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Your intrepid Autopia contributor sold his car and spent a full year in Portland, relying on TriMet to get around .
Another problem is many riders simply do not pay to ride because the stations are open and fare inspectors rare. Another issue is that the three different transit systems don’t have standardized tickets. The new MAX Green Line, which runs north to south, is too far east to be useful to people on their way to main commercial areas and too far west to pick up many commuters.
MAX connections to the north and south, which do not currently exist, deserve a serious examination.
By Doug MacMillanToday's modes of public transportation are reaching the end of their usefulness. Public transport (mass transit) is critical to the proper functioning of any city, town or rural area. Mass transit is a key ingredient in a sustainable, low-carbon transport future, whether in urban or rural settings, in developing or developed countries. Middle Eastern cities are building $80 billion of new high quality transit including the new Dubai Metro and a service to do the Haj. Mass transit’s greater affordability, and its accessibility for people too young or unable to drive, makes it a form of transport that more people can use to meet their needs: to get to health and other services, to make vital social connections and, as just noted, to work, shop and learn.
As well as using less energy and emitting less greenhouse gas than private vehicles do, mass transit has many other environmental benefits. Comparing the costs of various modes of mass transit is fraught with difficulty as so many local factors can make costs vary hugely for each mode. Agence Francaise de Developpement (AFD) and the French Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (MEEDDM) (2009). Getting around is a significant issue for people in this day and age of high gas prices and environmental concerns.
According to the Rockefeller Foundation and Transportation for America, 66 percent of Millennials include public transportation in their top three priorities for moving to a new city and 54 percent of them would consider moving to a different city if the public transportation were better in a different area. Sydney, Australia, which was recently featured by the popular television sitcom Modern Family, has an extensive public system, including a train system that offers access to Sydney International Airport. According to the survey from Rockefeller, Millennials might just love to live in Sydney, Australia, though whether their main reason for moving there would be the public transit or the fabulous beaches is hard to say. From this bit of information, it looks like public transportation is more than just a western civilizational idea.
Nevertheless, there can be no doubt that public transportation is of increasing importance in the United States, not just to fad-happy Millennials with mountains of student loan debt, but in general. It takes a certain situation to make a design, build, operate and maintain (DBOM) public-private partnership an option, and in the United States that can often be easier said than done. Arthur Guzzetti, vice president of policy for the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) says that while DBOM public-private partnerships are good, they are not necessarily always good in all cases.
According to the Federal Transit Administration, a Public-Private Partnership Pilot Program was authorized in the 2005 Highway and Transit bill (SAFETEA-LU) to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of P3’s in public transportation. Guzzetti says one reason these projects are perhaps less common in the United States than they are elsewhere is because sometimes procurement laws don’t allow them for public contracts. On the other hand Guzzetti says others look at a public-private partnership deal and say, “let’s just get government out of the way.” That, he says, is wrong for many reasons. However, Guzzetti warns that farebox revenue alone won’t be able to support a project in most cases. Finally, there has to be a condition of the project that the private sector is doing something that the public sector can’t do as well on its own. What makes DBOM public-private partnerships — and all public-private partnerships for that matter — a bit trickier in the United States is having to navigate through not only federal laws but state laws as well. The FTA has no formal assistance program to help transit agencies with public-private partnerships, but has held a number of workshops on the topic. According to the FTA, the Denver RTD Eagle P3 project is a great example of successful public private partnerships because during recent spirals in the economy, this project sustained itself.
RTD’s Eagle P3 project includes the east corridor into Denver International Airport (DIA), the Gold Line to Wheat Ridgeland Arvada, and segment 1 of the Northwest Rail Line. DTP will design build finance operate maintain (DBFOM) these lines over a 34-year period, the total contract length. He calls it the three-legged financing stool and says he thinks it’s the process that’s going to be used in this country for megaprojects. One of the lessons learned was to have very high-level support before you get into it because of the tough decisions along the way. Washington says it’s important with a PPP, to understand the allocation of risk between the public agency and the concessionaire. A Detailed ProcessFasTracks Team Senior Manager, TOD and Planning Coordination Bill Sirois says that after the award was made, both teams complimented them on the process because of the fact that RTD set a schedule and most importantly, stuck to it. Michael Ford, CEO of the Regional Transit Authority joins The Now Detroit to discuss public transit with us. Its customer interaction system is amazingly useful and includes a real live person to help plan trips if you call during business hours. Though TriMet offers a fantastic, comprehensive transit system, there are a few tweaks, minor and major, that could bring vast improvements. Many people who work or revel at night live beyond the core of downtown, and TriMet’s relatively early closing time is a real limitation. As structured today, Portland cannot actually force people to pay before entry because there is no barrier between station and sidewalk, so perhaps the best option is to extort a whole lot of money from somewhere and make MAX free.
Bus use different tickets than MAX, which uses different tickets than the other regional systems like the Westside Express Service light rail. It runs largely along an existing highway, which not only brings little incentive for commuters along the route to ride the MAX but virtually guarantees there will be little development of the type that MAX has brought in the suburbs. Portland is on a designated high-speed rail corridor stretching from Vancouver, British Columbia, to Seattle, Portland and further south. Increasing urban congestion, fuel costs, and greenhouse-gas emissions are warranting creative alternatives — and a variety of projects being funded in both public and private sectors currently aim to provide just that. A range of transit modes offer different capacity opportunities, and therefore the potential for high or low impact on car use.
For example, trains or BRT will move larger numbers of people longer distances, and then bus services, with shorter trips and fewer passengers, will radiate out from transit stations.
China and India are now prioritising mass transit as the solution to their traffic problems with 82 Metros being built in China and 14 in India. It is much cheaper to transport a large number in one vehicle than to move one person in each of a large number of vehicles. As just noted, much larger numbers of people can be transported within a given space and period of time than private vehicles can transport, and this contributes to higher densities.In denser urban areas, less energy and other resources are required per urban resident for the provision not only of roads, but also of all the other services these residents need – footpaths, bicycle paths, electricity, gas, telecommunication lines, water, sewerage, stormwater drainage, and so on.
The costs of going above ground or underground are always higher than on-ground though this may just not be possible in some dense cities. Nowadays, the generation known as Millennials (or people born from the 1980s onward) want to use public transportation to travel through the city. If American cities want to attract educated, skilled, hipster-jean-wearing, debt-ridden Millennials as residents, they should invest in things like subways, trains, buses, and light rail. Not enough people use the trains as transportation to make the map system a useful investment.
But Sydney, minus the bad map update, is the type of city where Millennials would want to live.
But widespread, multi-cultural adoption does not mean that it is perfect, as most Millennials will say. The article cited the fact that the numbers of people using public systems of transportation are the highest they have been since the 1950s and in most cases, women are the ones using it more than men. In America, most people drive cars on highways, freeways, and roads in the cities, so those take a set amount of precedent over public transportation.
Cars are too convenient, too useful for long drives and hauling groceries from the store to home, and, frankly, a lot prettier to look at than trains or buses.
These procurements are complex and in many cases the procurement laws need to catch up to the times. Three pilot projects were selected — Oakland Airport Connector, Houston Metro Light Rail, and the Denver RTD Eagle P3 project.
First, Guzzetti says you have to be willing to and understand that you will have to put up some sort of revenue stream to support the project. The concessionaire selected through a bid process is Denver Transit Partners (DTP), which includes Fluor Enterprises, Uberior Investments and Laing Investments.

And there were a lot of people that didn’t think they were going to pull it off, especially during this tough economy. If it could make an extensive loop, starting at the Rose Quarter Transit Center, swinging up through North Portland, down through the Hollywood Transit Center as far south as Division Street, nobody in Portland would ever use a car again.
There are currently trains running, but trips to Seattle and San Francisco take so long it’s tough to justify the journey. So, add us to your ad blocker’s whitelist or pay $1 per week for an ad-free version of WIRED. Higher capacity systems cost more to put in, but offer much more potential reduction in total transport costs and greenhouse gas emissions. Train systems include long haul trains (running at either normal or high speed), Metro (subway or elevated urban trains) and conventional suburban trains. BRT and Light-rail may exist as an in-between mode in terms of its passenger capacity and route lengths, and local buses can complete an urban transit network, linking fast crosscity services to corridor services and local routes. The absence of sufficient transit services outside and between cities has two major adverse effects.Firstly, it means continued high levels of use of less sustainable modes of transport, including trucks, cars, motor-bikes and air travel.
Most other cities and localities around the world recognise – or are quickly coming to recognise – the economic, social and environmental necessity of good transit systems in the twenty-first century. And in denser urban areas people travel shorter distances for work, shopping, leisure and social purposes, and this leads to further energy savings.And despite being denser, if cities have clean, efficient mass transit they will have less of the crowding, noise and pollution that cars, motor-bikes, motor-scooters and other private vehicles generate. When estimating greenhouse gas reduction potential from mass transit it is also necessary to consider the ‘transit leverage’ factor, i.e. The main consideration is the capacity of the system to attract patronage and the mode that is best able to do that needs to then be assessed against the costs of the cars that will be cramming the city if the system is not built. It is not just because they are obviously all susceptible to the green movement’s message, but because it is cheaper than owning a car.
The conference is organized by the Roads and Transport Authority (RTA), which is being held at Dubai’s World Trade Centre. Delays, track-work, jerks who sit next (or on) each other on the cars, bad smells, and the fact that sometimes public transport just does not go where people need it to go – these are all issues for people who use public transportation on a regular basis. Nevertheless, women are also more likely to choose to drive their cars because they feel safer in their own space than they do waiting for public transport or riding in it with questionable people. In America, the deficit is of great concern, so adding more money to that in order to create better public transport might not be the most popular idea at this time.
According to a Transport Savings Report from the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), people who use such systems are saving over 10,000 dollars per year, about 800 dollars per month. However, public transportation has captured the imagination of people looking to save money and the environment. If the project is dealing with a public-policy objective, like transportation, government needs to be part of it for policy oversight and to ensure the project intent is being achieved.The second reason is, the government needs to be part of the revenue stream.
You want to separate the accounting of this new line that the private sector is going to take on,” Guzzetti explains.
And rightfully, … there are a lot of procurement scandals across the country so you do need to have procurement laws that protect the public interest and provide procedural process for the private sector to seek government contracts.
The Fareless Square, which allows people to ride for free downtown or just across the Willamette River, lets people move quickly and easy around downtown. The MAX stops running an hour or so later, but those living beyond walking distance of a station face a long walk or a cab ride. It also isn’t unusual to see people simply wave an expired ticket in the general direction of the driver as they get on.
An East Portland streetcar is in the works, but it is not particularly extensive and thus not particularly useful.
Get it built, then build a MAX network over the river in Washington and link it to the local bus networks. There is even an airline flying between Portland and Seattle every hour, a role perfectly suited to high-speed rail.
The social, economic and environmental costs of not having an efficient mass transit system never go away, so it is really a case of stemming these costs earlier or later. There is also rail freight, which is discussed under the technology description 'Freight'.
As part of this integration of transit modes, timetables, ticketing and information provision will be integrated, so that a person can use two or three modes to travel from departure point to destination easily, without long delays, and on one ticket (see the technology description 'Influencing travel choices'). Although air pollution, such as particulates from diesel, may not have as severe  an effect in the countryside as it does in the city, greenhouses gases are just as bad wherever they are emitted. This means that more people are able to be economically active as workers, buyers and sellers, and as well-educated workers of the future.Public transit and denser cities reinforce one another through a ‘virtuous circle’. Pollutants like particulates from diesel are major causes of asthma and other respiratory diseases. Recent college graduates could have bought a high-end performance car for what it costs to graduate, but under the weight of their student loans, they simply cannot afford a car in many cases. To answer that question, it is helpful to look at cities outside of the United States to see how they handle their public transportation. However, instead of making it easier, it might just make it more difficult to understand how to get around on the train. Representatives from 25 countries are expected to attend and look at the options available for their public transportation systems.
There is an acknowledged gender-gap in safety concerns when it comes to using public systems.
There is a flipside to this, however, and it is that creating more and (hopefully) better systems would create jobs that are desperately needed in the American economy.
Put these risks in some type of matrix and decide who does what and how you cross those things out.
The Metropolitan Area Express (MAX) rail system seamlessly transitions from inter-city streetcar to intra-city commuter rail and remains best method of transport anywhere. There’s no shortage of taxis, but running even a single bus hourly on major routes could improve late-night and early-morning ridership greatly.
Commuters on I-5 are stuck in continual gridlock, and during rush hour the highway barely moves. If a reasonable downtown-to-downtown service can be built, air traffic between the two cities will evaporate. Buses include bus rapid transit (or BRT) with dedicated road lanes and other distinctive features, and conventional bus services that share lanes with other traffic.
TODs can reduce car use by around fifty percent, save money on infrastructure, and encourage community interaction (Newman et al, 2009).TODs can occur where there are ‘greenfield’ (new) sites ‘brownfield’ (old industrial) sites or ‘greyfield’ sites (redeveloped old housing areas). Transit moves large numbers of people in a smaller space, thus saving space and allowing greater urban density.
A well-designed mass transit city will also have good networks of safe walkways and cycleways to enable residents to walk or cycle for short trips, or to walk or cycle to transit stations for longer ones. Perth’s new southern train system costs much less than a normal freeway to build ($A17 million per km) and frequently carries the equivalent of eight lanes of traffic (Newman et al, 2009).Transit systems can be financed and managed through public-private-partnerships, with private partners building the system, operating it, or both. It is no wonder that Millennials, according to a recent survey, are including public transportation in their decision-making processes, making it the old “new idea” on how to get around. Apparently, the New South Wales government where Sydney has an extensive system, has said that the changes were a result of consumer research, but it can be assured that consumers do not want a map that is hard to understand.
Dubai itself has its own system, including Metro, public buses, marine transit and taxi services, and will host the conference for the next ten years. Until a solution to that problem can be found, public transportation will continue to be of questionable use for women.
President Obama seems to think that jobs are worth part of the deficit as he allotted 4.1 billion dollars in 2009 for Transportation Investment Generating Economic Recovery (TIGER), which has been used for road, rail, transport, and port projects across the country.
Most importantly, savings like this are important to Millennials who have an average debt of over 20,000 dollars.
But then, different states have different laws, so maybe there are some states that are more open to these creative procurement uses, and some states are more restrictive on it.”Currently APTA is working on a project looking at all the states and their procurement laws to determine where public-private partnerships are plausible and where they are not.
And the system actively looks for ways to improve, regularly handing out surveys to get feedback from riders. Costs vary enormously depending on whether it is a Metro system (with a subway or overhead line), a fast rail system, or a conventional speed system at ground level (which is the least expensive). Moreover, traffic accidents in rural parts of the developing world are a significant cause of death and injury.Secondly, it puts a real brake on national development, and on the ability of ordinary people, especially for the poor, to carry out normal daily activities. TODs should include a range of housing types, including affordable  housing for those on low-incomes. These non-motorised means of travel are of course completely non-polluting and, to the extent that they replace trips using other transport modes, they help to reduce overall pollution and greenhouse gas emission levels.

When the transit system in Buenos Aires switched to private operators, patronage doubled over a five year period and the budget burden of the system was reduced by nearly US$1 billion per year.Systems can also be financed through land development, as mentioned in the TOD section. This may be below the national average, but Millennials are also the people who are trying to break into the job market at the ground level and will not be making very much money with which to pay off that debt.
The increased value of TOD properties can be used to help fund the mass transit system, a process known as ‘value capture’ that is discussed below (and TODs are described in the article 'Transit-oriented development').Not every area can be a TOD, however.
He suggested that a train service could carry up to 50,000 people per hour in a space that could only convey 2,500 car travellers per hour. Real estate above and around transit stations can be sold by government or private developers to help finance the transit system. The Broader Connection between Public Transportation, Energy Conservation and GHG Reduction, ICF International, February 2008;Cervero R. So, the savings from public transportation could pay off almost half of their debt in a year, which makes the Millennial generation very, very happy. Therefore they must rely on walking, on the existing less than adequate public transit services, on animal transport, or on various kinds of three- and four-wheeled vehicles adapted to carry passengers, vehicles that may not be available and affordable when they are needed. In other parts of cities the challenge is to make changes within an already established infrastructure of buildings, roads and other features. In the same time and space light rail and BRT could both convey 10-20,000, while conventional buses could convey 5,000 (Vuchic, 1981).
Such property will sell for a higher price because of its closeness both to good transit and to the many facilities clustered around transit stations. While the train system in Sydney did not make an appearance on Modern Family, the new, hard to understand maps would have been perfect comedy fodder if it had though undoubtedly it will not be as amusing to the Australians. Town planning measures complement good transit by encouraging higher urban densities and mixed land use, particularly near stops and stations. This means that it’s much harder and takes much longer for children to get to school, for the sick to get to health services, and for people to get to jobs.
Over time, with new developments and altered building uses, higher densities and more mixed land use can be permitted and encouraged. Since then, there have been data claims of over 40,000 passengers per hour on the Bogota BRT and over 80,000 per hour on the Hong Kong Metro and Mumbai rail system (which carries 10 million passengers a day).
In this way, homes, workplaces, shops, schools, health centres, services and recreation facilities are closer to transit, and more people can use it as they go about their daily lives. Existing thoroughfares can be used for walking and cycling paths and dedicated transit lanes. Such huge numbers are related to the density of these cities as only mass transit can adequately service places where space is at such a premium.
Hong Kong and Tokyo financed their rail systems in this way, and many US cities are using Tax Increment Financing based on land development to fund new rail projects.
They normally take up the equivalent of one traffic lane, a lane which, as previously noted, can only carry 2,500 car travellers an hour. If developing countries can afford rapid trains these will be more competitive with cars and air transport, but the cost, of course, is more.Selecting and implementing the right transit modesIn choosing the most appropriate transit modes for particular localities, planners and communities need to consider a range of factors. Light rail is attractive to cities wanting to regenerate corridors or to provide a higher capacity system where there is space in the roadway.
These include cost, population density, and whether there is space to build railway lines or dedicated lanes for BRT or light rail.
It is argued that viable transit requires densities over thirty-five people or jobs per hectare (Newman & Kenworthy, 2006).
In addition, climate change funding mechanisms may fund transit projects, specifically, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF).Transit operating costs can of course be at least partially covered by passenger fares.
These factors should be considered very carefully from the outset, because experience indicates that once cities or localities select a particular transit mode they tend to stick with that and not adopt other modes later (Wright & Fjellstrom, 2005)Mass transit systems represent a large public investment. All of these measures complement good transit systems and make them more viable.Raising the status of mass transitMass transit sometimes has an image problem.
Moreover, the provision of transit, given its benefits, can further increase densities in its corridor (Bailey et al, 2008). Almost all modern public transit systems are subsidised by government, and each city or locality must decide the amount of subsidy it can afford to provide. Conventional buses are a critical part of any city’s transport system as they offer flexibility and linkage to the faster, higher capacity mass transit systems. If you are making this investment for your locality, you need to ensure that the public – who will ultimately be paying the cost – are aware of the full range of benefits mass transit provides, because greenhouse gas reduction may not be high on their list of priorities. It can be seen as a second-rate form of transport, used only by those who can’t afford their own vehicles. Making transit affordable for all socio-economic groups should be a high priority, and one option is to offer concessional fares for specific groups, such as older people, children and those out of work or unable to work.
However, this image is changing rapidly, as modern mass transit is attractive, clean, comfortable, safe, fast and frequent. In this way public support is being targeted at those who might not otherwise be able to afford the transit.
BRTs require dedicated lanes, off-road stops, rapid boarding and alighting, level boarding, pre-board fair collection or checking, frequent service, large capacity, clear signage and real-time information displays, clean engine technologies, signal priority, intelligent;control systems and excellent customer service. One solution is to form a partnership with a locality that already has such technologies and systems in place.
In one dedicated BRT lane 10-20,000 passengers can be carried – with some carrying over 40,000 – but at higher levels there is a risk of buses ‘bunching’ at stops. For example, the city of Kunming in China is twinned with the Swiss city of Zurich and, as one part of this, the Swiss partners have helped to build the capacity of their Kunming counterparts in the transport area. Climate control can make a big difference, as can proximity of stations to shops and other attractions.
This problem can be reduced with multiple doors on the bus and well-designed stations, as occurs in Curitiba. This has seen the development of a transport master plan, and the design and implementation of a BRT system (Feiner, 2002).
Cities like Curitiba, Bogota and Ottawa have examined moving to rail to solve this problem. Such measures will counteract the growth in many developing world cities of very car-dependent greenfield housing estates and gated communities. BRTs can be cheaper if they take over a road lane, although this can be a difficult political issue in cities. Other cities with BRTs include  Bogota, Mexico City, Jakarta, Beijing, Kunming, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Istanbul, Ahmedabad (India), Paris, Los Angeles, Pittsburgh, Miami, Boston and Brisbane. In fact, rail-based cities in the 84 global cities sample are 40% wealthier than non-rail-based cities (Newman & Kenworthy, 1999). There has been a big growth of new transit systems in developed countries, including the United States and Australia, with railways being built, for example, in over 100 US cities. This is why it helps if trains travel at high speeds and have grade-separated intersections with roads. Many parts of developing world have an advantage in that cities are already dense enough to make transit very viable, and transit does have to compete with such a high level of private vehicle use.Good quality bus systems also raise the status of mass transit, providing high quality services and infrastructure. BRT and light rail need dedicated lanes and priority traffic signals to achieve this required speed advantage (Figure 2). The newer systems include well segregated bus lanes, accessible and enclosed stations with prepayment and level boarding, lower emission buses, integrated information systems for centralised control and user information, and a distinctive image. Moreover, there is little point in having fast travel speeds if passengers have to wait a long time for the transport to arrive.
This means frequent services and integrated timetables for the different modes so that, for example, a person switching from a train to a bus has minimal waiting time. Mass transit will also have a speed advantage over private vehicles if city governments refrain from building more and faster roads. While this may increase traffic congestion in the short term, the intention is that such congestion will encourage private vehicle users to switch to the faster transit services. And making private vehicle travel more expensive – through, for example, petrol taxes, registration charges or congestion taxes – achieves two things: it recovers some of the environmental and social costs of private transport, and it is another measure to encourage people to switch from private vehicles to transit. Urban Transport, Environment, and Equity: The Case for Developing Countries, Earthscan Publications Ltd.
Urban Public Transportation Systems and Technology, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1981.Wright, L.

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