12.01.2014

Teenage pregnancy facts in south africa

Abortion pill facts – womens health zone, If pregnancy is confirmed and is below nine weeks, then abortion pill is best to expel the contents of the uterus. Teenage pregnancy – wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, Teenage pregnancy is pregnancy in human females under the age of 20 at the time that the pregnancy ends. Third, although almost all single mothers face major challenges in raising their children alone, teen mothers are especially disadvantaged.
Fourth, the children of teen mothers face far greater problems than those born to older mothers.
A requirement that states set goals and take actions to reduce out-of-wedlock pregnancies, with special emphasis on teen pregnancies.
Some of these factors have undoubtedly interacted, making it difficult to ever sort out their separate effects. The growth of public and private efforts to combat teen pregnancy may have also played a role, as suggested by surveys conducted by the National Governors' Association, the General Accounting Office, the American Public Human Services Association, and most recently and comprehensively, by Child Trends. The short answer is "yes, some do." Based on a careful review of the scholarly literature completed by Douglas Kirby of ETR Associates in Santa Cruz, California, a number of rigorously evaluated programs have been found to reduce pregnancy rates.
At first appearance, the finding by Rebecca Maynard that each teen mother costs the government an average of $3,200 per year suggests that government could spend as much as $3,200 per teen girl on teen pregnancy prevention and break even in the process.
Here is a simple but useful method to estimate how much money could be spent on teen pregnancy prevention programs and still realize benefits that exceed costs. Second, the federal government should fund a national resource center to collect and disseminate information about what works to prevent teen pregnancy. Fourth, adequate resources should be provided to states to prevent teen pregnancy, without specifying the means for achieving this goal. These steps have the potential to maintain the progress made over the past decade in reducing teen and out-of-wedlock pregnancies.
The number of pregnant schoolgirls jumped from 1,169 in 2005 to 2,336 in 2006 in Gauteng, the country's economic heartland and most populous province, according to statistics released in the provincial parliament.
Thus, the pattern tends to start in the teenage years, and, once teens have had a first child outside marriage, many go on to have additional children out of wedlock at an older age. A 1997 study by Rebecca Maynard of Mathematica Policy Research in Princeton, New Jersey, found that, after controlling for differences between teen mothers and mothers aged 20 or 21 when they had their first child, teen childbearing costs taxpayers more than $7 billion a year or $3,200 a year for each teenage birth, conservatively estimated.
The fact that these declines predated the enactment of federal welfare reform suggests that they were caused by other factors.
Significantly, all of the teen birthrate decreases in the 1990s were due to fewer pregnancies, not more abortions. Up until the 1990s, despite some progress in convincing teens to use contraception, teen pregnancy rates continued to rise because an increasing number of teens were becoming sexually active at an early age, thereby putting themselves at risk of pregnancy.


However, many experts believe it was some combination of greater public and private efforts to prevent teen pregnancy, the new messages about work and child support embedded in welfare reform, more conservative attitudes among the young, fear of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, the availability of more effective forms of contraception, and perhaps the strong economy. For example, fear of AIDS may have made teenagers-males in particular, for whom pregnancy has traditionally been of less concern-more cautious and willing to listen to new messages. Until recently, little information was available about the best ways to prevent teen pregnancy. In addition, states that work successfully to reduce teen pregnancy should be rewarded for their efforts. Too many public officials and community leaders have assumed that if they could just find the right program, teen pregnancy rates would be reduced.
This research suggests that it would be unwise to attribute all of the problems faced by teen mothers to the timing of the birth per se. Thus, a focus on teenagers has a major role to play in future reductions of both out-of-wedlock childbearing and the growth of single-parent families.
The survey shows that states have dramatically increased their efforts to reduce teen pregnancy (figure 3). By themselves, teen pregnancy prevention programs cannot change prevailing social norms or attitudes that influence teen sexual behavior. We first have to adjust the $3,200 estimate for the fact that not all teen girls will get pregnant and give birth without the intervention program.
States and communities had no way of learning about each other's efforts and teens themselves had no ready source of information about the risks of pregnancy and the consequences of early unprotected sex. Although there are now a number of programs that have proved effective, the burden of reducing teen pregnancy should not rest on programs alone. In a country where HIV prevalence is 18.8 percent, the high level of teenage pregnancy has heightened concerns. The increase in teen pregnancy rates between the early 1970s and 1990 was largely the result of a change in attitudes about the appropriateness of early premarital sex, especially for young women.
We know that about 40 percent of teen girls become pregnant and about half of these (or 20 percent) give birth.
Some private organizations have attempted to fill the gap without much help from public sources. Rather, we should build on the fledgling efforts undertaken at the state and national level over the past five years to fund a broad-based, sophisticated media campaign to reduce teen pregnancy. As more and more teen girls put themselves at risk of an early pregnancy, pregnancy rates rose. State spending on teen pregnancy prevention averages only about $8 a year per teenaged girl.


This does not mean the federal government should not reward states that achieve certain objectives, such as an increase in the proportion of children living in two-parent families, a decline in the non-marital birth ratio, or a decline in the teen pregnancy or birth rate.
The Gauteng figures showed 71 percent of pupils pregnant at one school in Soweto, a huge township on the outskirts of Johannesburg. As a result, even if married, these women face much higher rates of poverty and dependence on government assistance than those who avoid an early birth.
In addition to being small, such efforts may or may not be effective in preventing pregnancy. Based on data reviewed by Douglas Kirby and by Leslie Snyder, a good estimate is that about one out of every ten girls enrolled in a program or reached by a media campaign might change her behavior in a way that delayed pregnancy beyond her teen years. There is no doubt that this is associated with things like gang activity, coercion and substance abuse," Harrison said, adding that according to a 2006 survey, 30 percent of girls in South Africa said "their first sexual experience was forced or under threat of force". As the Wertheimer survey showed, actual spending on teen pregnancy prevention programs in the entire nation now averages about $8 per teenage girl.
The evidence presented above suggests that states should be spending roughly eight times as much as they are now on teen pregnancy prevention. If the potential savings are $64 per teenage female while actual current spending is only $8 per teenage female, government is clearly missing an opportunity for productive investments in prevention programs.
According to a recent MRC study, 'Blood Blockages and Scolding Nurses: Barriers to Adolescent Contraceptive Use in South Africa', "Nurses' attitudes were a major barrier to teenagers getting hold of contraception. In fact, these calculations-while rough-suggest that government could spend up to eight times ($64 divided by $8) as much as is currently being spent and still break even.
The nurses were uncomfortable about providing teenagers with contraception, as they felt they should not be having sex. About 25 percent just said they wanted to have a baby." Other influencing factors - accounting for 20 percent - were "social pressures and self-affirmation".
Hassan Lorgat, coordinator of the South African chapter of the Global Campaign for Education (GCE), said it was important to understand the causes of these "disappointing figures", and stressed the need for more research. This should include "information for teenagers about avoiding sexually transmitted diseases, providing detailed information about contraception and its side effects; better management and training for nurses, so they can deal sympathetically with teenagers requiring contraception and provide the necessary information and education campaigns that take away the stigma of teenage sexuality, so that girls are not afraid to ask for contraception". LoveLife's Harrison stressed the role of schools in curbing adolescent pregnancy: "Schoolgoing is protective.




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