We are a community of artists and musicians, activists and healers, practitioners and seekers dedicated to contributing everything we possibly can to the massive shift in consciousness that is presently taking place on planet Earth. The opening few minutes are critical – you want a good, but concise briefing from them.
Thinking of the things we have talked about, pick the one idea that makes the most sense and tell me a couple of small steps you could take towards implementing that idea in the next short while.
For people with some experience in using Solution Focused, Alan’s book is challenging and refreshing in the same time. Fry the Monkeys is a great book for those organizations brave enough to focus on, and expand upon, what is really working. There are different theories of emotion to explain what emotions are and how they operate. Theories of emotion can be categorized in terms of the context within which the explanation is developed.
Emotion is one type of affect, other types being mood, temperament and sensation (for example, pain).
The early part of the process is typically taken to include an evaluation of the stimulus, which means that the occurrence of an emotion depends on how the individual understands or "sees" the stimulus. The sutures in the skulls of young mammals have been advanced as a beautiful adaptation for aiding parturition [that is, live birth], and no doubt they facilitate, or may be indispensable for this act; but as sutures occur in the skulls of young birds and reptiles, which have only to escape from a broken egg, we may infer that this structure has arisen from the laws of growth, and has been taken advantage of in the parturition of the higher animals (p.
In this case, the evidence from non-mammals indicates that this trait was not selected because it aids live birth, although it later became useful for this task. In order to know that a trait is an adaptation, we have to be familiar with the circumstances under which the selection occurred (Brandon, 1990; Richardson, 1996). Nevertheless, this has not prevented the development of theories that explain emotions as adaptations.
Three different ways in which the evolutionary position has been developed will be discussed in the following sections.
The theories in the first group claim that the emotions were selected for in early hominids. These emotions, it is suggested, have been selected to deal with the types of problems indicated. For example, Cosmides and Tooby suggest that sexual jealousy is an adaptation that occurred in "our hunger-gatherer ancestors" (2000, p. Cosmides and Tooby, and others who have similar theories, stress that these emotions are responses that enhanced fitness when the selection occurred—whenever that was in the past. In contrast to theories that claim that the emotions are the result of natural selection that occurred in early hominids, another position is that the selection occurred much earlier, and so the adaptations are shared by a wider collection of species today. Although the trend when explaining emotions from a historical point of view is to focus on adaptations, an alternative is simply to identify the traits that are present in a certain range of species because of their shared ancestry. Griffiths' idea is that these emotions are basically the same as other traits that are studied and classified by evolutionary biology.
Griffiths suggests that this method of classification will identify the emotions that are carried out by similar mechanisms in different species. The second main approach to explaining the emotions begins with the idea that emotions are social constructions. This section will discuss some of the motivations for adopting this approach to explaining the emotions. The people of Ifaluk, a small island in the Pacific, have an emotion that they refer to as fago. Rom Harre also points out that language, social practices, and other elements of an individual's culture have a significant role in the formation of emotions. As an example of how specific and recognizable these norms, values, and expectations sometimes are, one can consider "emotion rules" that Americans often follow.
A person has the right (duty) to become angry at intentional wrongdoing or at unintentional misdeeds if those misdeeds are correctable (for example, due to negligence, carelessness, or oversight).
Anger should be directed only at persons and, by extension, other entities (one's self, human institutions) that can be held responsible for their actions.
Anger should not be displaced on an innocent third party, nor should it be directed at the target for reasons other than the instigation.
The angry response should be proportional to the instigation; that is, it should not exceed what is necessary to correct the situation, restore equity, or prevent the instigation from happening again. Anger should follow closely the provocation and not endure longer than is needed to correct the situation (typically a few hours or days, at most) (pp.
Once these rules are specified by society (either implicitly or explicitly), they become, Averill says, "part of our 'second nature'" (1993, p. Claire Armon-Jones goes further and says that the purpose of the emotions is to reinforce society's norms and values (1986b, see also 1985, 1986a).
Of course, there are times when emotion responses do not adhere well to what one may think of as moral rules or values, for instance, taking pleasure in creating graffiti or taking pride in hurting people. Many theories have been developed from the social perspective, but one that has been particularly significant is James Averill's, which will be reviewed in this section (1980, 1982, 1986). Averill employs the notion of a syndrome to indicate that each emotion (like fear, anger or embarrassment), covers a variety of elements. Bringing these parts together into one coherent whole are the mental constructs that allow an individual to construe all of these various elements as grief.
The idea of emotions as transitory social roles is distinct from the notion of a syndrome, but characterizes the same phenomena, in particular, the eliciting conditions and the responses for an emotion. The transitory social roles are rule governed ways of performing a social role, and so individuals adopt a role that is consistent with what a given situation calls for.
Summarizing these different resources from Averill's theory, the syndromes are used to classify emotions and demarcate them from each other.
The third category of theories contains those that attempt to describe the emotion process itself. Most of the theories that will be considered in this section focus on the early part of the emotion process because—according to these theories—the specific emotion that occurs is determined during this part of the process. The cognitive theories contend that the early part of the emotion process includes the manipulation of information and so should be understood as a cognitive process. Cognitive theories account for these two observations by proposing that the way in which the individual evaluates the stimulus determines the emotion that is elicited. Judgment theories are the version of the cognitive position that have been developed by philosophers. Taking anger as an example, in Solomon's theory, "What constitutes the anger is my judging that I have been insulted and offended" (1977, p.
Elaborating upon her example, Nussbaum points out how the different beliefs are related to the emotion. Judging is the central idea in these theories because it is something that the agent actively does, rather than something that happens to the individual. There usually will be bodily sensations and changes involved in grieving, but if we discovered that my blood pressure was quite low during this whole episode, or that my pulse rate never went above sixty, there would not, I think, be the slightest reason to conclude that I was not grieving.
Some judgment theorists are, however, more accommodating and allow that the bodily response is properly considered part of the emotion, an effect of the judgments that are made. In theory such as Lyons', the bodily response is considered part of the emotion process and the emotion is determined by the cognitive activity—the judgment or evaluation—that occurs (Lyons 1980, pp.
Cognitive appraisal theories are the cognitive theories that have been developed by psychologists. This section will focus on Ira Roseman's theory (1984), which was one of the first cognitive appraisal theories.
Roseman's model, which is described in Table 3, has five appraisal components that can produce 14 discrete emotions. For example, for joy, the situational state must be appraised as motive-consistent, the motivational state as appetitive, agency must be circumstance-caused, probability must be certain, and power can be either weak or strong.
The motivational state appraisal distinguishes between states that the individual views as desirable (appetitive) and states that are viewed as undesirable (aversive). The situational state component determines whether the desirable or undesirable quality of the event is present or absent. The probability component evaluates whether an event is definite (certain), only possible (uncertain), or of an unknown probability. The evaluation of power is the individual's perception of his or her strength or weakness in a situation.
Just like the judgment theorists, Roseman and the other appraisal theorists say that these appraisals do not have to be deliberate, or even something of which the individual is consciously aware. Unlike some of the judgment theorists, all of the cognitive appraisal theorists agree that the appraisals are followed by a bodily response, which is properly consider part of the emotion process. Non-cognitive theories are those that defend the claim that judgments or appraisals are not part of the emotion process. The non-cognitive theories are in many ways a development of the folk psychological view of emotion. With respect to the non-cognitive theories themselves, there are two different approaches.
Paul Ekman originally developed what is now the standard description of the non-cognitive process (1977), and more recently Paul Griffiths has incorporated Ekman's account into his own theory of the emotions (1997). Ekman's model is composed of two mechanisms that directly interface with each other: an automatic appraisal mechanism and an affect programme. The automatic appraisal mechanism is able to detect certain stimuli, which Ekman calls elicitors. Related to Ekman's notion of an elicitor, Griffiths suggests that this system includes a "biased learning mechanism," which allows it to easily learn some things, but makes it difficult for it to learn others. The second mechanism that Ekman describes, what he calls the affect programme, governs the various elements of the emotion response: the skeletal muscle response, facial response, vocal response, and central and autonomic nervous system responses (1977, p. Griffiths also points out that the affect programs (recall that, in Griffiths' parlance, affect program refers to the whole system) have several of the features that Fodor (1983) identified for modular processes. Ekman and Griffiths both believe that this system accounts for a significant number of the emotions that humans experience, but neither think that it describes all emotions.
In her "exclusively non-cognitive" theory, Robinson claims that any cognitive processes that occur in an emotion-causing situation are in addition to the core process, which is non-cognitive. This explanation allows Robinson to maintain the idea that emotions are non-cognitive while acknowledging that humans can have emotions in response to complex events.
Robinson also suggests that the non-cognitive process may be followed by cognitive activity that labels an emotion response in ways that reflect the individual's thoughts and beliefs. The theories discussed in this section have varied in the importance that they place on the bodily changes that typically during the emotion process.
However, the cognitive theories all maintain that it is the cognitive activity that determines the specific emotion that is produced (that is, sadness, anger, fear, and so forth.) and the non-cognitive position is not very different in this regard. The further question is whether there is a unique set of bodily changes for each emotion. The somatic feedback theorists differ from the cognitive and non-cognitive positions by claiming that the bodily responses are unique for each emotion and that it is in virtue of the unique patterns of somatic activity that the emotions are differentiated. William James (1884) was the first to develop a somatic feedback theory, and recently James' model has been revived and expanded by Antonio Damasio (1994, 2001) and Jesse Prinz (2004a, 2004b).
If we fancy some strong emotion, and then try to abstract from our consciousness of it all the feelings of its characteristic bodily symptoms, we find we have nothing left behind, no "mind-stuff" out of which the emotion can be constituted, and that a cold and neutral state of intellectual perception is all that remains (1884, p. Like James, Prinz suggests that the bodily response is primarily the result of a non-cognitive process. The advantage that Prinz's theory has over James' is that it incorporates a plausible account of the intentionality of emotions into a somatic feedback theory.
The third theorist in this group, Antonio Damasio, is also able to account for the intentionality of the mental state that is caused by feedback from the body.
In Damasio's theory, a typical case begins with thoughts and evaluations about the stimulus, and this mental activity triggers a bodily response—this process Damasio calls "the emotion." A mental representation of the bodily activity is then generated in the brain's somatosensory cortices—this is the feeling according to Damasio (1994, p. According to Damasio, these feelings are crucial in helping us make decisions and choose our actions (see Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis, 1994, 1996).
Another important feature of Damasio's account (and one that Prinz has adopted) is the idea that there is an as-if loop in the brain—as in 'as-if the body were active.' According to Damasio, the mental representations that constitute feelings can occur in the way just described, or the brain areas that evaluate the stimulus (the amygdala and the prefrontal cortices) can directly signal the somatosensory cortices instead of triggering bodily activity. This article has outlined the basic approaches to explaining the emotions, it has reviewed a number of important theories, and it has discussed many of the features that emotions are believed to have. The empirical evidence that exists and continues to be collected is one topic that has not been discussed in this article.
If the only Asian greens you've ever tried are Chinese cabbage or pak choy, then you're not alone. Yet the two vegetables are so similar in flavour and texture that you can easily substitute choy sum for spinach.
First of all, don't assume the only way to cook Asian greens is in a stir fry with soy sauce and ginger, says Ekman. I was looking for something like this last weekend when I bought some unknown chinese vegetables and spent quite some time on google figuring out what they were.
I'm also a great fan of shiitake mushroom and chicken hot pot, although sadly, mine never seems to turn out anywhere near as nice as my (Chinese) uncle's. My mum grew up in PNG, and went to a school with mostly ethnic Chinese students, and apparently picked up a lot of her cooking habits from them, so Chinese-influenced food has always been a bit of a staple in our house. This is a great information but I believe only the Buk Choy is also called Shanghai baby buk choy. As a person of Chinese descent, I don't think there's a difference in 'pak choy' or 'bok choy'. Buk choy, choy sum and en choy are good sources of folate and iron, and gai choy and kan kong are good sources of iron.
I bought a fabulous dark green leafed vege from my local asian grocer but the lady was unable to tell me what it was called. Comments that are offensive, defamatory, unsuitable or that breach any aspects of the terms will be deleted.
Having good manners is part of our Personal Image hence Business Etiquette is included in my speaking engagements and Appearance Management corporate workshops. Displaying good manners can be summarised simply as having respect for others as well as being considerate to other people.  Manners should be consistent, although as people travel more widely and we interface with numerous different cultures we need to be conscious of adapting these according to the people we are with, the environment and circumstances. I will cover various subjects in future blogs for you to consider as good manners in business. Interestingly, the demand for reverse mentoring (boomers mentored by younger, usually social media savvy managers), is also on the rise.
Based on their own experience, mentors may have a sense of what has to be done, but beware, the ‘telling’ advice may not be relevant to the mentee. Make sure you know what the mentee is looking for in order for the advice to resonate and be relevant with the mentee. His book is about Solution Focused approach and he includes recipes to facilitate solving some of our most plaguing business or agency issues. Inevitably, lots is already working in an organization, there are many with deep expertise doing meaningful work for clients and customers alike.
The early part of the emotion process is the interval between the perception of the stimulus and the triggering of the bodily response.
For example, one person may respond to being laid-off from a job with anger, while another person responds with joy—it depends on how the individual evaluates this event. An emotion is a response to a specific stimulus that can be internal, like a belief or a memory.
Typically, the goal is to explain why emotions are present in humans today by referring to natural selection that occurred some time in the past. However, often the historical evidence is not available to establish that a new trait replaced a previous one because the new trait increased fitness. The first is based on the claim that emotions are the result of natural selection that occurred in early hominids.

In Randolph Nesse's words, "The emotions are specialized modes of operation shaped by natural selection to adjust the physiological, psychological, and behavioral parameters of the organism in ways that increase its capacity and tendency to respond adaptively to the threats and opportunities characteristic of specific kinds of situations" (1990, p.
Although these emotions are still present in humans today, they may no longer be useful, and may even be counterproductive, as Cosmides and Tooby's description of the more violent aspects of sexual jealousy illustrates.
Other emotions, he says, are either combinations of two or three of these basic emotions, or one of these eight emotions experienced at a greater or a milder intensity. According to Paul Griffiths, some emotions should be identified and then classified in this way (1997, 2004).
An affect program emotion is, "no different from a trait like the human arm, which has unique features but can be homologized more or less broadly with everything from a chimpanzee arm to a cetacean fin" (1997, p. For example, "threat displays in chimps look very different from anger in humans, but when their superficial appearance is analyzed to reveal the specific muscles whose movement produces the expression and the order in which those muscles move, it becomes clear that they are homologues of one another.
That is, emotions are the products of societies and cultures, and are acquired or learned by individuals through experience. A number of anthropological studies have found discrepancies among the emotion words used in different languages.
Emotions typically occur in social settings and during interpersonal transactions—many, if not most, emotions are caused by other people and social relationships. Interpersonal factors are typically the main causes of emotion, and emotions lead people to engage in certain kinds of social encounter or withdraw from such interpersonal contact. Allowing that emotions may also serve other purposes, some of the functions that they have are "the regulation of socially undesirable behavior and the promotion of attitudes which reflect and endorse the interrelated religious, political, moral, aesthetic and social practices of a society" (1986b, p. For these cases, Armon-Jones suggests that the emotion has still been learned by the individual, just not in a way that is consistent with what the larger portion of the society would endorse.
A syndrome is a collection of all of the appropriate responses of a particular emotion, any of which may at certain times constitute an emotion response, but none of which are essential or necessary for that emotion syndrome. Every individual who understands this syndrome may at different times have the following grief responses: shock, crying, refusing to cry (that is, keeping a stiff upper lip), declining to eat, neglecting basic responsibilities, and so on. An individual labels both his response at a funeral and his response to his favorite baseball team losing as grief, even if the two responses have nothing in common. In Averill's theory, transitory social roles are the roles that individuals adopt when they choose to play a particular part in a situation as it unfolds.
For example, a grief response is appropriate at a funeral, but different grief responses are appropriate at the burial and at the service before the burial. The transitory social roles are useful for explaining how the emotion responses relate to the society as well as the specific social context.
Generally speaking, the emotion process begins with the perception of a stimulus, although in some cases the "stimulus" may be internal, for example, a thought or a memory. There is, however, disagreement about how simple or complex the early part of the emotion process might be, which has lead to competing cognitive and non-cognitive theories. This is in contrast to theories that state that the generation of the emotion response is a direct and automatic result of perceiving the stimulus—these non-cognitive theories are discussed below.
None of these events share any physical feature or property, but all of them can cause the same response. These examples pose problems for theories claiming that emotions are unconditioned responses to evolutionary specified stimulus events or are learned via generalization or association (2001, p. Every individual has beliefs, as well as goals, personal tendencies, and desires in place before the emotion causing event is encountered.
The basic idea, as Robert Solomon puts it, is that an emotion is "a basic judgment about our Selves and our place in our world, the projection of the values and ideals, structures and mythologies, according to which we live and through which we experience our lives" (1993, p. She notes that, "each element of this set of beliefs is necessary in order for anger to be present: if I should discover that not x but y had done the damage, or that it was not done willingly, or that it was not serious, we could expect my anger to modify itself accordingly or recede" (2004, p.
This in turn reflects the judgment theorists' claim that in order to have an emotion the individual must judge (evaluate, acknowledge) that events are a certain way. One might call such judgments 'spontaneous' as long as 'spontaneity' isn't confused with 'passivity'" (1977, p.
If my hands and feet were cold or warm, sweaty or dry, again this would be of no critical value (2004, p. The causal order is important, emotion is a psychosomatic state, a bodily state caused by an attitude, in this case an evaluative attitude (1980, pp. Like the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories emphasize the idea that the way in which an individual evaluates or appraises the stimulus determines the emotion. As an early contribution, Roseman's theory is in some ways simpler than more recent cognitive appraisal theories and so will serve as a good introduction.
The appraisal components and the different values that each component can take are motivational state (appetitive, aversive), situational state (motive-consistent, motive-inconsistent), probability (certain, uncertain, unknown), power (strong, weak), and agency (self-caused, other-caused, circumstance-caused). The different appraisal components in Roseman's theory are motivational state, situational state, probability, power, and agency.
Notice also that the different emotions all use the same appraisal components, and many emotions take the same values for several of the components.
The appraisal that something desirable is present and the appraisal that something undesirable is absent are both motive-consistent. For this component, an outcome of uncertainty contributes to hope instead of joy or relief, which both involve an appraisal that the event is certain (that is, the outcome of the event has been determined). An evaluation is made about whether the event was caused by the individual, caused by some other person, or is merely a result of the situation (that is, the event is perceived as lacking an agent). To illustrate this, consider someone accidentally spilling a glass of water on you versus intentionally throwing the glass of water on you. Roseman suggests that once the appraisals have been made, a response that has the following parts is set in motion: (1) "the thoughts, images, and subjective 'feeling' associated with each discrete emotion," (2) "the patterns of bodily response," (3) the "facial expressions, vocal signals, and postural cues that communicate to others which emotion one is feeling," (4) a "behavioral component [that] comprises actions, such as running or fighting, which are often associated with particular emotions," and (5) "goals to which particular emotions give rise, such as avoiding some situation (when frightened) or inflicting harm upon some person (when angered)" (1984, pp. Hence, the disagreement between the cognitive and the non-cognitive positions primarily entails the early part of the emotion process. This is the idea that emotions are separate from the rational or cognitive operations of the mind: cognitive operations are cold and logical, whereas emotions are hot, irrational, and largely uncontrollable responses to certain events.
This section will review the way in which Ekman and Griffiths describe the non-cognitive process. Griffiths adopts a slightly different way of describing the model; he treats Ekman's two mechanisms as a single system, which he calls the affect program. Since the interval between stimulus and emotional response is sometimes extraordinarily short, the appraisal mechanism must be capable of operating with great speed.
For example, it is easier for humans to acquire a fear of snakes than a fear flowers (Griffiths, 1997, pp.
In particular, when the appropriate stimulus is presented to the system the triggering of the response is mandatory, meaning that once it begins it cannot be interfered with or stopped. Ekman says that the automatic appraisal mechanism is one kind of appraisal mechanism, but he also believes that cognitive appraisals are sometimes utilized. That is, a system like the one described by Ekman and Griffiths accounts for all occurrences of emotion.
She acknowledges that in some cases, an emotion might be caused by cognitive activity, but this is explained as cognitive activity that precedes the non-cognitive emotion process. This aspect of her theory can also be used to explain how an individual can be cognitively aware that he or she has been unjustly treated, or been unexpectedly rewarded, but not experience any emotion (for example, anger, or sadness, or happiness)—a situation which does seem to occur sometimes. The non-cognitive process might generate an anger response, but then subsequent cognitive monitoring of the response and the situation causes the emotion to be labeled as jealousy. The judgment theorist Martha Nussbaum is dismissive of the bodily changes, whereas the cognitive appraisal theorists (that is, the psychologists) hold that the bodily response is a legitimate part of the process and has to be included in any complete description of the emotions. Ekman's automatic appraisal mechanism and Robinson's affective appraisals are both supposed to determine which emotion is generated.
The cognitive appraisal theorist Klaus Scherer claims that each appraisal component directs specific bodily changes, and so his answer to this question is affirmative (2001); Griffiths says that is likely that each affect program emotion has a unique bodily response profile (1997, pp. Thus, according to these theories, there is one set of bodily changes for sadness, one set for anger, one for happiness, and so on. Somatic feedback theories suggest that once the bodily response has been generated (that is, a change in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, and so forth), the mind registers these bodily activities, and this mental state (the one caused by the bodily changes) is the emotion. For Prinz, as for James, the emotion is the mental state that is caused by the feedback from the body.
In Prinz's example in Figure 1, there is no mental evaluation or appraisal that the snake is dangerous, rather the perception of the snake triggers the bodily changes. In Prinz's theory, the mental state (the emotion) is caused by bodily activity, but, rather than being about the bodily activity, the emotion is about something else, namely these simple pieces of information that the mental state represents.
As an illustration of this, let us say that Bill's brother-in-law has just offered to let him in on a risky, but possibly lucrative business venture.
One tentative conclusion that can now be drawn is that it is unlikely that any single theory will prevail anytime soon, especially since not all of these theories are in direct competition with each other.
These two vegetables together make up more than 50 per cent of all Asian vegetables sold, according to the NSW Department of Primary Industries.
Not only are are the prices of Asian greens often lower than mainstream greens, but these prices remain fairly constant because leafy Asian greens are grown all year round, says Dr Jenny Ekman, research horticulturist with the NSW DPI.
One advantage of wombok is that if you store it in a loose plastic bag in the fridge it stays fresh for weeks.
Ekman says it's best to peel them unless they're very young - in which case you just pare off the ridges. Scroll through the recipe list on the Sydney Markets website and you'll find ideas for using Asian greens.
Very easy to grow from seed, germinating in 4 to 5 days in summer, sow thinly, thin out or transplant. The literal translation of the name is 'white vegetable' (referring to its white-coloured stems). Wondering whether you're meant to eat like a Cretan peasant or a Paleolithic hunter gatherer? What makes sense to a 55-year-old person may not automatically make sense to someone who is 25.
It explains in a clear and persuasive way how asking solution-focused questions can help facilitate change in organizations. When understood as a state (like being angry or afraid), an emotion is a type of mental state that interacts with other mental states and causes certain behaviors.
The later part of the emotion process is a bodily response, for example, changes in heart rate, skin conductance, and facial expression. Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus.
It is also generally agreed that emotions have intentional content, which is to say that they are about something, often the stimulus itself. This is especially true for psychological traits because there is no fossil record to examine. Since all humans have emotions and most non-human animals display emotion-like responses, it is likely that emotions (or emotion-like behaviors) were present in a common ancestor. Some examples of the problems that early hominids may have encountered, and the emotions that may have been selected in response to these problems, are listed in Table 1. As they explain it, sexual jealousy was selected to deal with a group of related problems.
This classification creates a psychological category, which Griffiths terms the affect program emotions: surprise, anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust. The same is almost certainly true of the neural mechanisms that control those movements" (Griffiths, 2004, p. Virtually everyone who defends this position acknowledges that emotions are to some degree, natural phenomena. In particular, there are emotion words in other languages that do not correspond directly or even closely to emotion words in English.
Thus, in many cases emotions may be best understood as interactions between people, rather than simply as one individual's response to a particular stimulus (Parkinson, 1996).
These norms and values influence what the appropriate objects of emotion are (that is, what events should make a person angry, happy, jealous, and so on), and they also influence how emotions should be expressed. Rather, the individual has acquired the emotion from some sub-population of society or a peer-group that the individual identifies with (1986b). It also consists of beliefs about the nature of the eliciting stimuli and perhaps some natural (that is, non-social) elements.
Further, the conditions that the individual understands should elicit grief are also part of this syndrome: the death of a loved one, the loss of a valuable object, a setback at work, rainy days, and so forth.
Additionally, with an understanding of the grief syndrome an individual can judge when others are experiencing grief and whether another individual's grief is genuine, severe, mild, and so on. That being said, although the individual chooses the role, Averill stresses that the emotional responses are interpreted by the agent as passive responses to particular situations, not as active choices. In order to have an emotion response that is consistent with social norms and expectations, the individual must understand what the role they are adopting means in the context in which it is used.
Considering an emotion as a syndrome, the individual has a variety of choices for the emotion response. The early part of the emotion process is the activity between the perception and the triggering of the bodily response (that is, the emotion response), and the later part of the emotion process is the bodily response: changes in heart rate, blood pressure, facial expression, skin conductivity, and so forth. While these theories acknowledge that in many cases various bodily responses will accompany the emotion, many do not consider the bodily response an integral part of the emotion process.
But unlike the judgment theories, the cognitive appraisal theories do not rely on the resources of folk psychology (beliefs, judgments, and so forth).
Similar models are offered by Roseman, Antoniou, and Jose [1996], Roseman [2001], Lazarus [1991], and Scherer [1993, 2001]. The basic idea is that when a stimulus is encountered it is appraised along these five dimensions.
For example, in Roseman's model, anger and regret take the same values for all of the appraisals except for the agency component; for that appraisal, regret takes the value self-caused and anger takes other-caused.
On the other hand, the appraisal that something desirable is absent or something undesirable is present is motive-inconsistent.
The possibility that the event can be appraised as having an unknown probability was added by Roseman in order to account for surprise, which is often considered a basic emotion (for example, Izard, 1977; Ekman, 1992). According to Roseman's theory, in the first case, the agency appraisal would most likely be circumstance-caused.
The concern is what intervenes between the perception of a stimulus and the emotion response. The non-cognitive position has also been motivated by skepticism about the cognitive theories. The next section will examine a theory that holds that all emotions are non-cognitive, a position that Ekman and Griffiths do not defend. Often the appraisal is not only quick but it happens without awareness, so I must postulate that the appraisal mechanism is able to operate automatically. On a more general level, however, there are similarities among the elicitors for each emotion. One of the common characteristics of some of the elicitors of happiness is release from accumulated pressure, tension, discomfort, etc. The affect programs are also encapsulated, or cut off from other mental processes (1997, pp. For example, sometimes an individual's fear is in response to cognitively complex information such as the value of one's investments suddenly dropping. For example, the cognitive appraisal may indicate that the individual has been unjustly treated, but the affective appraisal will not evaluate this as worthy of an emotion response.
Thus, the individual will take him or herself to be experiencing jealousy, even though the actual emotion process was the one specific to anger (2004, 2005).
Meanwhile, all of the non-cognitive theorists agree that bodily changes are part of the emotion process. 79–84); and Robinson is skeptical that different emotions can be distinguished by any of the features of the bodily response, except perhaps the facial expression (2005, pp.

In this case, Prinz says that the bodily changes that occur in response to perceiving a snake can be explained as an adaptation.
In this example, fear is the mental state caused by feedback from the body (that is, the perception of the bodily changes).
This feeling occurs "in juxtaposition" to the thoughts and evaluations about the stimulus that triggered the bodily changes in the first place.
Although Bill realizes that there are many aspects of the situation to consider, the thought of losing a lot of money causes a bodily response. This will generate a feeling more quickly and efficiently, although it may not feel the same as a genuine bodily response (1994, p. Some of them are compatible, for instance, an evolutionary theory and a theory that describes the emotion process can easily complement each other; Griffiths' theory of the affect program emotions demonstrates that these two perspectives can be employed in a single theory.
In the past forty years, a vast amount of data has been collected by cognitive and social psychologists, neuroscientists, anthropologists, and ethologists. Yet if you want nutritious, low cost, fast cooking veg, it pays not to ignore less familiar Asian leaves. And if you're conscious of food miles, these vegetables don't usually have far to come - most are grown around the outskirts of Sydney or Melbourne. It's milder than European cabbage and great, shredded with carrot and shallots, in an Asian coleslaw. Blanch the leaves and stems in boiling water for one minute and stir fry with oyster sauce, or just steam.
Or stir fry the leaves and stems with chili - again, cook the stems first because they take a little longer. In a social context, on the other hand, women often find that men may show a level of attention like holding the door open or pulling out a chair. It strengthens relationships and with experience you will feel more comfortable as you develop personal poise and confidence. The reasons why cats eliminate outside the litter box vary, and include litter box aversion, urine marking, hormonal problems, and medical issues.The difference between urinating outside the box and sprayingCat guardians often confuse urinating and spraying. The 25-year-olds are keen to hear from you but first, make sure you understand what they are looking for. I liked that you chose a workbook format for your book and made it very practical by including specific questions or exercises that could be used in various situations.
In another sense, however, human emotions seem to be very similar to (if not the same as) the responses that other animals display.
This description is sufficient to begin an analysis of the emotions, although it does leave out some aspects of the process such as the subjective awareness of the emotion and behavior that is often part of the emotion response (for example, fighting, running away, hugging another person). In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli. Moods, on the other hand, are typically not about anything, and at least some of the time do not appear to be caused by a specific stimulus. Change to a trait can occur because of natural selection, chance, genetic drift, or because the trait is genetically linked with some other trait.
Moreover, emotions appear to serve an important function, which has led many to think that the certain emotions have been selected to deal with particular problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter. The main one is that a mate is having sex with someone else, but other problems include the harm that has been done to the victim's status and reputation, the possibility that the unfaithful mate has conceived with the rival, and the likelihood that the victim of the infidelity has been deceived about a wide variety of other matters (2000, p.
In Griffiths' theory, the other emotions belong to different categories—the higher-cognitive emotions and the socially constructed emotions—and in some cases a single vernacular term, for example, anger, will have instances that belong to different categories.
For example, sadness, one of Griffiths' affect program emotions, occurs in all humans and in other related species. Nonetheless, the central claim made in these theories is that the social influence is so significant that emotions are best understood from this perspective. Given that individuals experience the emotions that they have terms for (and vice versa), the claim that follows from these findings is that people in different cultures have and experience different emotions.
This is similar to the feeling that children have towards their mothers, but it is experienced by adults. For example, an individual's envy of someone who is successful (or his guilt over having cheated someone) are both emotions that have been prescribed by the individual's society so that the individual will take the appropriate attitude towards success and cheating. All of these various components are linked together for an individual by principles of organization. The transitory social role imposes rules that dictate which response is appropriate for the situation.
For example, different emotions will occur depending on whether an individual evaluates being laid-off as consistent with her current goals or inconsistent with them.
Judging in this context is the mental ability that individuals use when they acknowledge a particular experience or the existence of a particular state of the world; what Martha Nussbaum calls "assent[ing] to an appearance" (2004, p.
Thus, a change in an individual's beliefs—in his or her way of seeing the world—entails a different emotion, or none at all.
For example, the judgment that the wall is red, or the judgment that the icy road is dangerous. For example, the judgment that I have been insulted and offended does not necessarily require any conscious mental effort on my part. Each appraisal component is assigned one of its possible values, and together these values determine which emotion response will be generated. For this appraisal, unknown differs from uncertain in that unknown is the value that is assigned when the distinction between motive-consistent versus motive-inconsistent cannot be made.
Making this evaluation sometimes requires a subtle understanding of what the emotion-causing stimulus is. The non-cognitive position is that the emotion response directly follows the perception of a relevant stimulus. The non-cognitive theorists deny that propositional attitudes and the conceptual knowledge that they require (for example, anger is the judgment that I have been wronged) are necessary for emotions.
It must be constructed so that it quickly attends to some stimuli, determining not only that they pertain to emotion, but to which emotion, and then activating the appropriate part of the affect programme (1977, p. Loss of something to which one is intimately attached might be a common characteristic of sadness elicitors.
Furthermore, this system "would have some form of memory, storing information about classes of stimuli previously assessed as meriting emotional response" (1997, p.
According to Ekman, this is a mechanism that "stores the patterns for these complex organized responses, and which when set off directs their occurrence" (1977, p.
It is also similar to the theories developed by William James (1884) and, more recently, Jesse Prinz (2004a), which are discussed in the next section. In this case, a cognitive process will determine that the current situation is dangerous, and then what Robinson calls an affective appraisal will be made of this specific information and a fear response will be triggered. In any case, it is the feedback that the mind (or brain) gets from the body that makes the event an emotion. Note that James' theory overlaps with the non-cognitive theories insofar as James suggests that when the stimulus is perceived, a bodily response is triggered automatically or reflexively (1884, p.
Our bodies respond in the way that they do to the perception of a snake because snakes are dangerous, and so danger is what the mental state is representing (2004a, p. This mental state registers the bodily changes, but represents meaningful, albeit simple, information.
The feedback from Bill's body is then juxtaposed with the thought of being tangled up in a losing venture with his brother-in-law. On the other hand, some of the theories are simply inconsistent, like the cognitive and non-cognitive theories, and so the natural expectation is that one of these positions will eventually be eliminated. A model of appraisal in the emotion system: Integrating theory, research, and applications. Last weekend I bought a bunch of choy sum for only 99 cents - much cheaper than the (same size) $2.50 bunch of English spinach next to it. Similar to a large, slightly seedy zucchini, chi quas can be steamed, added to soup or stir-fried, or sliced thinly and barbecued. The names used in this guide are the standard names which the NSW Department of Primary Industries is encouraging retailers to use nationally.
Cats who are urinating outside the box usually squat and deposit larger amounts on horizontal surfaces. Further, the emotions that we have and how we express them reflect our social environment, but it also seems likely that emotions were shaped by natural selection over time.
The emotions that appear in humans are more complex than what are found in lower species, "but the basic functional patterns remain invariant in all animals, up to and including humans" (1980, p.
Rather than simply focusing on the functions of the emotions, this kind of analysis is more useful for psychology and neuropsychology because these sciences are interested in identifying the mechanisms that drive behavior (Griffiths, 2004).
The following are some of the examples that are often used to illustrate the variability of emotion terms.
These principles are what allow the various elements to be construed coherently as one particular emotion (1982). For example, the possible responses for anger may include pouting, yelling, hitting, or perhaps no overt behavior at all. In some contexts, Nussbaum treats judgments and beliefs interchangeably and it is sometimes the case that a series of judgments constitute the emotion. One way to distinguish the judgments that are emotions from those that are not is to suggest (like Nussbaum) that the judgment must be based on a certain set of beliefs.
Thus, instead of any sort of evaluation or judgment about the stimulus, the early part of the emotion process is thought to be reflex-like. Advocates of the non-cognitive position stress that a theory of emotion should apply to infants and non-human animals, which presumably do not have the cognitive capabilities that are described in the judgment theories or the cognitive appraisal theories. Interference with ongoing activity might be characteristic of some anger elicitors (1977, pp. Ekman appears to have been aware of the modular nature of this system when he wrote, "The difficulty experienced when trying to interfere with the operation of the affect programme, the speed of its operation, its capability to initiate responses that are hard to halt voluntarily, is what is meant by out-of-control quality to the subjective experiences of some emotions" (1977, p. As Robinson describes this part of her theory, "My suggestion is that there is a set of inbuilt affective appraisal mechanisms, which in more primitive species and in neonates are automatically attuned to particular stimuli, but which, as human beings learn and develop, can also take as input more complex stimuli, including complex 'judgments' or thoughts" (2004, p. Nevertheless, although answering this question is important for a complete understanding of the emotions, it does not greatly affect the theories mentioned here, which are largely based on what occurs in the early part of the emotion process. Since (B) and (D) co-occur, the feeling will be accompanied by the information that triggered the bodily response.
It is this negative feeling that informs Bill's choice of behavior, and he declines the offer without ever pondering all of the costs and benefits.
In any case, the consequence is that there can be a feeling even if the body is not involved. Many of the theories, however, fall somewhere in between, agreeing about some features of emotion, while disagreeing about others.
A problem that remains for the theorist of emotion is accounting for all of the available empirical evidence.
Etiquette is about presenting yourself with the kind of polish that shows you can be taken seriously. These and other conflicting features of the emotions make constructing a theory difficult and have led to the creation of a variety of different theories. And a trait is the result of natural selection only when "its prevalence is due to the fact that it conferred a greater fitness" (Richardson, 1996, p.
In a particular situation, say a baseball game, a player may adopt a social role that includes pushing the umpire as an anger response. If those beliefs are present, then the emotion will occur; if they are not, then it won't. If the individual focuses on the gift and having just received it (the general state of affairs), his emotion is joy. The way in which he describes this process is just as central to the non-cognitive theories as it is to his own: "the nervous system of every living thing is but a bundle of predispositions to react in particular ways upon the contact of particular features of the environment.
Bill could have considered the situation more thoroughly, but acting on this kind of feeling is, according to Damasio, often the way in which actions are chosen. Patterns of hearing loss and psychiatric morbidity in elderly patients attending a hearing clinic. Appraisal determinants of emotions: Constructing a more accurate and comprehensive theory. Yelling at the umpire would have been another role the player could have adopted.  However, social norms and expectations dictate that pouting in this situation would not be an appropriate response.
If the individual focuses on the friend who has just given the gift (focuses on another person), the emotion is liking.
I can't tell the differences between them either (not really, unlike my mother) but doesn't stop me from eating it everyday.
The judgments and objects that constitute our emotions are those which are especially important to us, meaningful to us, concerning matters in which we have invested our Selves" (1993, p. The neural machinery is but a hyphen between determinate arrangements of matter outside the body and determinate impulses to inhibition or discharge within its organs" (1884, p. Sometimes, the solution can be as simple as adding an additional litter box, changing the location or type of litter box, or changing the type of litter you’re using. Hence, according to James, when the appropriate type of stimulus is perceived (that is a bear), this automatically causes a bodily response (trembling, raised heart rate, and so forth), and the individual's awareness of this bodily response is the fear. Long standing issues may require some more intense detective work.In multicat households, inappropriate urination can be caused by territorial issues. There are a number of effective stain and odor removers, you can find some of the best here. Too few boxes, the wrong type of box, the wrong type of litter, a box that isn’t scooped frequently enough, can all contribute to inapproriate urination.
Casey was having difficulty going all the way into the box with the usual litter, I figured because he suddenly was paw sensitive. And regardless about it washing out easily (which it doesn’t, just sayin’) can swallowing it be ok? Does anyone have an opinion about an unscented clumping litter, MUST BE soft on paws but SAFE from toxins like GMO corn (worlds best, which is too harsh on Casey’s paws) or walnuts, etc? Reply Ingrid July 17, 2016 at 5:44 am (4 weeks ago)I have not tried this litter, and I have a lot of respect for Dr.
Wish they could just figure a way to subtract or neutralize the charcoal color because that really is the only thing that makes me nuts. I’m upset because their customer service was not knowledgeable and that I have to pay to ship back all the product I have.
Reply Misty Eyed December 3, 2015 at 9:54 am (8 months ago)I wish I could understand and pin point more with my cat, but my cat peed on my floor 58 times.
He’s diabetic, hyperthyroidism, a new male cat in the house ( the neighbor’s threw him out, no front claws) the get along fine, but I think my peeling cat might be insane and trying to take me down with him! Reply Tom Randall September 27, 2015 at 5:25 pm (11 months ago)So, what do some of you guys do if you have multiple cats and one simply will not share the box?
But I recently found out from the new vet that the anal sac infections are common but they have so many. But most cats who don’t use a litter box appropriately have some type of medical issue and that could be hers. Reply Fur Everywhere July 6, 2015 at 8:54 am (1 year ago)This is great information, Ingrid, and I hope it helps a lot of kitties and their humans. Reply Summer July 6, 2015 at 4:25 am (1 year ago)I wish humans understood that the motivations for what we cats do is different from the way they think. Reply Leave a comment Cancel commentFirst time visitors: please read our Comment Guidelines.

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