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This is the first of two chapters in which we are going to start investigating the SPI data bus, and how we can control devices using it with our Arduino systems. Within these tutorials we consider the Arduino board to be the master and the SPI devices to be slaves. Data travels back and forth along the MOSI and MISO lines between our Arduino and the SPI device. Apart from sending numerical values along the SPI bus, binary numbers can also represent commands. Our first example will use a simple yet interesting part – a digital potentiometer (we also used one in the I2C tutorial).
Vdd connects to 5V, Vss to GND, CS to digital 10, SCK to digital 13, SDI to digital 11 and SDO to digital 12. Before moving forward, if digital potentiometers are new for you, consider reading this short guide written by Microchip about the differences between mechanical and digital potentiometers. In this example, we will use the Analog Devices AD5204 four-channel digital potentiometer (data sheet.pdf).
The digital Potentiometers made by analog devices (AD5204) has 255 positions can be adjusted by the microcomputer that can receive commands from the computer.
I was working on a project where I needed to use some of those AD5204, so I developed a tiny breakout board in order to be able to prototype it using a SMD chip on the breadboard.
Now I’m sharing the Eagle Cad files, so whenever you need to use this chip, you can make some breakout boards with OSH PARK and use it with your projects.
The SPI bus may seem to be a complex interface to master, however with some brief study of this explanation and practical examples you will soon become a bus master!

It is a synchronous serial data bus – data can travel in both directions at the same time, as opposed to (for example) the I2C bus that cannot do so. You should know by now that eight bits make one byte, therefore representing a binary number with a value of between zero and 255. The ADDR byte tells the device which of six potentiometers to control (numbered 0 to 5), and the DATA byte is the value for the potentiometer (0~255). Generally the most difficult part for people is interpreting the device data sheet to understand how commands and data need to be structured for transmission. By following the examples below, you should gain a practical understanding of how the SPI bus and devices can be used with our Arduino boards. To control it we need to send two bytes of data – the first byte is the control byte, and thankfully for this example it is always zero (as the address for the wiper value is 00h [see table 4-1 of the data sheet]). It contains four 10k ohm linear potentiometers, and each potentiometer is adjustable to one of 256 positions.
To do this we will learn the necessary theory, and then apply it by controlling a variety of devices.
In other words, to communicate with a particular SPI device on the bus, we set the SS line to that device to LOW, then communicate with it, then set the line back to HIGH. Just remember to have all SS lines high except for the line connected to the SPI device you wish to use at the time. When communicating with our SPI devices, we need to know which way the device deals with the data – MSB or LSB first. These parameters will vary with each device and should be illustrated in the particular device’s data sheet.

The settings are volatile, which means they are not remembered when the power is turned off. This is a chip with 4 digitally controlled POTs and the pots can be daisy chained to have multiple chips controled by a single SPI interface. It can be easily controlled by any microcontroller as it uses a Serial Peripheral Interface Bus (SPI). MSB (most significant bit) is the left-hand side of the binary number, and LSB (least significant bit) is the right-hand side of the number.
For example, to set potentiometer number two to 125, we would send 2 then 125 to the device. Therefore when power is applied the potentiometers are all pre set to the middle of the scale. Havya Kullan?m? Lehim Nas?l Yap?l?r TDA7377 Amfi Devresi Metal Dedektoru Devresi ICL8038 LM386 Daha fazla yaz?..
Our example is the SOIC-24 surface mount example, however it is also manufactured in DIP format as well.

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