This application note describes the new CSEM Industrial Calotest and its advantages regarding ease of measurement and quality of results.
For particularly bulky samples which are too big to be mounted in the sample holder provided, the complete arm and motor assembly can be removed and directly clamped to the side of the sample using themagnetic foot provided. Martin Hess from Eifeler Nord Coating GmbH is acknowledged for providing the optical micrographs in Figs 1 and 3. Figure 3 : Optical micrographs of a Calotest performed on the thread of a milling bit of diameter 2 mm.
This application note focusses on the use of a new microindentation instrument, the Micro Hardness Tester (MHT), for determining the fracture toughness of materials by directly measuring Vickers-produced radial cracks as a function of indentation load. Figure 1 : Optical micrographs of (a) radial cracking in a Si wafer and (b) cracking combined with brittle failure in bulk sapphire (Al2O3), for indentations made with applied load 5 N. Figure 2 : Principle of the Micro Hardness Tester (MHT) showing the reference fork used for differential measurement of indentation depth. Figure 3 : Optical micrographs of radial cracks emanating from a Vickers indentation (applied load = 20 N) through a TiN coating on a 440C steel substrate.
This application note features a modifi cation made to a standard CSEM pin-on-disk Tribometer which allows linear reciprocating wear testing to be performed.
A good test case for this instrument is the measurement of friction between plasticised tickets as are commonly used in city metro and bus networks. In reality, stacks of several hundred tickets are held in a magazine above a feed roller which dispenses them one at a time.
Figure 1 : Raw data from the Linear Tribometer for a test performed between two plasticised tickets with average speed 10 mm s-1 and normal load 8 N over a total sliding distance of 63 m. Figure 2 : Principle of the Linear Tribometer showing the standard load arm positioned above the reciprocating sample table.
A fl at-on-fl at conformal contact was chosen in order to best simulate service conditions.
Interestingly enough, similar tests performed on other ticket batches gave the same results at loads of 20 and 43 N, but could easily be distinguished by their friction coeffi cient at a load of 8 N.
The Linear Tribometer has been demonstrated as an ideal testing instrument for particular applications where reciprocating motion is required. In the rapidly expanding fi eld of microelectronics, thin polymeric coatings are often used for both functional and protective reasons where their mechanical properties, and perhaps more specifi cally their scratch resistance, are of paramount importance. Figure 1 : Optical micrographs of failure modes for two different types of thin polymer fi lm. Figure 2 : Typical low-load MST results for a photoresist coating of thickness 1 ?m deposited on a Si substrate. This Applications Bulletin is published quarterly and featuresinteresting studies, new developments and other applicationsfor our full range of mechanical surface testing instruments.
One of the most attractive features of a reciprocating engine is its high part load efficiency. As stated, there are two types of engines – diesel and internal combustion – the difference being that the latter requires a spark plug to provide an explosion whereas the former does not and combustion is achieved by pressuring the fuel to its flash point.
Waste heat is created in many parts of the engine: exhaust gasses, engine coolant, and surface radiation, lube oil cooler and turbocharger inter and after coolers.
The table below shows the costs associated with using engines of different sizes for a CHP system.
In internal combustion engines one can control emission either by burning lean or by burning rich with a catalytic treatment. Dear All,At this time i'm doing an analysis of Recover Oil piping connect to a pump with type reciprocating control volume.Is there any of you have an experienced with this kind of pump?Client ask to analyze the nozzle load for this pump piping system, but i've got the vendor drawing and data 2 days ago, and there is no allowable load data that gives by the vendor. The standards for Reciprocating pump(API674&675) or compressors(API618) do not include allowable loads. Hi all,Ive discovered this thread whilst searching for a solution myself and though i would share what i have so far.I have acquired the 2010 3rd edition of API standard 674. All of the products MonotaRO Singapore offers are subject to Japanese local laws, regulations, and certification standards. The jack exert tremendous pressure smoothly and evenly and are parted quickly and held in perfect alignment without damage to flange faces . Cobolt buckets are specially developed for spark proof when use in cleaning tanks with chemicals or cargo.
Cobolt punching tool is ideal for punching holes in sift braces, copper and other materials as well as leather, canvans and other gasket materials.
Cobolt Value seat cutter is designed for re-surfacing of value seat surface on most type of values.
Cobolt Flex banding equipment are widely used in many industries where fastening applications are required.

Model LH1200FL is the first 305mm Table Top Miter Saw from Makita, featuring the largest cutting capacity in its class in spite of its light weight. The range of rotation speeds of the shaft has been increased to 10 - 3000 rpm for ball diameters between 10 and 30 mm. Note the adjustable motor arm which enables a large range of sample geometries to be accomodated. Although very small, such a test was possible by using a 10 mm ball with high quality suspension for 30 seconds. 2) is designed to exploit the normal force range from 100 mN to 30 N, by using a feedback-controlled force actuator. Although easily applicable to bulk materials, the method is also of importance in understanding the build-up of residual stresses in coated systems as a result of the deposition procedure.
This option can be particularly useful in applications where linear sliding is a better simulation of true in-service conditions than conventional circular motion. 2, where a specially adapted block is mounted on frictionless bearings above the circular motor in such a way as to allow movement of the block in a direction perpendicular to the load arm.
Such tickets are dispensed from automatic machines which are liable to jam if the friction coeffi cient is too great between two tickets in a stack.
By simulating the contact between two tickets, different applied loads can be used in order to fi nd the optimum contact pressure which should be applied by the feed roller to guarantee ticket delivery and eliminate jamming of the dispenser.
For the static partner, a special pin was machined with a square fl at at its base (15 x 15 mm) onto which was glued a similar- sized sample cut from the bottom face of a ticket. It demands little modifi cation to an existing pin-on-disk apparatus and has the advantage of a positive and negative friction measurement from which an average value can be calculated.
The characterisation of such classes of materials with a scratch testing instrument requires a high resolution in order to monitor the onset of failure, due to the low loads which need to be used. 3, has proved ideal for low load measurements owing to its upgraded 16 bit acquisition mode. Both are characteristic of the indenter reaching the substrate and then recovering due to pile-up of material. 1 show the characteristic failure modes encountered when progressive load scratch testing of PMMA coatings. The two major types of reciprocating engines are spark ignited (“Otto Cycle”) and diesel. As the load of an engine drops, the efficiency does not significantly drop until very low loads are reached.
The exhaust gasses are ejected at 850 – 12000 F, while the engine jacket coolant reaches up to 2650 F. As a result, the NOx levels are much lower than with Otto Cycle engines and catalytic converters are not useful. Mr Syahdilan, from my project experience, all reciprocating pump will given pulsation study from pump vendor. Among the changes form the 1995 second edition includes a table for minimum allowable loads (see image). Flex-band offer a universal, economical and durable fastening techniques in connecting tools, spare parts or mounting and securing parts.
They are excellent for sport divers, and are suitable for most types of underwater lifting and light salvage.
By keeping the motor assembly away from the electronics has theadded advantage of making cleaning much easier than when integrated with the electronics. The resultant displacement of the indenter is measured differentially using a reference fork which remains in contact with the sample during a measurement cycle, giving a total displacement of 200 ?m with a resolution of 0.3 nm. In order to optimise the plastifi ed coating which is applied to the tickets, it is important to accurately simulate the dispensing machine with the Tribometer.
As the friction signal is monitored both during the forward and backward movement of the sample, a symmetric trace is obtained of sinusoidal nature.
As soft polymeric coatings produce negligible acoustic emission during scratching, the important parameters are usually the tangential force, Ft, and the penetration depth, Pd.
Of particular interest is the manner in which the indenter causes small ruptures on the sides of the scratch path (Fig. Engines can achieve electrical efficiencies of 25 to 50%, thus making them viable CHP options.
These waste streams can be used to produce steam or hot water to meet space heating, air reheat, domestic hot water, or absorption cooling needs. This lowers the temperature of combustion, thus lowering the amount of NOx, CO, CO2, and non methane hydrocarbons. Most of the vendors should make an FEA calculation (or a satisfactory calculation in other ways) for each model type and show that they satisfied the code rules to be able to sustain their accreditation.

Flex band provide tough connection, fastening, securing and which other type of banding equipments cannot provide. All but the 25 lb, 50 lb and 75 lb bags have diver-actuated dump valves, and all are open at the bottom to vent expanding air as they ascend. The motorised shaft on which the ball rotates is held by an adjustable arm which allows great fl exibility in how the ball is positioned on the sample. Although an irregular and incomplete wear crater, a coating thickness of 1.93 ?m could be accurately determined. A versatile software package allows complete control of the indentation process, including multicycle loading in order to obtain depth-resolved material properties. 1(b)), cracking seems to occur randomly around the residual imprint and so an accurate crack length value is diffi cult to obtain. Tests were performed using applied normal loads of 8, 20 and 43 N with sliding speed 10 mm s-1 over a total sliding distance of ? 60 m. The results presented in this application note are for scratch tests performed on various grades of photoresist which are deposited onto Si wafers for lithographic purposes. Furthermore, engines come in a variety of sizes (from small portable engines to engines large enough to power large ships, and from 50 KW to 5,000 KW). The linear motion of the piston-cylinder transforms to rotational motion on the crankshaft.
Top end overhauls (cylinder head and turbocharger) are recommended at 12,000 – 15,000 hours and major overhauls (piston ring, crankshaft bearings and seals replacement) are recommended at 24,000 – 30,000 hours. Therefore they do not produce nozzle allowable loads for every pumps unless you insist and pay the cost for some type of calculation. They are economical, lightweight, and fold into a neat, compact roll for easy handling underwater. The ultra-fi ne diamond paste had an average particle size of 0.1 ?m and produced a very high quality scratch-free polish. This phenomenon is due to lateral cracks which spread outward beneath the surface from the deformation zone, causing unwanted interaction with the radial crack system in the form of chipping on the surface. Two different types of ticket were tested and normal laboratory conditions were maintained during all tests (50% RH, 25°C). The coatings had a thickness of 1 ?m and differed only in the percentage of additives present in the base PMMA (Polymethyl methacrylate) material.
Pile-up of material in front of the advancing indenter then allows the coating to support the applied load for a small distance until the substrate is again reached. The chart below shows performance characteristics for various types of reciprocating engines.
With proper maintenance, it has been reported that an engine’s availability is around 95%. None of the vendor consider another allowable load calculation in their offer unless it is required by the tender document and coasted.
The 25 lb and 75 lb bags are made from a strong but lighter weight urethane coated nylon material that can be rolled up very small. Measurements were made using a Rockwell diamond tip (radius = 100 ?m), a loading rate of 1 N min-1 over a loading range of 0 - 1 N, giving a scratch length of 10 mm.
Catalytic treatment on rich burn can change NOx to nitrogen gas and change CO to carbon dioxide. The disadvantage (which i am having at the moment) is that the pump vendor need only to satisfy this criteria.
3 shows cracking in a TiN coating deposited by CVD onto a steel substrate and it is seen that such cracks are highly reproducible at the corners of the imprint. 1 (b), the critical failure is defi ned by the fi rst point at which the substrate is reached.
My problem is that the vendor are reluctant to provide us with their actual calculated allowable and just referenced this document. Quantitative Kc values cannot easily be calculated because of the infl uence of the substrate on the hardness value, although for comparative studies this is not of great importance.
This cycle continues thereafter with increasing amplitude causing the lozenge-shaped scratch path shown. The critical point (0.32 N) at which the substrate is fi rst reached can clearly be seen on both profi les, as can the increasing amplitude as a function of applied load.

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