some anthropologists have called the Amazon forest itself a cultural artifacta€”that is, an artificial object.



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