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Author: admin | Category: Calculatrice Pret Auto | Date: 01.06.2015

This site can be best viewed in Firefox 3.5 and above , IE 9 and above , chrome 18 and above. Longsar on NFSA asang en-e lo pusi bang 45 LAMPS chairman pen chunbang atum kacheparaiDilip Sharma on Socheng Block along IAY ahemso amen pen kachopanglim aphuthak CBI patarlip nangji: KADNSMFrank Tungzangpo on D. Agriculture sector is undoubtedly most important sector of Indian economy as it provides employment to 54.6% of people and food security of India revolves around this sector. During this time India was heavily dependent upon foreign food aid which compromised India’s sovereignty over crucial matters.
Green revolution, overtime, yielded impressive results and in coming decades India was self-sufficient in food grain production and achieved physical food security.
As always, this issue is again a major one for current government and there are some suggestions towards reforms and few steps were also taken recently.
In this article we’ll discuss issues involved and various steps government have taken to remedy for Agriculture production, procurement and storage. Many schemes such Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna, Macro Management Agriculture, Integrated Scheme for oilseeds, pulses, oil palm and maize (ISOPOM); Technology missions for cotton, National food security Mission etc. New Policy on Seed Development (NPSD) includes permitting 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) under the automatic route. These varieties of seeds are developed in laboratories by genetic engineering technologies. In 2013 Supreme Court in response to a PIL appointed a Technical Expert Committee for considering whether trials should be allowed or not. Main concern of the farmer community is that, Companies like Monsanto will exploit their monopolies as seeds are expensive and are not regenerative. It is Miniratna Company under Ministry of agriculture formed in 1963 to produce foundation seeds and undertake certification activities. It maintains a SAARC seed bank in which large quantities of various seeds are kept as inventory so that shortage due to any natural calamity or otherwise could be tackled.
1) In India per hectare Consumption around (around 146 Kg) is far lower than developed countries.
4) Due to rising prices of fertilizers government is promoting organic farming and organic manure. 5) India meets its 80 % requirement of Urea (N), while it is heavily dependent on Imports for its potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer requirements. Fertilizers are made through industrial processes in which composition of nutrients is precise and deliberately fixed. This was introduced in 2010 with objective to promote balanced use of fertilizers and to limit fertilizer subsidy of the government.
Latest Economic survey notes that while urea consumption has increased from 59 per cent to 66 per cent of total consumption in 2012-13 over 2010-11, per hectare consumption of fertilizer has declined from 140 kg to 128 kg over the same period.
Also, due to excessive use of fertilizers groundwater is also getting polluted and chemical bio accumulation problem is impacting health of people. Cooperative sector is also strong in this industry and two big cooperatives are IFFCO and KRIBHCO. IFFCO has established charitable funds in villages to help them cope with natural disasters. National Investment policy 2012 encourages Investment in manufacturing of urea and other fertilizers and also acquisition of fertilizer plants abroad. However subsidized and ample electricity has resulted in indiscriminate use of electricity by the farmers, which results in massive wastage of electricity and water. In Gujrat Jyotigram Yojna was initiated in 2006, which separated agricultural feeders from main feeder. Success of this scheme was recognized by planning commission and it was made central to power reforms under 12th five year plan.
New scheme Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojna, aims for separation of feeders at national level. Although India is the second largest irrigated country of the world after China, only one-third of the cropped area is under irrigation.
This is testified by the success story of agricultural progress in Punjab Haryana and western part of Uttar Pradesh where over half of the cropped area is under irrigation! However, care must be taken to safeguard against ill effects of over irrigation especially in areas irrigated by canals.
For this purpose Ganga- Cauvery link canal was proposed in 1970’s, but as we know Deccan Platue and other higher areas lie in between Ganga and Cauvery, water has to be lifted with use of pumps. Another proposal (also in 70’s) suggested construction of two canals – the first 4200 km.
The proposal was examined by two committees of experts comprising Senior Engineers from CWC, State Governments, Professors from the IIT s and Scientists from Geological Survey of India and Indian Meteorological Department who opined that the proposal was technically infeasible.  The cost estimated by the experts in 1979 was about Rs.
Notwithstanding this, there are some success stories at regional basis under which water is transferred from one basin to another. Traditionally, Indian farmer has been dependent upon informal sources of finance, such as from money lenders or subscribing to small chit funds. Institutions like NABARAD, Regional Rural Banks, and Rural Cooperative Banks will be discussed separately under series of articles on banking. Interest subvention as per scheme of the government is available on the loans disbursed through card. Loan at subsidized rates is also available to small and marginal farmers for 6 moths post-harvest.
In 2008 debt was waived for and relief package was given to farmers to address their indebtedness. 1) National Agriculture Insurance Scheme – Launched for providing financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of crops as a result of natural calamities, pests and diseases. 3) Pilot Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme – It insures farmers from anticipated exigencies of weather such as frost, rainfall, flood and humidity, which may result in damage to crop.
It is largely believed that various schemes have badly failed in delivering what they intended.


Further, pricing of premium is arbitrary and profitability of farmers is not considered in this. Hey Samee you can install Evernote in your browser and then you can read it offline, even on your mobile also.
It means that , since inputs are subsidized and they are not given to farmers on market rate, so farmers do not understand its market value and do not use it judiciously, which results in overuse of the inputs, be it fertilizer, water or electricity, etc. Please send this articles on our E-mail account, I can read it in my office in off-periods . Bill does not specify whether the committees will be set up at the national, regional, state or district level; that decision would determine whether farmers can easily access the compensation mechanism. Enter your email address to subscribe to INSIGHTS and receive notifications of new posts by email. Kramsa alamchak chepapleng dam, rat aning karongKarbilijang on Hemepi Kave Beypi apran karmut det aphuthak sodak pinrem lo: CYDCSomir Phura on Dr.
Its importance can be gauged by the fact that whenever there is fear of deficit monsoon, whole of the population ranging from farmers, workers, businessmen, policy makers and even foreign investors are caught into nervousness.
But this is no reason for rejoice as our farmers and agricultural sector are still quite vulnerable and growth is on back of interventions which has given us a skewed agricultural basket. It was at this time realized that, apart from building structure for storage and distribution, self-sufficiency in production of food grains is imperative. However, it didn’t give Indian people economic food security and food security is still a big challenge.
Its supporters believe that it can get world rid of starvation, whereas opponents fear negative effects on environment, biodiversity and health. In these technologies genes of different species of organisms (like bacteria genes with plants) are integrated to modify DNA to get desired characteristic. TEC recommended that there should be moratorium on trials until proper regulatory and safety mechanisms are put in place, and BT crops are approved for their long term safety. Recently GMO cotton seeds supplied by Mahyco, (a GM seed company which has joint venture with Monsanto), resulted in a crop failure which brought suffering to farmers. So rainfed areas (deprived of irrigation) constitute 70 % of agricultural land and still they use only 20% of national Fertilizers consumption. Idea was to fix subsidy as per nutrients (in per Kg ) in the fertilizer and leave the determination of price to suppliers. In Punjab and Haryana, problem is rampant and ground water is found to be polluted with arsenic, uranium, fluoride etc.
Storages cum community centers were developed in such villages, and infrastructural development was done.
It helped in strengthening the cooperative channels and their dissemination throughout the Country.
We have yet common feeder lines for agricultural and other sectors in all states except Gujrat. Irrigation is the most important agricultural input in a tropical monsoon country like India where rainfall is uncertain, unreliable and erratic India cannot achieve sustained progress in agriculture unless and until more than half of the cropped area is brought under assured irrigation. Large tracts in Punjab and Haryana have been rendered useless (areas affected by salinity, alkalinity and water-logging), due to faulty irrigation. Electricity required in this pumping is as high as 6000-7000 MW which makes this project unviable. Himalayan Canal at the foot of Himalayan slopes running from the Ravi in the West to the Brahmaputra and beyond in the east; and the second 9300 km Garland Canal covering the central and southern parts, with both the canals integrated with numerous lakes and interconnected with pipelines at two points, Delhi and Patna. This money requirement is more at the beginning of sowing season, but post-harvest loans are also crucial. After the independence, by persistent efforts of government share of institutional credit has increased substantially. Rationale behind this is to avoid distress sale – Once crop is harvested, farmer might not be able to sell crops immediately at good prices. If due to draught or natural calamity, farmers are not able to sow crops and will lose their income of that season, then they have no support of insurance. I have seen many aspirants using Evernote, even Gaurav Agarwal last year topper used to maintain his notes in it. For that case, as it is already mentioned in the article about current NPK ratio, which is skewed because of excessive use of subsidized UREA. Lasi lahai ok chumpran aphan kosonsi kepavir thekjima lapen raikom saikhi ajakong kosonsi kepabat thekjima aphuthaksi lapuson kachepate asai denglo.
Because of dependence of disproportionate population on this sector, Indian economy can be still said to be an agrarian economy. Primary reason for this growth is said to be good monsoons and growing crop incentives under schemes like Minimum Selling Price (MSP). It resulted in huge investments in agriculture productivity, through the means of hybrid seeds, Chemical Fertilizers, Pesticides and irrigation infrastructure.
Costly inputs and MSP regimes regularly pushed up prices and rendered them unaffordable to the poor. Some of them also provide incentives for investment in Seed manufacturing infrastructure and upgradations.
In second stage Foundation Seeds are developed by NSC, SFCs or State seeds corporations and then finally Certified Seeds are produced and distributed to all farmers. Bacteria named bacillus Thuringiensis gives a gene that is incorporated into plant’s DNA and we get Genetically Modified Organisms like BT- corn, BT- cotton, Bt- Brinjal etc. Notwithstanding this government allowed trials for some crops, as SC didn’t pass any order in this relation.
Various schemes such as ISOPOM, NFSM and National Horticulture Mission are implemented (partly or fully) under NSC. Among these elements, N, P, Calcium, Magnesium and Sulfur are required in comparative large quantities and termed as macro nutrients. Productivity and quality of a crop depends upon use of diversified mix of macro and micronutrients, which vary from soil to soil.


Further, it has also made strategic investments in National Commodity and Derivative Exchange (NCDEX) and National Collateral Management Services (NCMSL). As 70 % of countries agricultural land is Rainfed electricity becomes main input in agricultural produce. In the Indira Gandhi Canal command area also intensive irrigation has led to sharp rise in sub-soil water level, leading to water-logging, soil salinity and alkalinity.
Also there are many other apprehensions regarding ecology of rivers and impact on downstream and upstream regions.
Further, as we have seen, agriculture in India is fraught with exigencies of nature and macroeconomics, insurance is must for the farmer.
Informal or non-institutional credit was largely unregulated and Interest rates were a tool to extract maximum out of farmer. Private sector is allowed to operate under the scheme and NIAS stands withdrawn where MNIAS is implemented.
When there is crop failure or damage, farmers need immediate relief, atleast before starting of next sowing season.
Laso kachepate along India detpi angkang arlo kaprek-kaprek alongri along kedo Central Police Organization pen State Police Organization pangrum pet bitung 22 nangchepate dunlo. However, sector is largely state controlled which resulted in widespread inefficiencies and distortions.
It all culminated into a confusing situation where on one hand there were bumper productions and excessive food grains with FCI, on the other hand millions were living under starvation. While this policy has helped a lot to secure food sufficiency, yet it has many unintended negative impacts.
Using a method of controlled crossing devised by Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century, plant breeders can now produce seed that combines the desired traits of two pure parent lines in the first generation itself. In that sense hybrid seeds pushed up Input costs for the farmers and multinational companies like Cargill Inc. Other elements such as Boron, Chlorine, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Zinc and Nickel are needed in smaller quantities hence termed as micronutrients. Consequently subsidized price of Urea remained stagnant even when real costs of production have risen significantly. Popular PSUs are The Fertilizer Corporation of India ltd, National fertilizers Limited, Hindustan Fertilizer Corporation Ltd. Its 5 plants produce 7 metric tons of fertilizers serving 6 lakhs villages and millions of farmers.
In contrast, under institutional credit there are various Interest Subvention schemes, under which farmer gets subsidized credit.
In absence of this relief they have to forego crop for a season or depend upon expensive finance through informal sources. This is an indicator that people dependent upon agriculture are still unable to make a decent earning. This was mainly because laws, regulations, institutions which were brought into existence in face of scarcity, largely continued even at the time of abundance. It results in overuse of inputs as inputs costs doesn’t represent adequate market costs, farmers are unable to respond to market signals. In USA GM crops are allowed and contribute about 85% of the consumption, whereas in Europe it is largely banned as of now. Macronutrient based fertilizers are dominant and its use enhances capability of plants to extract more micronutrients from soil. On the other hand Potassium and Phosphorous are covered under the scheme and a fixed subsidy as per content of nutrients is given to suppliers and they change Maximum Retail Price as per market signals.
In addition to producing fertilizers, it also has ventured into providing technical support to farmers in India, providing insurance etc. This development has two fold benefits; one is surplus electricity for industry and civilians and second is it arrested rapid depletion of ground water. Limit of credit disbursal depends upon land availability for cultivation and credit history of farmer.
Kijutsi sai angdeng along kachopha alohi sarpo aman pen Special Director IB Yashovardhan Azad chetong dun.
From very beginning agriculture has been at center of government policy, but sector was recognized as prime moving force only in 2002. End result is uncompetitive agriculture sector, reeling under debt which can’t survive without heavy government support.
In India, it is allowed for commercial production of cotton and for food crops field trials are going on. IFFCO and KRIBHCO now have started aggressively diversifying product base and Joint-ventures to ensure sustained dividends. Thus farm cooperatives are largely successful in supporting Indian Financial and Social inclusion. Result is Gujrat has surplus power of 2000 MW (out of total capacity of 14000 MW) which is sold to other states. Police Commando kachepate along nangkachepate dun raikom saikhi atum an sose jakong-horang lapen bidi sore longsi ok chumpran atum aphan pavir thek po pusi ning thelo lapen kado kave aphanta hirjume nangpilo pusi kachetong dun alohi sarpo Yashovardhan Azad ningje. Later Public distribution System was developed during time of great Bengal Famine which killed about 2 million people. Puthot laso kachepate esek hile ke-up pen danglok kaprek-kaprek kachepate along kechengsi anong-eh kelong dun ke Assam Rifles, adunthu anong-eh kelong dun ke Rajasthan lapen kapadusi anong-eh kelong dun ke Maharastra. Alanglitum aphan alohi sarpo lapen Brigadier Lakhan Pal atum arideng pensi nong-eh pen Medal pajir dunlo.



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