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This colloquium will examine both the scholarly and the literary Horace in Renaissance France. Horace, in full Quintus Horatius Flaccus was an outstanding Latin lyric poet and satirist under the emperor Augustus.
Very shortly after 23 BC, he set to work on three epistles, all relating in different ways to poetic activities. A biographer of the 2nd century AD quotes a jocular letter he received from Augustus, from which it emerges that the poet was short and fat. Already at the time of Horace’s death, his Odes were suffering the fate he deprecated for them and had become a school textbook. Quintus Horatius Flaccus (8 December 65 BC - 27 November 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus.
Horace also crafted elegant hexameter verses (Sermones and Epistles) and scurrilous iambic poetry (Epodes).
His poetry became "the common currency of civilization", and he still retains a devoted following, despite some stigmatization after World War I (perhaps due to popular mistrust of old-fashioned patriotism and imperial glory, with which he was identified, fairly or unfairly). Most of what we know about Horace comes from self-disclosures in his poetry, supplemented by a short biography probably written by Suetonius (Vita Horati). Horace's father was probably a Venusian taken captive by Romans in the Social War, or possibly he was descended from a Sabine captured in the Samnite Wars.
His father spent a small fortune on his son's education, eventually accompanying him to Rome to oversee his schooling and moral development. Horace left Rome, possibly after his father's death, and continued his formal education in Athens, the Oxbridge or Harvard of the ancient world, where he arrived at nineteen years of age, enrolling in The Academy. Meanwhile he mixed and lounged about with the elite of Roman youth, such as Marcus, the idle son of Cicero, and the Pompeius to whom he later addressed a poem (Odes 2.7). The Athenians however had a tradition of honoring tyrannicides, as types of their own heroes Harmodius and Aristogeiton, beside whose statues Brutus and his colleague Cassius were, by a popular decree, scheduled to be immortalized in bronze. He undoubtedly learned the basics of military life while on the march, particularly in the wilds of northern Greece, whose rugged scenery became a backdrop to some of his later poems. Octavian offered an early amnesty to his opponents and the deflated ex-military tribune quickly accepted it. Meanwhile he somehow obtained the sinecure of scriba quaestorius, a civil service position at the aerarium or Treasury, profitable enough to be purchased even by members of the ordo equester and not very demanding in its work-load, since tasks could be delegated to scribae or permanent clerks. The Epodes belong to the iambic genre of 'blame poetry', as practiced by Archilochus, and it seems that Horace wrote them like his literary hero in order to shame his fellow citizens into a proper sense of their social responsibilities. Satire was a genre unique to Latin literature and Horace introduced to it a style and outlook suited to the social and ethical issues confronting Rome.
Meanwhile, the poet was beginning to interest Octavian's supporters, a gradual process described by him in Satires 1.6. In 37 BC, Horace accompanied Maecenas on a journey to Brundisium, described in one of his poems (Satires 1.5) as a series of amusing incidents and charming encounters with other friends along the way, such as Virgil. Nevertheless his work in the period 30-27 BC began to show his closeness to the regime and his sensitivity to its developing ideology. According to Suetonius, the second book of Epistles was prompted by Augustus, who desired a verse epistle to be addressed to himself. The letter to Augustus however may have been slow in coming, being published possibly as late as 11 BC. Suetonius is also the source for gossip about Horace's sexual activities towards the end of his life, involving mirrors. The dating of Horace's works isn't known precisely and scholars often debate the exact order in which they were first 'published'. Latin poetry was a product of the Hellenistic period and thus it was self-consciously a literary artifact.
In modern literary theory, a distinction has often been made between immediate personal experience (Urerlebnis) and a mediated form of experience derived from cultural norms such as literature, philosophy and the visual arts (Bildungserlebnis). Unlike much Hellenistic-inspired literature, his poetry was not composed primarily for a small coterie of admirers and fellow poets, nor does it rely on abstruse allusions for many of its effects. His general practise was to follow the examples of poets established as classics in different genres, such as Archilochus in Epodes, Lucilius in Satires and Alcaeus in the Odes, later broadening his scope for the sake of variation and because his models were ultimately unsuited to the realities confronting him in his own life.
His craftsmanship, as a wordsmith, is evident even in his earliest attempts in any particular genre, but his handling of each genre tended to improve over time as he adapted it to his own needs. Lucilius, his model in satire, was an aggressively Roman poet and a significant voice in Roman self-awareness, endearing himself to his countrymen by his blunt frankness and explicit politics, indicative of libertas.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, ode-writing became highly fashionable in England and a large number of aspiring poets imitated him both in English and in Latin.
Horace's influence can be traced in the works of his younger contemporaries, Ovid and Propertius. His criticism of the unpolished style of his predecessor in satire, Lucilius, may have revived popular interest in him. Statius paid homage to Horace by composing one poem in Sapphic and one in Alcaic meter (the verse forms most often associated with Odes), which he included in his collection of occasional poems, Silvae. Approaching the fifth century, Prudentius, presented himself in the role of a Christian Horace, adapting Horatian meters and giving Horatian motifs a Christian tone. The copying of classical texts virtually ceased in the period between the mid sixth century and the Middle Ages.
By the last half of the ninth century, direct knowledge of Horace's poetry was not unusual. The German scholar, Ludwig Traube, once dubbed the tenth and eleventh centuries The age of Horace (aetas Horatiana), and placed it between the aetas Vergiliana of the eighth and ninth centuries, and the aetas Ovidiana of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, a distinction supposed to reflect the dominant classical Latin influences of those times.
Medieval scholars also over-schematized: they associated Horace's different genres with the different ages of man. One measure of Horace's popularity is the large number of quotes from all his works found in almost every genre of medieval literature, and the number of imitators composing in ancient quantitative Latin meter . He imitated all Horace's lyrical meters then followed these up with imitations of other meters used by Prudentius and Boethius, indicating that variety, as first modeled by Horace, was considered a fundamental aspect of the genre. Petrarch is a key figure in the transition from imitations of Horace in quantitative Latin meter to imitations in accentual meters.
In France, Horace and Pindar were the inspiration for a group of vernacular authors called the Pleiade, including for example Pierre de Ronsard and Joachim du Bellay. The sixteenth century in western Europe was also an age of translations (except in Germany, where Horace wasn't translated until well into the next century).
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, or the Age of Enlightenment, neo-classical culture was pervasive and English literature in the middle of that period has been dubbed Augustan. His verses offered a fund of mottoes, such as simplex munditiis, splendide mendax, sapere aude, nunc est bibendum, carpe diem (the latter perhaps being the only one still in common use today), quoted even in works as prosaic as Edmund Quincy's A treatise of hemp-husbandry (1765). Horatian-style lyrics were increasingly typical of Oxford and Cambridge verse collections for this period, most of them in Latin but some like the previous ode in English. Yet Horace's lyrics could offer inspiration to libertines as well as moralists, and neo-Latin sometimes served as a kind of discrete veil for the risquZ. On the other hand, Andrew Marvel took inspiration from Horace's Odes 1.37 to compose his English masterpiece Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland, in which subtly nuanced reflections on the execution of Charles I echo Horace's ambiguous response to the death of Cleopatra (Marvel's ode was suppressed in spite of its subtlety and only began to be widely published in 1776). Alexander Pope wrote direct Imitations of Horace (published with the original Latin alongside) and also echoed him in Essays and The Rape of the Lock. Horace's Ars Poetica is second only to Aristotle's Poetics in its influence on literary theory and criticism. Most European nations had their own 'Horaces': thus for example Friedrich von Hagedorn was called The German Horace and Maciej Kazimierz Sarbiewski The Polish Horace (the latter was much imitated by English poets such as Henry Vaughan and Abraham Cowley).
Horace maintained a central role in the education of English-speaking elites right up until the 1960s. The most famous poem of Ernest Dowson took its title and its heroine's name from a line of Odes 4.1, Non sum qualis eram bonae sub regno Cynarae, as well as its motif of nostalgia for a former flame. The American poet, Robert Frost, echoed Horace's Satires in the conversational and sententious idiom of some of his longer poems, such as The Lesson for Today (1941), and also in his gentle advocacy of life on the farm, as in Hyla Brook (1916), evoking Horace's fons Bandusiae in Ode 3.13.
Horace's Epodes have largely been ignored in the modern era, excepting those with political associations of historical significance. Lyric poetry has come to mean that in which the composer presents his or her personal thoughts and feelings. The Romans took over the metres, though not necessarily the accompaniment, and employed them in a rather more precise form to express themselves poetically. Gaius Valerius Catullus (87 - 54 BC) was born in Verona, probably of a moderately rich family. Catullus moved in high circles, too, especially if the woman he calls Lesbia in his poems, and with whom he had a blazing affair, was Clodia, emancipated and profligate sister of Ciceroa€™s enemy Publius Clodius and the wife of Metellus Celer, consul in 60 BC. We have just 116 poems of Catullus, varying in length from two to 480 lines, and a few fragments; this probably represents the whole of his published work. Whereas Catullus often wrote in the passions of the moment, Quintus Horatius Flaccus (65 - 8 BC), had the leisure and time to marshal his thoughts into lines which usually display more grace and artifice than those of Catullus, but less emotion. Horace was born in Venusia, Apulia, son of a freedman who made a good living for himself and acquired a small estate. Gold aureus of Augustus, depicting a herald for the Saecular Games in 17 BC, holding the caduceus, his staff of office.
Horacea€™s odes are regarded as his finest works and are written in a variety of Greek metres whose rules he followed strictly. Horace appears to have been a bit of a hypochondriac, while enjoying to the full his life, his work, and the position his work gave him in society.
In 55 BC, Catullus wrote some scurrilous verses about Julius Caesar and his chief engineer in Gaul, Mamurra.
Catullusa€™s father, a leading citizen of Verona at whose house Caesar often used to stay when wintering in his province of Cisalpine Gaul, was so appalled at his sona€™s indiscretion that he ordered him personally to apologize.
Horace coined the adage, a€?To die for onea€™s country is a gratifying and proper thing to doa€? (Odes III.
Horacea€™s Ars Poetica [The art of poetry] is dedicated to Lucius Calpurnius Piso, half-brother of Calpurnia, Caesara€™s third wife, and Luciusa€™s two sons.
Horace est avec Virgile, son contemporain et son ami, un des poetes les plus brillants de l'epoque augusteenne. La famille s'etait de bonne heure transportee a Rome, ou l'ancien esclave fit tout pour assurer a son fils l'education la plus soignee. Les circonstances, la volonte du poete ont juxtapose a ces poemes de protestation vehemente des vers ou renait une lumiere – badinages d'amitie heureuse, espoir fremissant d'anxiete – a l'approche de la bataille d'Actium. Dans ces peintures un peu crispees, sarcastiques, il y a par moments des zones plus claires Satires, paru vers 29 avant J.-C.
Ce dut etre une etrange surprise lorsque, six ans plus tard, Horace donna aux Romains son recueil d'Odes (livres I-III).
Voila qui restreindra singulierement la part des chansons a boire ou des pieces legeres, dont on serait d'abord tente de croire que, si charmantes soient-elles, elles representent un peu, dans cette poesie, le passe. La qualite dominante de l'ensemble du recueil consiste peut-etre en ceci : Horace a trouve un ton – il s'agit sans doute d'une certaine distance etablie entre le poete et l'objet du poeme – qui assure grace, consistance a tout ce qu'il confie a sa strophe.
L'art d'Horace n'a-t-il ete que de nous faire voir le monde, notre vie a travers une buee lumineuse, analogue a celle qui monte des coupes indulgentes d'une ivresse naissante, sereine, somme toute, meme quand s'y mele un grain d'acceptation desabusee ? Le premier livre des Epitres, qui se construit parallelement au recueil lyrique, nous montre en tout cas un homme qui, a sa maniere, prend la vie fort au serieux.
Le lecteur moderne se demande parfois si cette morale ne manque pas un peu d'horizon, d'ideal et, somme toute, d'efficacite. Le recueil des Odes, le premier livre des Epitres representent ce qu'Horace a realise de plus acheve. Il faut sans doute rattacher a ces echanges plus intimes qui s'etablissent entre Horace et le prince la composition de deux tres longues Epitres sur le theatre.
When Simon became obssesed with Herbie's power and frustrated he could not control him he searched for Herbie's orginal creator. Horace dies at the end of the film after driving into a dam and exploding underground where a demonic scream was heard. Although Horace may have been a relatively late arrival on the educational scene in France (compared to Vergil or Seneca), his influence was crucial in the formation of both the identity of the poet and ideas of philosophical liberty. His father owned a small property and could afford to take his son to Rome and ensure personally his getting the best available education. These poems drew on Greek roots, stating Horace’s rejection of public life firmly and aiming at wisdom through serenity.
He himself confirms his short stature and, describing himself at the age of about 44, states that he was gray before his time, fond of sunshine, and irritable but quickly appeased. An officer in the republican army that was crushed at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he was befriended by Octavian's right-hand man in civil affairs, Maecenas, and became something of a spokesman for the new regime.
Horatian studies have become so diverse and intensive in recent years that it is probably no longer possible for any one scholar to command the whole range of arguments and issues. Founded by Plato, The Academy was now dominated by Epicureans and Stoics, whose theories and practices made a deep impression on the young man from Venusia.


It was in Athens too that he probably acquired deep familiarity with the ancient tradition of Greek lyric poetry, at that time largely the preserve of grammarians and academic specialists (access to such material was easier in Athens than in Rome, where the public libraries had yet to be built by Asinius Pollio and Augustus).
It was here that Marcus Junius Brutus turned, after the assassination of Julius Caesar, seeking support for a republican cause that was bereft of ideas, the much-vaunted ideal of liberty actually being irrelevant to a conflict that was essentially a struggle between elites. Brutus was f?ted around town in grand receptions and he made a point of attending academic lectures, all the while recruiting supporters among the impressionable young men studying there - Horace among them. It was there in 42 BC that Octavian (later Augustus) and his associate Mark Antony crushed the republican forces at the Battle of Philippi.
On returning to Italy, however, he was confronted with yet another loss: his father's estate in Venusia was one of many throughout Italy to be confiscated for the settlement of veterans (Virgil lost his estate in the north about the same time). Social bonds in Rome had been decaying since the destruction of Carthage a little more than a hundred years earlier, under the alluring prospect of vast wealth attainable by plunder and corruption, and the troubles weren't over yet, with Octavian, Mark Antony and confederates like Sextus Pompey all jockeying for a bigger share of the spoils. Ironically, his approach radically changed its role from public, social engagement to private meditation. The way was opened for him by his friend, the poet Virgil, who had gained admission into the privileged circle around Maecenas, Octavian's lieutenant, following the success of his Eclogues. His republican sympathies, and his role at Philippi, may have caused him some pangs of remorse over his new status. In fact the journey was political in its motivation, with Maecenas en route to negotiatie the Treaty of Tarentum with Antony, a fact Horace artfully keeps from the reader (political issues are largely avoided in the first book of satires). There are also some indications in his verses that he was with Maecenas at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC, where Octavian put an end to Antony's hopes (Epodes 1 and 9).
He adapted their forms and themes from Greek lyric poetry of the seventh and sixth centuries.
In Odes 1.2, for example, he eulogized Octavian in hyperboles that echo Hellenistic court poetry. He greeted Augustus on his return from abroad in 24 BC as a beloved ruler whose recent illness had endangered his own happiness (3.14). Maecenas was still the dominant confidante but Horace had now begun to assert his own independence, suavely declining constant invitations to attend him (Epistles 1.7). Augustus was in fact a prolific letter-writer and he once asked Horace to be his personal secretary. It celebrated, among other things, the 15 BC military victories of his stepsons, Drusus and Tiberius, yet it and the following letter (Epistles 2.2) were largely devoted to literary theory and criticism. The poet died at 56 years of age, not long after his friend Maecenas, near whose tomb he was laid to rest. Horace's works were written in Greek metres, ranging from the hexameters of the Satires and Epistles and iambs of the Epodes, which were relatively easy to adapt into Latin, to the more complex measures used in the Odes, such as alcaics and sapphics, which were sometimes a difficult fit for Latin structure and syntax. The distinction has little relevance for Horace however since his poetry is a complete blend of personal and literary experiences, such as Satires 1.5, which recounts in realistic details an actual trip Horace made with Virgil and some other literary friends and which is closely modeled on a Satire by Lucilius, his predecessor. It was elitist in its literary standards yet it was written for a wide readership, as a publicly accessible form of art.
Archilochus was an aristocratic Greek whose iambic poetry had a social function that was immediately intelligible to an audience in the seventh century but which became a mere contrivance or literary motif when transposed to Rome, and Lucilius was a senator's son who could castigate his peers with impunity, whereas Horace was a mere freedman's son who had to tread carefully. Thus for example it is generally agreed that his second book of Satires, where human folly identifies itself through dialogue between characters, is superior to the first, where human folly is pointed out in the poet's monologues (though the first book also includes some of his most popular poems).
Odes 1-3 were not well received when first 'published' in Rome, yet Augustus later commissioned a ceremonial ode for the Centennial Games in 17 BC and encouraged the publication of Odes 4, after which Horace's reputation as Rome's premier lyricist was assured.
These preliminary comments touch on a small sample of developments in the reception of Horace's work.
The former rivaled him in creating a completely natural style of expression in hexameter verse, and the latter cheekily mimicked him in his third book of elegies.
For Persius, and later for Juvenal, both Horace and Lucilius offered valid models -thus Persius described his own satires as lacking Lucilian acerbity and Horace's gentler touch.
Works attributed to Helenius Acro and Pomponius Porphyrio are just the remnants of a much larger body of Horatian scholarship. St Jerome however modeled an uncompromising response to pagan literature, observing: "What harmony can there be between Christ and the Devil? Horace's work survived probably just in two or three books imported into northern Europe from Italy, these being the ancestors of six extant manuscripts dated to the ninth century. His influence on the Carolingian Renaissance can be found in the poems of Heiric of Auxerre and in some manuscripts marked with neumes, possibly intended as an aid to the memorization and discussion of his lyric meters. It was over-schematized: Horace was a substantial influence in the ninth century as well, and it seems Traube had focused on Horace's Satires. The most prolific imitator of his Odes was the Bavarian monk, Metellus of Tegernsee, who composed a large collection of poems dedicated to the patron saint of Tegernsee Abbey, St Quirinus, around the year 1170. His verse letters in Latin were modeled on the Epistles and he wrote a letter to Horace in the form of an ode.
The first English translator was Thomas Drant, who placed translations of Jeremiah and Horace side by side in Medicinable Morall, 1566, the same year that the Scot George Buchanan paraphrased the Psalms in a Horatian context.
It is not always easy to separate out Horace's influence during those centuries (the mixing of influences is shown for example in one poet's pseudonym, Horace Juvenal).
There were three new editions in 1612 (two in Leiden, one in Frankfurt) and again in 1699 (Utrecht, Barcelona, Cambridge). Thus for example Benjamin Loveling authored a catalogue of Drury Lane and Covent Garden prostitutes, in Sapphic stanzas, and an encomium for a dying lady "of salacious memory". A pedantic emphasis on the formal aspects of language-learning at the expense of literary appreciation may have made him unpopular in some quarters yet it also confirmed his influence -a tension in his reception that underlies Byron's famous lines from Childe Harold (Canto iv, 77). John Keats echoed the opening of Horace's Epodes 14 in the opening lines of Ode to a Nightingale.
William Thackery produced a version of Odes 1.38 in which Horace's questionable 'boy' became 'Lucy', and Gerard Manley Hopkins translated the boy innocently as 'child'. The obscene qualities of some of the poems have repulsed even scholars yet more recently a better understanding of the nature of Iambic poetry has led to a re-evaluation of the whole collection. Originally, it simply meant poetry or a song accompanied by the lyre, for which the Greeks used a variety of metres. After arriving in Rome in about 62 BC, he became one of the wave of a€?new poetsa€? who reacted against their elders while, from the evidence of his own poetry, boozing, whoring, and generally living it up.
In 57 BC, Catullus was the guest, or camp-follower, of Memmius, governor of Bithynia, to whom Lucretius dedicated De Rerum Natura. The former, which include some of his early work, are on a variety of political and satirical themes, with a few love poems. Caesar, who had a forgiving nature when it suited him, admitted that he found the lines extremely offensive, but accepted the apology and invited Catullus to dine with him later that day. Over 1000 pages of news, information, games and controversy about the life, literature, art and archaeology of the ancient world of Greece & Rome.
Many of the illustrations can be made larger than they are in the text by clicking on the appropriate image in the gallery. Since national copyright laws vary, you should take advice before printing out any material. Ses ?uvres lyriques (Odes), sa pensee morale (Satires, Epitres notamment), son Art poetique ont exerce une influence profonde sur le developpement des formes litteraires et sur le devenir de la civilisation. Apres avoir acheve ses etudes liberales, Horace, qui vient de depasser la vingtaine, part pour Athenes, ou il vivra dans la compagnie de jeunes nobles, tel le fils de Ciceron, beaucoup plus riches que lui, mais egalement passionnes de poesie, de philosophie et de plaisir ; lui-meme suit avec predilection l'enseignement de l'Academie, la moins dogmatique, la plus scientifique des ecoles d'alors. Sans aucune hesitation, a ce qu'il semble, Horace s'est trouve du cote des republicains, c'est-a-dire du senat et des conservateurs. Pourtant, revenu a Rome, ou il commence a ecrire, celui-ci doit conserver l'appui de ses anciens amis d'Athenes.
C'est que, dans les dix ans qui ont suivi son retour, Horace a evolue : peu a peu il s'est resigne, puis rallie a Octave, devenu – il ne se trompait pas – le meilleur champion des chances qui restaient aux Romains.
Ceux qui le connaissaient comme un critique tres eveille et fort enclin a s'amuser de lui-meme n'ont pas du lire sans etonnement les pieces d'introduction, de conclusion, ou il se promettait l'acces aux plus hauts parvis de la gloire. Non pas un monde de marbre : les attitudes sont pleines de souplesse, et les sentiments souvent ondoyants. Elle semble un effort sans cesse a reprendre – vrai travail de Penelope – pour etablir la vie dans un etat d'equilibre qui ne nous parait pas, de soi, extremement attrayant.
Poemes bien differents de ton, mais qui ne sont pas sans rapports ; il se pourrait que la nettete du regard dans les Odes soit, en quelques moments fulgurants, la recompense, la justification de cette ascese un peu tatillonne qui emplit les Epitres. However, Herbie is rebuilt by Hank shortly afterwards, much to the digust of Simon and Horace. The nuts and bolts of marginalia and commentaries have still not been subjected to the kind of scrutiny that they reward, and it is hoped that all participants will come away from the conference with a clearer idea of the disciplinary boundaries that cluster around 'reception' and 'reading'. He discusses ethical questions: the race for wealth and position, the folly of extremes, the desirability of mutual forbearance, and the evils of ambition. In 17 BC he composed the Secular Hymn (Carmen saeculare) for ancient ceremonies called the Secular Games. The medieval epoch had little use for the Odes, which did not appeal to its piety, although his Satires and Epistles were read because of their predominantly moralistic tones.
For some commentators, his association with the regime was a delicate balance in which he maintained a strong measure of independence (he was "a master of the graceful sidestep") but for others he was, in John Dryden's phrase, "a well-mannered court slave".
Recent scholarship tends to frown on biographical interpretations of an author's works (critical analysis reveals only the author's mask or persona) but Horace not only invites our interest, he also mentions events that are verifiable, and thus it is valid to make some inferences about the individual behind the poems. He was evidently a man of strong abilities however and managed to gain his freedom and improve his social position. One modern scholar has counted a dozen civil wars in the hundred years leading up to 31 BC, including the Spartacus rebellion, eight years before Horace's birth. However most Romans considered the civil wars to be the result of contentio dignitatis, or rivalry between the foremost families of the city, and he too seems to have accepted the principate as Rome's last hope for much needed peace. The fragmented nature of the Greek world had enabled his literary heroes to express themselves freely and maybe his semi-retirement from the Treasury in Rome to his own estate in the Sabine hills empowered him to some extent also. Perhaps it was disappointment that led him to put aside the genre in favor of verse letters. In the final poem of the first book of Epistles, he revealed himself to be forty-four years old in the consulship of Lollius and Lepidus i.e. Horace refused the secretarial role but complied with the emperor's request for a verse letter.
The literary theme was explored still further in Ars Poetica, published separately but written in the form of an epistle and sometimes referred to as Epistles 2.3 (possibly the last poem he ever wrote). Both men bequeathed their property to Augustus, an honor that the emperor expected of his friends. He incorporated literary theory and criticism in his poems throughout his career and he considered himself a partisan in the development of a new and sophisticated style, influenced by the Callimachian aesthetics of brevity, elegance and polish. A similar kind of ambivalence characterizes his literary persona, since his presentation of himself as part of a small community of philosophically aware people, seeking true peace of mind and shunning vices like greed, was well suited to Augustus's ambitious plans to reform public morality, corrupted by greed. Horace instead adopted an oblique and ironic style of satire, ridiculing stock characters and anonymous targets.
His Epodes were modeled on the verses of the Greek poet in their meter and in some formal aspects of the iambic genre, as 'blame poetry', yet he avoided targeting real scapegoats. His Odes were to become the best received of all his poems in ancient times, acquiring a classic status that discouraged imitation: no other poet produced a comparable body of lyrics in the four centuries that followed (though that may have had more to do with social causes, particularly the parasitism that Italy was sinking into).
His Epistles provided them with a model for their own verse letters and also for Ovid's exile poetry. Moreover publication of Odes 1-3 may have created a vogue for Pindar's lyrics, due to the fact that Horace had largely neglected that form (see Pindar#Influence and legacy). Juvenal's caustic satire was influenced mainly by Lucilius but Horace by then was a school classic and echoes of his work could be identified by Juvenal in a round-about way as "themes worthy of the Venusine lamp". What has Horace to do with the Psalter?"By the early 6th century, Horace and Prudentius were both part of a classical heritage that was struggling to survive the disorder of the times. Two of the six manuscripts are French in origin, one was produced in Alsace, and the other three show Irish influence, probably written in continental monasteries (Lombardy for example). Ode 4.11 is even neumed with the melody of a hymn to John the Baptist, Ut queant laxis, both composed in Sapphic stanzas. Horace wrote four different kinds of poems on account of the four ages, the Odes for boys, the Ars Poetica for young men, the Satires for mature men, the Epistles for old and complete men." It was even thought that Horace had composed his works in the order in which they had been placed by ancient scholars. Among the most successful imitators of Horace's hexameters was another Germanic author, calling himself Sextus Amarcius, around 1100, who composed four books, the first two exemplifying vices, the second pair mainly virtues, modeled on Horace's Satires and Epistles and exhibiting some of the stylistic differences between the two genres.
The vernacular languages were dominant in Spain and Portugal in the sixteenth century, where Horace's influence is notable in the works of such authors as Garcilaso de la Vega, Juan Boscan Sa de Miranda, Antonio Ferreira and Fray Luis de Le—n, the latter for example writing odes on the Horatian theme beatus ille (happy the man). Ben Jonson put Horace on the stage in 1601 in Poetaster, along with other classical Latin authors, giving them all their own verses to speak in translation. However a measure of his influence can be found in the diversity of the people interested in his works, both among readers and authors. Cheap editions were plentiful and fine editions were also produced, including one whose entire text was engraved by John Pine in copperplate. His works were also used to justify commonplace themes, such as patriotic obedience, as in James Parry's English lines from an Oxford University collection in 1736.


Some Latin imitations of Horace were politically subversive, such as a marriage ode by Anthony Alsop that included a rallying cry for the Jacobite cause.
Horace appealed also to female poets, such as Anna Seward (Original sonnets on various subjects, and odes paraphrased from Horace, 1799) and Elizabeth Tollet, who composed a Latin ode in Sapphic meter to celebrate her brother's return from overseas, with tea and coffee substituted for the wine of Horace's sympotic settings. Horace's Satires and Epistles however also had a huge impact, influencing theorists and critics such as John Dryden. Horace was translated by Sir Theodore Martin (biographer of Prince Albert) but minus some ungentlemanly verses, such as the erotic Odes 1.25 and Epodes 8 and 12. Wilfred Owen's famous poem, quoted above, incorporated Horatian text to question patriotism while ignoring the rules of Latin scansion.
A re-appraisal of the Epodes also appears in creative adaptations by recent poets (such as a 2004 collection of poems that relocates the ancient context to a 1950s industrial town). Others, including his longest (Poem LXIV), an account in hexameters of the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, have mythological themes, but still show depth of poetic emotion. At 18, he was caught up in Greece in the civil wars following the assassination of Caesar, and fought at Philippi on the wrong side. Most are written in an iambic metre, a longer line being followed by a shorter one, which is known as the a€?epodea€?, or after song. 13), and also carpe diem, which might be translated, a€?Enjoy yourself, ita€™s later than you thinka€?. A travers les allusions d'Horace, on l'imaginerait volontiers comptable, intendant, voire agent municipal ; homme de devoir en tout cas, connaissant beaucoup de gens et les observant de son coin avec un detachement amuse. Une amitie aussi a contribue a cette renaissance interieure, qui va rendre a Horace la joie de vivre. Cependant, ce grand lyrisme nouveau, il faut le chercher d'abord dans le cycle des six Odes romaines qui ouvrent le livre III, meditation sur les valeurs qui ont fait la grandeur de Rome. On dirait plutot une luminosite amicale, un silence sur et non intimidant, comme si, de fait, l'eternite, ce paroxysme de presence, etait toute proche. Les Anciens, d'autre part, ont, beaucoup plus que nous, l'habitude de poursuivre en commun des recherches que nous reservons, de coutume, au secret d'une meditation solitaire : n'oublions jamais Socrate. Et, de part et d'autre, c'est un meme monde de realites immobiles, ici saisies dans l'intuition esthetique, la precautionneusement degagees ou preservees.
Horace est plus affirmatif, plus enthousiaste quand il ecrit a ses amis et plus reserve sur les chances d'un succes quand il s'adresse a Auguste.
Gustav Stumpfell he asked him to build another living car offerring his facilities for the car's creation. Simon challenges Hank to a duelling race, at the end of which "the winner takes home both cars." During this race, Simon uses each of Horace's gadgets against Herbie, but Herbie manages to overcome all of them and win the race. Early in 38 BC he was introduced to Gaius Maecenas, a man of letters from Etruria in central Italy who was one of Octavian’s principal political advisers. After Octavian had defeated Antony and Cleopatra Horace published his Epodes (poems full of mockery, though Horace attacks social abuses, not individuals) and a second book of Satires. The Odes came into their own again with the Renaissance and, along with the Ars poetica, exerted much influence on Western poetry through the 19th century. At best, it offered future prospects through contacts with other poets and their patrons among the rich. As the heirs to Hellenistic culture, Horace and his fellow Romans were not equipped intellectually for collective answers to their most pressing problems. He depicted the process as an honorable one, based on merit and mutual respect, eventually leading to true friendship, and there is reason to believe that his relationship was genuinely friendly, not just with Maecenas but afterwards with Augustus as well. Thus even when his lyrics touched on public affairs they reinforced the importance of private life.
He addressed his first book of Epistles to a variety of friends and acquaintances in an urbane style reflecting his new social status as a knight. His libertas was the private freedom of a philosophical outlook, not a political or social privilege.
Whereas Archilochus presented himself as a serious and vigorous opponent of wrong-doers, Horace aimed for comic effects and adopted the persona of a weak and ineffectual critic of his times (as symbolized for example in his surrender to the witch Canidia in the final epode). By a process called derivatio, he varied established meters through the addition or omission of syllables, a technique that Seneca the Younger borrowed when adapting Horatian meters to the stage.
Boethius, the last major author of classical Latin literature, could still take inspiration from Horace, sometimes mediated by Senecan tragedy. The hymn became the basis of the solfege system -an association with western music quite appropriate for a lyric poet, though the language of the hymn is Prudentian rather than Horatian. Despite its naivety, the schematism involved an appreciation of Horace's works as a collection, the Ars Poetica, Satires and Epistles appearing to find as much favor as the Odes.
One modern scholar has speculated that authors who imitated Horace in meters based on accentual rhythms (including stressed Latin and vernacular languages) may have considered their work a natural sequel to Horace's metrical variety. The poet James Thomson owned five editions of Horace's work and the physician James Douglas had five hundred books with Horace-related titles.
There was considerable debate over the value of different lyrical forms for contemporary poets, as represented on one hand by the kind of four-line stanzas made familiar by Horace's Sapphic and Alcaic Odes and, on the other, the loosely structured Pindarics associated with the odes of Pindar. Thomas Creech printed Epodes 8 and 12 in the original Latin but left out their English translations. Lord Lytton produced a popular translation and William Gladstone also wrote translations during his last days as Prime Minister.
Housman considered Odes 4.7, in Archilochian couplets, the most beautiful poem of antiquity and yet he generally shared Horace's penchant for quatrains, being readily adapted to his own elegiac and melancholy strain. However there were few other echoes of Horace in the war period, possibly because war is not actually a major theme of Horace's work. He was pardoned, but when he got back to Rome he found that his fathera€™s estate had been confiscated. The first three books of odes were written between 33 and 23 BC, and reflect the events of the time.
Ce sont des pieces concues pour l'amusement et la prouesse, mais ou la perfection de la forme est comme derision de l'insignifiance ou de l'irrealite du sujet : invectives contre un mauvais poete ou contre une vieille dame insatiable, epigrammes precieuses, variations fantaisistes sur les scenes de magie noire. Un des fideles du prince, Mecene, s'est interesse a lui, et peut-etre d'abord a l'homme plus qu'au poete. Et en effet, au temps d'Horace, le grand lyrisme meditatif et religieux, celui de Pindare et des ch?urs de la tragedie, etait mort, avec les solennites quasi liturgiques qui lui servaient de cadres.
Un peu au hasard de la lecture, on trouvera dans le livre II, ou predomine l'inspiration philosophique, les pieces ou le poete aborde ses themes de predilection : l'application a ne pas laisser dissiper le temps, la maitrise de soi, le souci de l'essentiel.
C'est cette attitude emerveillee, contemplative en somme, qui a deconcerte les romantiques. Ou, au contraire, plutot qu'il ne fut en deca de la realite qui nous obsede, ne serait-il pas au-dela, au seuil d'une plus consistante realite ?
En revanche, s'ils sont plus libres que nous pour des echanges portant sur le fond, ils sont aussi plus attentifs a ce qu'une certaine tenue leur garde une qualite. C'est ce qui explique que l'homme Horace, avec ses « problemes », comme nous dirions, mais aussi avec le detail de sa vie, ses souvenirs, ses dons de conteur, intervienne si souvent. Tout serait acquis, semble-t-il, si l'on parvenait a vivre dans l'egalite d'humeur, en se gardant de l'ambition, de l'amour des richesses, de l'envie.
Avec le temps, le souvenir et la menace des guerres civiles reculaient dans le passe, il devenait raisonnable de croire que, cette fois, une page pouvait etre tournee.
S'agit-il de deux moments differents de sa pensee ou ces differences dependent-elles surtout de la qualite de ses correspondants ?
After 27 BC Horace turned, in the most active period of his poetical life, to the Odes, of which he published three books in 23 BC. Ovid's Ibis was a rare attempt at the form, inspired mainly by Callimachus, and there are some iambic elements in Martial but they owe more to Catullus than Horace. It can be argued that Horace's influence extended beyond poetry to dignify core themes and values, such as self-sufficiency, inner contentment and courage. Dante referred to him as Orazio satiro, an epithet perhaps reflecting the special status that the Satires and Epistles had attained by the later Middle Ages, and he awarded him a privileged position in the first circle of Hell, with Homer, Ovid and Lucan. Horace was often commended in periodicals such as The Spectator, as a hallmark of good judgement, moderation and manliness, a focus for moralizing.
Philip Francis left out both the English and Latin for those same two epodes, a gap in the numbering the only indication that something was amiss. He became a civil service clerk, and in his spare time wrote verses which caught the eye of Virgil, who introduced him to his own patron, Gaius Maecenas (c. D'autres poemes, dans le meme recueil, sont d'une veine toute differente, telle l'epode XVI, qui date peut-etre du debut de 41 avant J.-C. Grand seigneur sans prejuges, il n'a pas ete choque par la susceptibilite du partisan, naguere un ennemi, aujourd'hui une sorte de declasse, qui hante des milieux si differents du sien. Sous d'autres cieux, il est vrai, et meme plus anciennement, la Grece avait connu encore un autre lyrisme, bien different, celui de la chanson eolienne, illustree des noms d'Alcee et de Sappho. Dans cette vision uniformement belle, la reussite du lyrisme horatien est d'avoir rendu la saveur distincte des moments les plus fugitifs, irremplacables, perdus a jamais si un regard n'a su les recueillir. Or, il existait a Rome des ceremonies destinees a clore une epoque et a en inaugurer une autre qu'on esperait meilleure ; on les appelait seculaires. Les problemes du theatre ont dans les societes antiques une importance qui outrepasse la litterature ; c'est la que s'affine, s'exalte, comme dans un creuset, l'ame commune de la cite.
He is made from the same metal and was originally meant to be just like him until Simon corrupted his life force to obey him creating a mirror image of Herbie's personality. Horace, in the Odes, represented himself as heir to earlier Greek lyric poets but displayed a sensitive, economical mastery of words all his own.
He imitated many other Greek lyric poets as well, and many scholars believe he employed a 'motto' technique, beginning each ode with some reference to a Greek original and then diverging from it. French editions of Horace were influential in England and these too were regularly bowdlerized. En principe, c'etait la chanson a boire avec des strophes courtes, bien dessinees, telle qu'on peut l'improviser dans un banquet d'amitie ; le primat revenait a la vivacite, a la confidence, aux charmes de l'instant. Il est important, pour progresser dans l'intelligence de l'?uvre, de laisser ouvertes ces deux possibilites de lecture. Ni la solidarite, donc, de la pensee morale, ni l'insistance avec laquelle elle s'affirme, ni les finesses de l'expression, ni l'architecture etudiee du plan d'ensemble n'empechent que les Epitres soient de vraies lettres. Il manquait a cette sagesse d'avoir compris que, pour s'unifier et se consolider, l'homme avait a viser plus loin que lui-meme.
When he born his creator insited he should be destroyed but Simon refused claiming the car was "beautiful" but needed a test run. A few years later Maecenas set him up in a farm near Tibur (Tivoli), the remains of which survive. Mais, depuis des siecles, cette tradition, elle aussi, etait entree en lethargie, deshonoree par les productions d'amateurs sans talent ou par les prouesses rebarbatives de techniciens de la metrique. Horace aurait pu trouver cela chez Platon : il a ete victime de son aversion pour toute forme systematique de la pensee. Dans le detail, l'Art poetique est un veritable feu d'artifice, crepitant de toutes les discussions poursuivies depuis la Poetique d'Aristote jusqu'aux traites les plus recents des theoriciens. Between this farm, a cottage in Tibur, and a house in Rome, Horace lived out his existence as a bachelor with, when it suited him, Epicurean tendencies.
Ce fut un moment important dans la vie du poete : il est revenu plusieurs fois sur le bonheur qu'il avait eprouve en mettant sur les levres innocentes de ses choristes (vingt-sept jeunes gens et vingt-sept jeunes filles) les paroles que Rome elle-meme adresserait aux dieux. Surtout, dans cette forme comme restructuree, mais qui reste a la mesure des inflexions d'une voix personnelle, il a cru que les themes les plus graves de la meditation des hommes pouvaient trouver leur expression. Il a decouvert alors, semble-t-il, l'importance possible de sa poesie et que la cite pouvait se reconnaitre en elle. On sait l'immense retentissement de l'?uvre, a la Renaissance, dans la formation du classicisme ; aujourd'hui meme, on ne s'y reportera jamais sans fruit.
La poesie lyrique redevient, mais par la meditation d'un homme qui, a l'occasion, s'affirmera prophete ou chantre inspire, une des educatrices possibles de l'humanite.
Il a compris, surtout, que le projet fondamental d'Auguste, la paix a retablir dans l'univers, la prosperite a ramener, cet ideal d'un bonheur un peu terre a terre, mais apporte a tous et embelli par la proximite des dieux, c'etait, en somme, son projet a lui. Les rapprochements qu'on a tente d'etablir entre la satire horatienne et les « diatribes » des predicateurs stoiciens ou cyniques sont moins convaincants. Chez le poete, c'est le souci du trait authentique et plaisant qui predomine ; la morale n'est encore que pretexte a faire ressortir la diversite des travers ou des folies des hommes. Ces themes font, en tout cas, la nouveaute d'un quatrieme livre d'Odes, paru vers 13 avant J.-C.



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Category: thomas the train table set up | 18.09.2015


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