01.03.2015

Pregnancy medical definition

Pregnancy urine tests check for the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which is produced by a placenta.
A pregnant woman should be sure to eat a balanced, nutritious diet of frequent, small meals. The newest home tests can detect pregnancy on the day of the missed menstrual period.Home pregnancy tests are more than 97% accurate if the result is positive, and about 80% accurate if the result is negative.
Women should begin taking 400 mcg of folic acid several months before becoming pregnant, as folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of spinal cord defects, such as spina bifida.No medication (not even a nonprescription drug) should be taken except under medical supervision, since it could pass from the mother through the placenta to the developing baby.
Once she becomes pregnant, she should make sure to get at least six to 11 servings of breads and other whole grains, three to five servings of vegetables, two to four servings of fruits, four to six servings of milk and milk products, three to four servings of meat and protein foods, and six to eight glasses of water.
Due to technological advances, pregnancy is increasingly occurring among older women in the United States.First monthAt the end of the first month, the embryo is about a third of an inch long, and its head and trunk-plus the beginnings of arms and legs-have started to develop.
If the result is negative and there is no menstrual period within another week, the pregnancy test should be repeated. Some drugs, called teratogens, have been proven harmful to a fetus, but no drug should be considered completely safe (especially during early pregnancy).
While home pregnancy tests are very accurate, they are less accurate than a pregnancy test conducted at a lab. Drugs taken during the first three months of a pregnancy may interfere with the normal formation of the baby's organs, leading to birth defects. This more expensive test, which also looks for hCG, can produce a result within nine to 12 days after conception.Once pregnancy has been confirmed, there are a range of screening tests that can be done to screen for birth defects, which affect about 3% of unborn children.
It usually fades gradually after pregnancy, but it may become permanent or recur with subsequent pregnancies. The average gestation period for a human pregnancy is 10 lunar months (280 days) from the first day of the last menstrual period.Conception. Unless the period is more than 10 days late, however, this is not a definite indication, since many factors, including a strong fear of pregnancy, can delay menstruation. Frequent urination, another early sign, is the result of expansion of the uterus, which presses on the bladder.Other signs of pregnancy include softening of the cervix and filling of the cervical canal with a plug of mucus. Nipples begin to enlarge and the veins over the surface of the breasts become more noticeable.Nausea and vomiting are very common symptoms and are usually worse in the morning and during the first trimester of pregnancy. The average pregnancy lasts about 280 days, or 40 weeks, from the date of conception to childbirth. Frequent urination is common, and there Pregnancy usually lasts 40 weeks in humans, beginning from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period, and is divided into three trimesters.


This is approximate, since pregnancy may be shorter than the average or can last as long as 300 days. Weight begins to increase.In the second trimester (13-28 weeks) a woman begins to look noticeably pregnant and the enlarged uterus is easy to feel.
Supplemental iron and vitamins usually are recommended during pregnancy.There is now less emphasis on severe restriction of the mother's dietary intake to maintain a limited weight gain. The average gain is about 28 lb during pregnancy, and either starvation diets or forced feedings can be unhealthy for the mother and hazardous for the fetus.
During the second trimester, nausea and vomiting often fade away, and the pregnant woman often feels much better and more energetic. Ideally, the mother should achieve normal weight before she becomes pregnant because obesity increases the possibility of eclampsia and other serious complications of pregnancy. Mothers who are underweight are more likely to deliver immature babies who, by virtue of their physiologic immaturity, are more likely to suffer from birth defects, hyaline membrane disease, and other developmental disorders of the newborn.Other factors affecting the fetus include certain drugs taken by the mother during pregnancy. Many drugs, including prescription as well as nonprescription medications, are now believed to be capable of causing fetal abnormalities.
Most health care providers recommend that all drugs be avoided during pregnancy except those essential to the control of disease in the mother.Diseases that increase the risk of obstetrical complications include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, kidney disease, and anemia.
Sexually transmitted diseases can have tragic effects on the baby, even though the symptoms in the mother are minor at the time of pregnancy.
Successful treatment of the mother before the fifth month of pregnancy will prevent infection in the infant.During the birth process the infant may be infected with gonorrhea as it passes through the birth canal. The remaining weight that a woman gains during pregnancy is mostly due to water retention and fat stores. The care of the mother during her entire pregnancy is important to her well-being and that of the fetus she is carrying. The health care provider learns about the patient's physical condition and medical history, and can detect possible complications before they become serious.On the first prenatal visit the patient's medical history is taken in considerable detail, including any diseases or operations she has had, the course of previous pregnancies, if any, and whether there is a family history of multiple births or of diabetes mellitus or other chronic diseases.
Hemorrhoids sometimes occur in pregnancy because of pressure from the enlarged uterus on the veins in the rectum. In more difficult cases the health care provider may prescribe an elastic bandage or support stockings.Backache during pregnancy is caused by the heavy abdomen pulling on muscles that are not normally used, and can be relieved by rest, sensible shoes, and good posture. If the swelling does not disappear, the health care provider should be informed since it may be an indication of a more serious complication.Shortness of breath is common in the later stages of pregnancy.
Called also extrauterine pregnancy.In a tubal pregnancy a spontaneous abortion may occur, but more often the fetus will grow to a size large enough to rupture the tube.


Fortunately, the removal of one tube usually leaves the other one intact, so that future pregnancy is possible. Patients who are Rh-negative should be given Rh0 (D) immune globulin (RhoGAM) after ectopic pregnancy for isoimmunization protection in future pregnancies.Ectopic pregnancy. The fallopian tube is the most common site for ectopic pregnancies but they can also occur on the ovary or the peritoneal surface of the abdominal cavity. The resultant child represents only the male of the marital unit, and may be adopted by the female.pregnancy tests procedures for early determination of pregnancy. By the first missed menstrual period or shortly thereafter, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone secreted by the placenta, is present in the blood and urine of a pregnant woman.
Total blood volume also increases in pregnancy; plasma volume increases more than red cell volume, and this results in a drop in the hematocrit, caused by dilution.
See At-risk pregnancy, Cervical pregnancy, Clinical pregnancy, Crisis pregnancy, Ectopic pregnancy, Fatty liver of pregnancy, High-risk pregnancy, Mole pregnancy, Multifetal pregnancy, Postterm pregnancy, Pseudopreganancy, PUPPP, Selective termination of pregnancy, Sympathy pregnancy, Teenage pregnancy, Tubal pregnancy, Unwanted pregnancy.
Pregnancy test results are positive owing to the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in blood and urine. Ovarian: Conception and implantation within the ovary itself occurs in approximately 1 in 7,000 to 1 in 50,000 pregnancies. Medications (including RhoGAM if the patient is Rh negative) may be prescribed and administered and the patient's response evaluated. Prescribed analgesics and other medications are administered, and the patient evaluated for desired and adverse effects. Pregnancy in association with these conditions is more likely to compromise the health of the mother or developing fetus than are normal pregnancies. In about one-half of twin pregnancies diagnosed by ultrasound early in the first trimester, one twin will silently abort, and this may or may not be accompanied by bleeding. The incidence of birth defects in each embryo of a twin pregnancy is twice that in singular pregnancies.



Surprise pregnancy at 43
Pregnancy info in hindi


Comments to «Pregnancy medical definition»

  1. DolmakimiOglan writes:
    The presence of human chorionic gonadotropin.
  2. Play_Girl writes:
    Pregnant take a look at is testing will.