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### Author: admin | Category: Auto Car Loan Calculator | Date: 22.06.2016

This article discusses how to do WPF programming in VC++ and one working example of Loan Amortization with some background. A lot of your code base is written in VC++ unmanaged code and it is not possible to rewrite everything in C#.

A portion of your programs should be optimized for speed and for performance reasons, you write unmanaged code for it. If we want to make something more useful and interesting, then we have to create objects of at least two classes Window and Application. It is not necessary to pass the window object as a parameter in the run function of application class. You can inherit your classes from Window and Application classes to store some application specific or window specific information.

As we have seen before, to make the smallest WPF application that displays its own window, we have to create objects of at least two classes named Window and Application.

When we write a WPF program, it internally uses DirectX to draw everything including all controls.

There are few other layers which are not shown here such as taking the input from the user is the responsibility of user32.dll. The second component PresentationCore.DLL provides the basic building block for WPF framework. Time value of Money is a very basic concept in financial engineering and lots of other concepts are built on this.

In compound interest, you will get profit on every year’s value not only the first year value therefore the value of money will increase more rapidly in compound interest than simple interest. The easiest way to calculate the compound interest is first convert the interest in one point form then multiply it with the original value. For example to convert 12.5% into one point form, first divide it by 100 then add one in the result. It is not uncommon to get profit more than once per year, such as after every six months, monthly, etc.

In other words, the higher the number of times we get the profit, the higher the profit we get at the end of the year. In financial engineering, annuity is a concept of taking or giving some predefined money at some specified time, for example if you pay the installment of your car or withdraw some specific amount from the bank every month. As we know, the value of money changes with respect to time and change is dependant on the interest rate.

In other words, we can say that if we deposit “x” amount in a bank for “n” years then we won't get any profit on the money which we deposit in the last year. In real life, most of our payments are on a monthly, biannually or quarterly basis, not on annual basis. If we have more than one payment per year, then we simply divide the interest rate by the number of payments per year because interest rate is usually given in annual interest rate form. We already know how to calculate the future value of annuity when there is only one payment per year. If we just modify this formula a little bit, then we can calculate the present value of money. To calculate the present value of annuity, we have to calculate the present value of all the money we deposit (or withdraw) into a bank and then sum it.

If there is more than one payment per year, then we have to divide the interest rate by the total number of payments per year and multiply total number of years. If we take a look at this table carefully, then we can observe that the amount of interest rate will decrease after every month.

We can verify that the difference between the interest parts of two consecutive payments will always increase. For every payment, there are two parts of payment -- the interest part and principle amount part. Similarly if we want to calculate the interest part of any specific period, then first we have to calculate the principle amount remaining at that time and multiply it with interest rate. After solving this geometric series, we get the formula to calculate the interest part of any particular payment. We have all of our required formulae so we can write small functions to perform these calculations.

We need to take four inputs such as total payment, interest rate, total number of payments per year, total number of years and type of payments.

Here is an auxiliary function to calculate the interest part, principle amount part and remaining balance after each payment and add those items in the list control.

Unless you have been following the mortgage markets closely, you may have missed the dramatic fall in rates over the last few months.

I hope this provides an opportunity for many of the individuals that took adjustable rate loans to refinance into a fixed rate loan.

Although writing WPF programs in these languages is quite easy and fun, it is not limited to only this.

You want to take advantage of both managed and unmanaged code in your project, such as using MFC document view architecture with rich user interface of WPF without creating any new DLL in C#.

We can further shorten the program by using main instead of WinMain and avoid including windows.h header file altogether, but in that case we will see the black console window behind the message box.

Here Application class is used to start the WPF application, manage the state of application and application level variables and information, but there is no output of it. We can call Run function without any parameter, but if we call the Run function without any parameter, then we have to call the Show or ShowDialog function of Window class before calling Run. But remember your class must be inherited using the “ref” keyword and use “gcnew” keyword to create an instance of it on managed heap.

In this program, we can store all the application specific information in MyApplication class and Window specific information in MyWindow class. If we write code in any programming language, then we understand about WPF classes in more detail. This DLL provides some very basic level functionality to the WPF which can be used in other applications too. This DLL has support for layout, event handling, controls, animation and almost everything WPF has. It is written in unmanaged code for performance reasons and directly interfaces with DirectX. The difference between simple interest and compound interest is that, in simple interest you will get profit only in the first year’s value of the money; however in compound interest you will get money on every year’s value of the money. If you are not getting any profit then after some years the value of your money will be the multiple of the number of years. We will get only one year's profit on the money that we will deposit at “n-1” year because that money will be in the bank for only one year. In this section we are going to study what will be the effect of this on annuity when we have more than one payment in the year. In addition, we multiply the number of years by the number of payments per year, because now we are getting (or paying) more payments. Here is the modified formula to calculate the future value of annuity when there is more than one payment per year. Here is a modified formula to calculate the present value of annuity if there is more than one payment per year.

Just to keep our calculation small, we assumed that we are going to pay off the loan in one year, so we will have only 12 payments. Now the question is how much money of this payment is going to pay the interest and how much will be used to pay off the principle amount.

Similarly we can calculate the interest part and principle amount part of each payment for every payment. The reason for this phenomenon is very obvious; because the value of monthly payment is the same and interest rate decreases every month, then the remaining amount will increase every month. Here we displayed two graphs; the first one shows the interest part of the monthly payment and the other shows the principle amount part of the payment. We have already seen that the amount of interest decreases, but the ratio of reduction of interest rate is not the same during every month. Any payment has only two parts, principle amount and interest, if we already calculate the interest part then we can subtract it from the payment to get the principle amount part. Here are the auxiliary functions to calculate the remaining balance, interest part and principle amount part of any particular payment.

We need an auxiliary class to store information about all payments and export these as properties so we can use this in a list control. We can select different payment methods such as Monthly, Quarterly, Bi-Yearly, Yearly or daily. This dialog displays the monthly payment, the total amount paid over time and the interest and principle amount part of every payment.

In addition, we study why and how to program WPF using VC++ and get a high level overview of the WPF architecture.

It is the next generation presentation system for building a windows client application that can be run stand alone as well as in a Web Browser (i.e. It does not depend on Windows Standard control; it draws everything from DirectX technology and takes full advantage of 3D graphics and hardware accelerator if available. The difference between Show and ShowDialog is Show displays the model dialog, on the other hand ShowDialog displays the modeless dialog.

Here is a simple program to show the usage of user inherited Window and Application classes. For example, we set the title of the window in the constructor rather than in main after creating the object of it. Similarly we create only one object of CWinApp based class and call the run method of CWinApp. This DLL provides the support of threading and dependency property, which we are going to study in more detail in the following sections.

This DLL has some core functionality of WPF classes such as Visual to draw something and UIElement, basic building block that WPF Framework uses. Please note that in this diagram we only focus on WPF and DirectX, because WPF internally uses DirectX to draw everything on the screen. For example, if you have $1000 and your bank will give you 10% interest rate then after one year the value of your money will become $1100.

If we multiply the original amount with this, then we will get the value of money after one year.

In that case, we simply divide the interest rate with the number of times we get profit in the year. For example if you deposit $1000 in a bank for 5 years, then you will have $5000 after 5 years.

In this case we won't get any profit at the end of the first year, because we deposited that money at the end of the year and that money was not in the bank for the whole year.

The money we will deposit at “n-1” year, we will get 2 years profit, because that money will be in the bank for 2 years.

We have already studied the concept of more than one payment during the study of time value of money. To calculate the monthly payment of the loan, first we have to calculate the present value of the annuity. Here we showed the same thing in tabular form, here 5th and 6th columns show the interest part and principle amount part of the monthly payment respectively. This is because the principle amount decreases every month, and we already know that if the interest rate and time is constant, then the only factor to change the value of interest is the original amount. In other words, as months go on, the value of your principle amount will decrease more rapidly.

This is also a curve just like the interest part graph but here we can see that the principle amount is increasing. Here is the formula to calculate the remaining principle amount after a specified amount of time, say after “n” months.

Later, we scratch the surface of Loan Amortization with one working example of Loan Amortization in WPF using C++.

To add the reference, right click on the project in the Solution Explorer tree and select “Reference…” from there. Run method should be the last method call in the program, because this method won't return until the program closes.

In case of simple interest you will still get the second year profit on the first year value i.e. To get the value of money after two years, we will multiply the original value with 1.125 twice. For example, if you are getting profit with 10% interest rate annually and you want to get profit after every six months, then your interest rate will be 5% not 10% because you are getting profit twice per year.

At the end of the second year, we will get profit on the first year's money because that money was in the bank for the whole year and we won't get any profit of the money which we deposited at the end of second year. In the same way we will get the “n-1” year profit on the first year's amount because that money will be in the bank for “n-1” years. There are twelve payments in this example, but if we have an example of 30 years home mortgage, i.e.

It means the interest we pay each month will reduce more rapidly than the same every month.

The difference between any two consecutive principle amount parts will be exactly the same as we have seen in the interest graph, but with a negative sign. It still uses User32.dll to get user input and operating system kernel DLL and device driver to hardware interface.

If we assumed that the interest rate is the same during the whole time period, then the only factor that can change the value of money is time. Similarly at the end of third year, we will get the profit of the first two years money because that money was in the bank for the whole year. The reason behind this is very simple, we have fixed monthly payments every month and it contains only two parts, interest and principle; so whatever value is excluded from one portion will automatically be included into the other portion. In this table we show the profit on $1000 with 10% interest rate for different 1 year to 5 years. To make things simple, we only focus on those elements in this diagram, which are part of WPF.

A portion of your programs should be optimized for speed and for performance reasons, you write unmanaged code for it. If we want to make something more useful and interesting, then we have to create objects of at least two classes Window and Application. It is not necessary to pass the window object as a parameter in the run function of application class. You can inherit your classes from Window and Application classes to store some application specific or window specific information.

As we have seen before, to make the smallest WPF application that displays its own window, we have to create objects of at least two classes named Window and Application.

When we write a WPF program, it internally uses DirectX to draw everything including all controls.

There are few other layers which are not shown here such as taking the input from the user is the responsibility of user32.dll. The second component PresentationCore.DLL provides the basic building block for WPF framework. Time value of Money is a very basic concept in financial engineering and lots of other concepts are built on this.

In compound interest, you will get profit on every year’s value not only the first year value therefore the value of money will increase more rapidly in compound interest than simple interest. The easiest way to calculate the compound interest is first convert the interest in one point form then multiply it with the original value. For example to convert 12.5% into one point form, first divide it by 100 then add one in the result. It is not uncommon to get profit more than once per year, such as after every six months, monthly, etc.

In other words, the higher the number of times we get the profit, the higher the profit we get at the end of the year. In financial engineering, annuity is a concept of taking or giving some predefined money at some specified time, for example if you pay the installment of your car or withdraw some specific amount from the bank every month. As we know, the value of money changes with respect to time and change is dependant on the interest rate.

In other words, we can say that if we deposit “x” amount in a bank for “n” years then we won't get any profit on the money which we deposit in the last year. In real life, most of our payments are on a monthly, biannually or quarterly basis, not on annual basis. If we have more than one payment per year, then we simply divide the interest rate by the number of payments per year because interest rate is usually given in annual interest rate form. We already know how to calculate the future value of annuity when there is only one payment per year. If we just modify this formula a little bit, then we can calculate the present value of money. To calculate the present value of annuity, we have to calculate the present value of all the money we deposit (or withdraw) into a bank and then sum it.

If there is more than one payment per year, then we have to divide the interest rate by the total number of payments per year and multiply total number of years. If we take a look at this table carefully, then we can observe that the amount of interest rate will decrease after every month.

We can verify that the difference between the interest parts of two consecutive payments will always increase. For every payment, there are two parts of payment -- the interest part and principle amount part. Similarly if we want to calculate the interest part of any specific period, then first we have to calculate the principle amount remaining at that time and multiply it with interest rate. After solving this geometric series, we get the formula to calculate the interest part of any particular payment. We have all of our required formulae so we can write small functions to perform these calculations.

We need to take four inputs such as total payment, interest rate, total number of payments per year, total number of years and type of payments.

Here is an auxiliary function to calculate the interest part, principle amount part and remaining balance after each payment and add those items in the list control.

Unless you have been following the mortgage markets closely, you may have missed the dramatic fall in rates over the last few months.

I hope this provides an opportunity for many of the individuals that took adjustable rate loans to refinance into a fixed rate loan.

Although writing WPF programs in these languages is quite easy and fun, it is not limited to only this.

You want to take advantage of both managed and unmanaged code in your project, such as using MFC document view architecture with rich user interface of WPF without creating any new DLL in C#.

We can further shorten the program by using main instead of WinMain and avoid including windows.h header file altogether, but in that case we will see the black console window behind the message box.

Here Application class is used to start the WPF application, manage the state of application and application level variables and information, but there is no output of it. We can call Run function without any parameter, but if we call the Run function without any parameter, then we have to call the Show or ShowDialog function of Window class before calling Run. But remember your class must be inherited using the “ref” keyword and use “gcnew” keyword to create an instance of it on managed heap.

In this program, we can store all the application specific information in MyApplication class and Window specific information in MyWindow class. If we write code in any programming language, then we understand about WPF classes in more detail. This DLL provides some very basic level functionality to the WPF which can be used in other applications too. This DLL has support for layout, event handling, controls, animation and almost everything WPF has. It is written in unmanaged code for performance reasons and directly interfaces with DirectX. The difference between simple interest and compound interest is that, in simple interest you will get profit only in the first year’s value of the money; however in compound interest you will get money on every year’s value of the money. If you are not getting any profit then after some years the value of your money will be the multiple of the number of years. We will get only one year's profit on the money that we will deposit at “n-1” year because that money will be in the bank for only one year. In this section we are going to study what will be the effect of this on annuity when we have more than one payment in the year. In addition, we multiply the number of years by the number of payments per year, because now we are getting (or paying) more payments. Here is the modified formula to calculate the future value of annuity when there is more than one payment per year. Here is a modified formula to calculate the present value of annuity if there is more than one payment per year.

Just to keep our calculation small, we assumed that we are going to pay off the loan in one year, so we will have only 12 payments. Now the question is how much money of this payment is going to pay the interest and how much will be used to pay off the principle amount.

Similarly we can calculate the interest part and principle amount part of each payment for every payment. The reason for this phenomenon is very obvious; because the value of monthly payment is the same and interest rate decreases every month, then the remaining amount will increase every month. Here we displayed two graphs; the first one shows the interest part of the monthly payment and the other shows the principle amount part of the payment. We have already seen that the amount of interest decreases, but the ratio of reduction of interest rate is not the same during every month. Any payment has only two parts, principle amount and interest, if we already calculate the interest part then we can subtract it from the payment to get the principle amount part. Here are the auxiliary functions to calculate the remaining balance, interest part and principle amount part of any particular payment.

We need an auxiliary class to store information about all payments and export these as properties so we can use this in a list control. We can select different payment methods such as Monthly, Quarterly, Bi-Yearly, Yearly or daily. This dialog displays the monthly payment, the total amount paid over time and the interest and principle amount part of every payment.

In addition, we study why and how to program WPF using VC++ and get a high level overview of the WPF architecture.

It is the next generation presentation system for building a windows client application that can be run stand alone as well as in a Web Browser (i.e. It does not depend on Windows Standard control; it draws everything from DirectX technology and takes full advantage of 3D graphics and hardware accelerator if available. The difference between Show and ShowDialog is Show displays the model dialog, on the other hand ShowDialog displays the modeless dialog.

Here is a simple program to show the usage of user inherited Window and Application classes. For example, we set the title of the window in the constructor rather than in main after creating the object of it. Similarly we create only one object of CWinApp based class and call the run method of CWinApp. This DLL provides the support of threading and dependency property, which we are going to study in more detail in the following sections.

This DLL has some core functionality of WPF classes such as Visual to draw something and UIElement, basic building block that WPF Framework uses. Please note that in this diagram we only focus on WPF and DirectX, because WPF internally uses DirectX to draw everything on the screen. For example, if you have $1000 and your bank will give you 10% interest rate then after one year the value of your money will become $1100.

If we multiply the original amount with this, then we will get the value of money after one year.

In that case, we simply divide the interest rate with the number of times we get profit in the year. For example if you deposit $1000 in a bank for 5 years, then you will have $5000 after 5 years.

In this case we won't get any profit at the end of the first year, because we deposited that money at the end of the year and that money was not in the bank for the whole year.

The money we will deposit at “n-1” year, we will get 2 years profit, because that money will be in the bank for 2 years.

We have already studied the concept of more than one payment during the study of time value of money. To calculate the monthly payment of the loan, first we have to calculate the present value of the annuity. Here we showed the same thing in tabular form, here 5th and 6th columns show the interest part and principle amount part of the monthly payment respectively. This is because the principle amount decreases every month, and we already know that if the interest rate and time is constant, then the only factor to change the value of interest is the original amount. In other words, as months go on, the value of your principle amount will decrease more rapidly.

This is also a curve just like the interest part graph but here we can see that the principle amount is increasing. Here is the formula to calculate the remaining principle amount after a specified amount of time, say after “n” months.

Later, we scratch the surface of Loan Amortization with one working example of Loan Amortization in WPF using C++.

To add the reference, right click on the project in the Solution Explorer tree and select “Reference…” from there. Run method should be the last method call in the program, because this method won't return until the program closes.

In case of simple interest you will still get the second year profit on the first year value i.e. To get the value of money after two years, we will multiply the original value with 1.125 twice. For example, if you are getting profit with 10% interest rate annually and you want to get profit after every six months, then your interest rate will be 5% not 10% because you are getting profit twice per year.

At the end of the second year, we will get profit on the first year's money because that money was in the bank for the whole year and we won't get any profit of the money which we deposited at the end of second year. In the same way we will get the “n-1” year profit on the first year's amount because that money will be in the bank for “n-1” years. There are twelve payments in this example, but if we have an example of 30 years home mortgage, i.e.

It means the interest we pay each month will reduce more rapidly than the same every month.

The difference between any two consecutive principle amount parts will be exactly the same as we have seen in the interest graph, but with a negative sign. It still uses User32.dll to get user input and operating system kernel DLL and device driver to hardware interface.

If we assumed that the interest rate is the same during the whole time period, then the only factor that can change the value of money is time. Similarly at the end of third year, we will get the profit of the first two years money because that money was in the bank for the whole year. The reason behind this is very simple, we have fixed monthly payments every month and it contains only two parts, interest and principle; so whatever value is excluded from one portion will automatically be included into the other portion. In this table we show the profit on $1000 with 10% interest rate for different 1 year to 5 years. To make things simple, we only focus on those elements in this diagram, which are part of WPF.

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