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CMMI is a registered trademark of the Software Engineering Institute and Carnegie Mellon University. Michael West does a great service for many potential CMM or CMMI adopters by explaining the differences between pro forma and in-depth organizational process improvement. The laboratory test protocol adopted by Rowing Australia aims to provide detailed physiological information of the rower’s submaximal capacity and efficiency and to measure maximal performance parameters in a time efficient manner. The standard laboratory test will be completed at least two times within each season (all dates to be communicated early 2009 and confirmed at the beginning of each season). NB Testing on Concept IID ergometers - there are no significant differences in the physiological responses to either the IIC or IID ergo and thus tests can be completed on either one with the proviso that all tests for an individual athlete are carried out on the same ergometer throughout the rowing season and every is made to continue using the same ergometer for all subsequent seasons.The following information is designed as a detailed guide to the testing methods. A normal meal (incorporating a high carbohydrate component) should be eaten on the evening preceding the test and, if scheduling allows, also on the day of the test. Each laboratory may have information and consent forms that may need to be provided prior to thetest.
Athletes will start the 7 step test protocol with a work load based and increment based purely on their previous year’s best 2000m time. In order to ensure that individual athlete’s complete the identical amount of work prior to beginning the 7th step (4 min at maximal pace) every 7 x 4 min step test undertaken by the athlete for that seasonal year must use the same starting work load and increment.
The scientist in charge is given flexibility in choosing if moving to the next 10 sec increment is valuable or not. The 2000m category times used in Table 2 are based on the athlete’s best 2000m time from the previous year and not their all-time personal best 2000m test. Distance covered in the final maximal step can only be used as a comparison between athletes when those athletes have completed the same amount of work prior to the maximal step i.e.
Submaximal oxygen uptakes are calculated by averaging the readings recorded during the final 2 min of each submaximal workload. Relevance to Design Practice - Insights gained in this study can support emotional design as they contribute to providing a structure for emotional design activities.
Pieter Desmet is an associate professor of form theory in the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology. Paul Hekkert is a full professor of form theory in the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering at Delft University of Technology.
Emotional design, which is designing products with the intention to evoke or to prevent elicitation of certain emotions, can be facilitated by an understanding of emotional processes. Because the appraisal perspective is more abstract than the other two, it may not be as easy to apply in design practice. An appraisal, in the cognitive tradition of emotion psychology, is defined as a quick evaluation of a situation with respect to one’s well-being (Frijda, 1986; Lazarus, 1991). Appraisal literature reports two prominent approaches in describing and differentiating between appraisals: thematic and componential.
Appraisal theory asserts a causal relationship between appraisals and emotions, meaning that activation of a particular appraisal pattern results in the corresponding emotion. Although componential appraisal models proposed by the various theorists differ in terms of approach and methodology, many of them introduce similar components. The intrinsic pleasantness component deals with the sensorial pleasantness of an object, such as the sweetness of a candy bar.
The agency component is represented by the question of who (or what) is responsible for a given situation. The question that represents the standards conformance component is, “How does this situation relate to social norms and standards?” A situation can be appraised as violating standards or as confirming or surpassing standards. The question that characterizes the certainty component is, “Am I certain about this event?” For some emotions, like fear and hope, the answer to this question is uncertain. As mentioned before, particular emotions have distinct patterns of involved appraisal components.
There are two approaches for identifying appraisals: capturing individuals’ subjective evaluations (subjective approach), and capturing physiological or expressive correlates of appraisals (objective approach). In the sensitization phase, participants used a questionnaire to report emotional experiences in their daily lives. In the capturing phase, participants used a booklet to answer some diary questions whenever they were prompted to do so by an SMS.
The third step was an interview that was designed to identify the participants’ appraisals of the situation. The results showed that the most central appraisal component, which was identified in almost all emotion reports (68 out of 75), was motive consistency. The number of times that a hypothesized appraisal component was identified in the reports and the details about the motives that were identified are provided for each emotion. In 8 out of 20 reports, at least one statement referred to sensorial pleasantness appraisals. As suggested in the literature, in some accounts (12 out of 28), participants stated that the encountered situation should not have taken place, which can be regarded as violation of a general standard. In most cases (22 out of 28), the product was found to be responsible for the unpleasant event. None of the participants explicitly stated a perceived high coping potential in response to angering situations. The main goal of the study was to identify the appraisal components underlying emotions in human-product interactions and to specify the identified appraisals. In human-product interaction, an anger experience involves appraising the situation as a blockage of a motive, for example, not being able to push the correct button on a product (resulting in a sense of unpleasantness). In this study, we only discussed appraisal patterns of the four emotions that were most frequently reported by participants. An initial step towards an in-depth understanding of product appraisals was taken by identifying various levels of motives involved in the motive consistency component. In addition to the three above-mentioned motive levels, various motive types were identified—among them, social belonging, personal care, intellectual stimulation, and being independent. Insights into conscious appraisals patterns that underlie emotions experienced in human-product interaction can be used to reformulate design goals. Forty three countries participated in the male events of the 1997 World Junior Rowing Championships, and participants from 41 countries were measured.
Junior rowers have greater length dimensions and greater breadths and girths than the reference group16 and lightweight rowers6 but lower values (except for the bicristal diameter) than heavyweight rowers26 (table 5). Finalists were heavier and taller, with higher values for length, breadth (except for the bicristal diameter), and girth dimensions (table 2).
As compared with Olympic heavyweight rowers,26 junior rowers have somewhat higher values for the subscapular, thigh, and calf skinfolds, but a lower value for the triceps skinfold (table 5). The study of the body size of elite male junior rowers is very useful in view of the rapid evolution of sports and sportspeople, and against the background of secular trends in body size of the general population. When researching athletic populations, it is seldom practical or possible to collect extensive data on well trained subjects. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) refers to the highest rate at which oxygen can be taken up and consumed by the body during intense exercise (Bassett & Howley 2000).
Prolonged exercise requires sustained energy provision to maintain muscle contraction and is accomplished through the continual production of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the universal energy molecule.
The biochemical reactions involved in mitochondrial respiration depend on continuous oxygen availability for proper functioning. The ability of the cardiorespiratory system to transport oxygen to the exercising muscles refers the central component of VO2max (Roberts & Robergs 1997). The lungs serve a primary function of transferring oxygen from the atmosphere to the blood, and for the removal of carbon dioxide from the body. Cardiac output (defined above as the product of heart rate and stroke volume which is reported in liters per minute) is commonly identified as one of the main limiting factors to oxygen delivery and VO2max (Bassett & Howley 2000). To briefly recap all of the above, oxygen delivery to muscles during endurance exercise may be limited by central factors including pulmonary diffusion, maximal cardiac output, and blood oxygen carrying capacity (volume and flow). The ability of exercising muscles to extract and utilize oxygen, which has been transported by the cardiorespiratory system, refers to the peripheral component of VO2max (Robergs & Roberts 1997).
A pressure gradient (difference) existing between the blood and muscle cells allows for the transportation of oxygen from the red blood cells into the mitochondria.
It is intriguing to note that although the average increase in VO2max is 15% to 20% (person sedentary prior to training), increases up to 93% have been reported in the literature (Wilmore and Costill 1999). The term economy is used to express the oxygen consumption required to perform a given exercise workload, whether it be spinning, running, or any other endurance activity (Daniels 1985).
The lactate threshold refers to the intensity of exercise at which there is an abrupt increase in blood lactate levels (Roberts & Robergs 1997). In untrained endurance individuals, the lactate threshold occurs at approximately 50-60% of VO2max.
To better understand and appreciate the lactate threshold, a physiological explanation describing its mechanism is warranted. The physiological explanations for lactate threshold improvements following endurance training are related to increased mitochondria size, numbers, and enzyme levels. The potential for endurance performance according to the physiological parameters we have examined thus far is limited by the complex interaction of VO2max, economy, and lactate threshold. Thus far, we have focused on the metabolic machinery (VO2max, economy, and lactate threshold) necessary for endurance exercise and performance. The intensity of endurance exercise regulates the substrate utilized for the provision of energy.
One of the most noted physiological adaptations to endurance training is an increased reliance on fats at the same relative intensity workload. Most endurance competitions are performed at intensities near the lactate threshold in which substrate utilization relies almost entirely on blood glucose and muscle glycogen.
Since the 1960’s, research has indicated a modified diet strategy, known as glycogen supercompensation (commonly referred to as carbohydrate loading), used in the week preceding endurance events could enhance muscle glycogen stores. Sweating is a normal physiological response to prolonged exercise, required for the dissipation of heat produced during energy metabolism. Although dehydration is a naturally occurring physiological limitation to endurance exercise, it can be countered to a certain degree by adequate hydration practices both prior to and during endurance exercise. Genetic differences in muscle fiber type proportion (slow-twitch and fast-twitch) are also commonly found in individuals. The purpose of our article was to review the major physiological limitations to endurance exercise. The M4 platform has its detractors, but as long as it’s kept relatively clean and well lubricated, it is as reliable as any firearm extant, and as for accuracy and ergonomics, the M4 is hard to beat. The .300 AAC Blackout was designed to give the M4 platform increased power and penetration on intermediate barriers with minimal recoil while retaining the 30-round magazine capacity. I currently own two Blackout rifles, a 16-inch gun from Ambush Firearms, which is the hunting division of Daniel Defense, and a tricked-out 16-inch carbine from Houston Armory.
I do a substantial amount of suburban hog control, and the Blackout has become my go-to round for that mission.
At the time, there wasn’t much data on the Blackout, so I used .300 Whisper data, and I got a few pet loads from my friend and fellow IMO contributor Steve Gash.
I tried unsuccessfully to develop a really accurate subsonic load, and I had trouble besting Remington’s load, so I gave up on that project for now. Because of its accuracy and on-game performance, the Barnes load is now my go-to nighttime hog load.
I will never kick in doors or snipe enemy insurgents with my Blackout, but the accuracy and suppressor-friendly traits designed into the cartridge for the military make the .300 AAC Blackout ideal for hunting, too.
How rue, in Nevada that cartridge would be all but useless except for home defense I would still prefer the 6.8. And in the case of *MY* .308 rounds, with better accuracy out to 200-250 yards than any AK shooter could ever dream of!
Steve, the great state of Nebraska DOES, in fact, restrict the use of loads on large game based upon the energy produced. I see the shooter here has a problem with bullet placement, I took a 180# boar with a 55 gr. I would agree Bob, but handloading component companies don't advertise as much as the ammo companies. Special areas of focus are remote team leadership, facilitation skills, virtual team collaboration, project jumpstart workshops and design and facilitation of virtual meetings. Classifying performance measures with their associated areas of improvement Once we measure that which we improve, if we then want to correlate process measures to project or product performance measures, we can do so, and we’ll have a more imperical basis for the correlation. But now back to process improvement. A popular authoor and speaker, he specialized in process engineering and implementation that incorporates best practices from business models, bodies of knowledge, and methodologies like the CMMI models, PMBoK, Six Sigma, and Lean.
If sliders are available then it is asked the laboratory completes the test protocol using sliders and the updated drag factor settings2. On the day before the test, the afternoon training session should consist of no more than 12 km on the water, and should be of low intensity (T3-T2 range).
The range of times for the 2000m ergometer tests have beendivided on 10 sec increments with the fastest 2000m times having the highest starting work load and increment (see Table 2).
In other words there will be no increment of starting work load during the season as has been in previous years.
If the athlete had a medical exemption for the previous year or Thus it is possible that work loads would change slightly from year to year for a given individual. The maximum oxygen uptake is recorded as the highest value actually attained over a period of a full minute. The maximum heart rate is the highest value recorded over a 5 s sampling period during the entire test. A promising approach to understanding these processes in the current psychological literature is appraisal theory. Emotional design can be reformulated as design with the intention to activate or to prevent activation of appraisals of the intended emotions.
Copyright for this article is retained by the authors, with first publication rights granted to the International Journal of Design. There he chairs the design aesthetics section and supervises a research group that carries out innovative research on our sense perception and (emotional) experience of products.
However, an advantage is that it combines the main propositions that underlie the other two perspectives. Although appraisals are mostly automatic and nonverbal, just to simplify the concept, and without claiming theoretical tenability, we can think of an appraisal as an answer to the question, “What does this situation mean for my well-being?” If the answer given to this question is positive (beneficial to my well-being), a pleasant emotion occurs. In the first approach, appraisals are described in terms of summary statements that reflect the overall personal meaning of a situation, known as appraisal themes. This implies that attempts to design for a particular emotion may be facilitated by an understanding of the appraisal pattern that elicits this emotion.
For the current study, the models of Smith and Ellsworth (1985), Frijda (1986), Ortony, Clore, and Collins (1988), Lazarus (1991), Roseman (2001), and Scherer (2001) were reviewed. The associated question is: “To what extent is this object pleasant?” The outcome can be either pleasant (in attraction emotions like desire), or unpleasant (in repulsion emotions like disgust). The expectation confirmation component is about whether the actual outcome of an event confirms or violates those expectations (Scherer, 2001).
The possible answers to this question are oneself, another person or thing, or the general circumstances. For emotions like anger or guilt, the situation is appraised to violate a standard, and, in contrast, emotions like pride or admiration involve appraising a situation as conforming to or surpassing a standard.
As a result of this appraisal, one can appraise oneself as powerful enough to influence the situation, which may be manifested by overt behavior in the direction of desired influence. One thinks that something (either pleasing or disturbing) may happen in the future but is not certain about it. The appraisal patterns of the emotions that are addressed in the current study are summarized in Table 1.
Apart from these components, Frijda, Kuipers, and Ter Schure (1989) showed that disappointment also involves appraisals of certainty (the expectations are not met for sure), low coping potential (nothing can be done to change the situation), and agency of some other person or thing.
In the first approach, stimuli are used to elicit emotional experiences in controlled environments. The goal of the sensitizing phase was to familiarize the participants with emotional introspection and reporting. Each participant received a set of 10 emotions that were randomly selected from a basic list of 33 emotions developed by Scherer (2005). The basic idea was to report the last emotion experienced while interacting with a product. After an explanation of the procedure, participants first read their own reports to recall their experiences.
In order to specify this component, the motives that were attained or blocked in those experiences were examined. That is to say, in 4 out of 20 reports there was a pleasantness appraisal and not a motive related aspect. In 16 out of 18 reports, there was a previous expectation about the attainment of the goal.
In some other cases (11 out of 28), participants explicitly mentioned other, more specific, standards pointing to some problematic product aspects. In most cases, the harm was already experienced and there was nothing to reverse it, for example, having an accident while using a corkscrew. In these cases, although the participants could not reverse the unpleasant events, they felt like they could overcome the problematic consequences of the event by some other secondary actions, like restarting the computer that freezes, or using a sponge instead of a dishwashing brush that does not clean properly. This motive inconsistent situation evokes anger only if it is appraised as violating a standard (such as, the buttons of a phone shouldn’t be too small). The motive inconsistencies in these experiences can be attributed to the products and can also be attributed to the circumstances. Although we think that frequency is a logical criterion to determine the relevance of a particular emotion to our relationships with products, it is not the only criterion. Three main motive levels can be involved in a motive consistency appraisal in human-product interactions: general motives, contextualized motives and interaction goals.
Specifically, design for emotion can be reformulated in terms of design with the intention to activate or prevent activation of appraisals.
All journal content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License. We expected the elite athlete to represent an expression of heredity, physical training, nutrition, and sociocultural factors.
Anthropometric data were collected on 383 junior male rowers, who included competitors and reserves (4.4% of the total sample).
When the rowers arrived, they completed a form requesting certain personal and training data. Except for the biceps skinfold, the suprailiac skinfold, and the calf skinfold, all other variables fitted to a normal distribution.
Sklad et al28 found that a year of training increased arm and chest circumferences, and relative body mass in 41 male junior rowers aged 17–18 years.
Considerably thinner skinfolds were found in elite lightweight rowers.6 To evaluate the physical characteristics of junior rowers, an anthropometric profile chart was constructed (table 3).
This study will provide a better understanding of the relations between physical structure and performance in young rowers.
This is primarily due to limited access to such subjects and also because of the finite nature of the population. Also many thanks are given to the athletes, coaches, medical staff members, and delegation chiefs for their benevolence in giving permission to measure the rowers under their authorisation. Traditionally, the magnitude of an individual’s VO2max has been viewed as one of the most important predictors of endurance performance.
The production of ATP is accomplished through three metabolic pathways (breakdown of a fuel to release energy), which include the phosphagen system (the production of ATP from creatine phosphate), glycolysis (glucose breakdown), and mitochondrial respiration (aerobic metabolism within the mitochondrion of the cell). Enhanced oxygen delivery and utilization during exercise will improve mitochondrial respiration and subsequently the capacity for endurance exercise. The role of the central component is for oxygen to be transported from the atmosphere and delivered to the muscles where it is utilized during mitochondrial respiration to produce ATP. In fact, some researchers have concluded that 70-85% of the limitation in VO2max can be attributed to maximal cardiac output (Cerretelli & DiPrampero 1987). To meet these needs, more blood must be allocated to the muscles during endurance exercise. Despite the apparent central limiting factors to VO2max and endurance exercise, research has also suggested the influence of peripheral limiting factors, which is where we now shift our focus.
The potential sites for VO2max limitation in the peripheral component include muscle diffusion capacity, mitochondrial enzyme (molecules that facilitate ATP production in mitochondria) levels, and capillary density (Bassett & Howley 2000).
Oxygen utilization and continued mitochondrial respiration rely on the maintenance of this gradient.
Although most current research supports the central component to be the main limitation to VO2max (Wilmore and Costill 1999), the importance of peripheral components to VO2max should not be minimized. Differences in oxygen consumption between individuals at similar exercise workloads illustrate the individual variation found in exercise economy. Many scientists consider the lactate threshold to be a primary indicator of endurance performance (Wilmore & Costill 1999).
The primary pathway for ATP regeneration during endurance exercise is mitochondrial respiration, which initially shares the same metabolic pathway as glycolysis, where muscle glycogen (glycogen is the store form of glucose in muscle or the liver) or blood glucose is converted into another chemical molecule called pyruvate. Following endurance training, mitochondria size and numbers have been reported to increase by 50-100%, thus increasing the mitochondrial respiration capacity (Holloszy & Coyle 1984). An individual would achieve their endurance potential by maximizing their physiological capacities in each of these components. However, the ability to exercise for extended periods requires not only adequate metabolic machinery but also fuel (food substrates) for continual muscle contraction. During low-intensity endurance exercise (<60% VO2max), fats and carbohydrates are used to support metabolism.
Long-term training in multiple endurance sports including cycling, running, and swimming has been shown to increase muscle glycogen levels (Robergs & Roberts 1997). The approach calls for the individual to train intensely while maintaining a low-carbohydrate diet early in the week, thus depleting muscle glycogen stores.
During these activities, the energy supply provided by lipids is virtually inexhaustible in most individuals. Unfortunately, this natural occurring response can also result in substantial fluid loss and impaired endurance performance.
Currently, there are many different approaches and products used by endurance enthusiasts for pre-exercise and exercise hydration, including the ingestion of solutions comprised of water, salt, simple carbohydrates, electrolytes and glycerol.


Various researchers have reported a genetically regulated upper limit to individual VO2max values (Bouchard et al 1999). Slow-twitch muscle fibers, characterized by more mitochondrial mass and enzyme levels than fast-twitch muscle fibers, have an increased capacity for mitochondrial respiration. Though the physiological mechanisms regulating endurance performance are quite complex, the main factors limiting prolonged exercise have a straightforward interpretation. The author test-fired both handloads and factory-loaded ammo: (left to right) Barnes 110-grain TAC-TX, Hornady 150-grain SST, Remington 125-grain OTM, Speer 180-grain Hot-Cor, Remington 220-grain Subsonic.
Its designers also intended for it to provide excellent terminal performance and accuracy when run suppressed with subsonic or standard ammunition.
A 1:10-inch twist will easily stabilize standard 110- to 130-grain bullets, but the long, heavy-for-caliber 220-grain projectiles require a faster barrel twist.
That’s pretty good considering the cartridge’s moderate case capacity, but it’s too slow to guarantee expansion with the tough, controlled-expansion bullets I prefer for hunting, and I haven’t been impressed with the performance of the OTM or AccuTip on big pigs. After tinkering with a dozen or so loads for the better part of a year, I found that the Blackout is, indeed, an accurate cartridge. Those hogs weighed from 110 to 200 pounds, and they ran an average of 25 yards after they were shot. Sure, subsonic loads are quieter, but the TAC-TX load lets me hold dead-on a shoulder from point-blank to 200 yards, and I can easily make head shots with it inside 100 yards. I’m not about to give up my 5.56mm ARs, but my Blackout guns are definitely good alternatives and have earned permanent places in my arsenal.
FMJ in a 22 hornet with 1 shot at a 100 yards in the head, most the time I use a 6mm with a 100 Gr. Look at Barnes, they get $35 for a box of 50 bullets or $40 for a box of 20 loaded rounds, where do you think the higher profit margin is?
We can and should define effects that improving our processes have on our business performance. He debunks various myths about CMMs and provides case studies from experience showing that the myths are dangerous to believe…If you're contemplating any sort of process improvement effort, this book can help you a great deal in defining and getting the results you'd like to achieve. For the 2009-2012 Olympic cycle the standard protocol will change to reflect new information that has been presented by Ivan Hooper and others on the use of sliders and lower drag factors. There should be no heavy weight training, or exercise to which the athlete is not accustomed. The athlete should give special attention to ensuring good hydration in the lead-up to the test. The only way an athlete will be able to change their starting work load or increment will be to perform a 2000m test that has a time that places them into a different time bracket. Obviously this will change depending on the time of year and the athlete’s current training status but importantly in a single season the athlete will complete an identical amount of work leading into the maximal performance component of the test. Taking the protocol to its exact description would mean the athlete would change their starting work load and increment. If this is the case, comparison between years for the same individual, or in the same year between individuals, must only be done using variables such as heart rate, blood lactate, VO2 and perceived exertion at LT1, LT2 and the maximal step. Thus, if the gas analysis system is based on 30 s sampling periods, the maximum oxygen uptake is the sum, or if all results are expressed in L.min-1, the average of the highest two consecutive readings. Computerised analysis allows for quite simple determination of the various blood lactate transition thresholds and associated measures.
Appraisal theory can support this understanding because it explains how different emotions are elicited by different underlying appraisals. All journal content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.5 License. Jordan (1999) investigated different sources of product pleasures: physiological, psychological, sociological, and ideological.
This means that the pleasure and processing perspectives can be explained in terms of the appraisal framework. For example, talking to a distant loved one through a cellular phone may evoke joy because it is consistent with the motive of affection. For instance, one may appraise the eco-friendly material used in a chair as confirming the standard of ‘caring for the environment’ and therefore admire the thoughtfulness of the producer. For some other emotions, such as happiness and sadness, harms and benefits are for certain. Components that are included in the patterns proposed by more than one reference are shown in black. This approach is often criticized for lacking ecological validity, because effects observed in the lab environment may not reflect real life experiences (Schorr, 2001). Participants were asked to recall and report events in which they had experienced one of these ten emotions.
To overcome the difficulties in labeling and communicating emotional experiences, the complete list of emotions of Scherer (2005), composed of 33 emotion terms, was used in the second phase. Each of these participants received one to three SMS’s at random moments of the day, totaling up to six for the entire study period. Then the interviewer asked several questions that aimed to disclose the details of each experience, such as the activity the participant was involved in when experiencing the emotion, the responses of the product, and the presence or absence of other people. This examination resulted in the identification of three basic levels of motives: general motives, contextualized motives, and interaction goals.
Only one report was about attainment of a contextualized motive, such as finishing the set up of a tent, which marks the start of vacation time. Almost all cases (19 out of 20) involved high levels of certainty of experienced pleasantness or goal attainment. In 5 out of 18 cases, the expectations were about a reward in return for product usage, or a phase completion in product usage. For example, a participant reported a case of irritation caused by spilling hot tea on the table while trying to fill a cup.
This finding complies with the conceptualization of Van Dijk and Zeelenberg (2002), implying the existence of two different types of disappointment. Another one, for instance, may be the effect of particular emotions on the overall attitude towards the product. The overall motive structure may be represented by a hierarchical model, as proposed by Ortony et al.
Future research focusing on the different types of motives in human-product interaction is needed.
As mentioned briefly in the introduction section, there are three levels of appraisals: (1) direct appraisals, (2) automatic associative appraisals, and (3) conscious reasoning-based appraisals.
For example, designing with the goal to elicit joy is designing for motive consistency and certainty. In addition to age, 27 dimensions were measured: body mass, six heights or lengths, four breadths, 10 girths, and six skinfolds. Description and analysis of top level athletes include kinanthropometry, which is the study of human size, shape, proportion, composition, and gross motor function in order to understand growth, exercise performance, and maturation.1 The chosen variables can be restricted to anthropometric dimensions. Techniques were based on the procedures given by Claessens et al.9 For some measurements, the procedures outlined by Lohman et al,10 Norton et al,11 and Ross and Marfell-Jones12 were followed. The American College of Sports Medicine20 argues that youngsters should, if possible, be counselled towards sports that are realistic given the individual body type. The most able young rowers could be distinguished by their stature, skeletal robustness, and muscular development.29 This is supported when comparing the anthropometric characteristics of finalists and non-finalists. This profile gives an overall evaluation of the body characteristics of a subject in relation to his group.
In this context, the current study provides a unique and extensive profile of the anthropometric characteristics of well trained Junior male rowers, who comprised 89% of rowers competing in the 1997 World Championships. The curiosity and complexity of solving these questions have led to a plethora of research investigations on human potential.
A classic study, conducted in the 1970’s at Ball State University, confirmed the importance of VO2max to endurance performance with findings indicating a strong correlation between VO2max and 10-mile run times (Costill 1970). The first two pathways are only capable of energy production for short durations; consequently, ATP regeneration for extended exercise is accomplished predominantly through mitochondrial respiration. Both central (heart, lungs, blood vessels) and peripheral (tissue extraction of oxygen) physiological functions can limit VO2max.
The main central limitations to oxygen delivery are pulmonary diffusion, cardiac output, and blood volume and flow (Bassett & Howley 2000).
Pulmonary diffusion is the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the blood.
A person’s maximal heart rate is quite stable and remains unchanged with endurance training. The final link in the oxygen delivery chain (from the lungs and heart) is the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood. Endurance training results in a two-fold increase in mitochondrial enzymes levels (which allows the working muscles to use more oxygen), resulting in a higher VO2max, and also indicates this potent peripheral limitation to VO2max (Honig, Connett, & Gayeski 1992). However, due to the logistical constraints of studying the consumption of oxygen at the cellular level, at highly intense levels, the entire picture of oxygen utilization is still developing (Robergs 2001). Consequently, individuals with similar VO2max values can have much different endurance performances depending on their economy of movement. Additionally, the lactate threshold (compared to VO2max and economy) appears to be the most responsive physiological parameter to endurance training (McKardle, Katch, & Katch 1996). The performance benefit of this training adaptation is that an individual is capable of maintaining a higher steady state exercise intensity (below the lactate threshold) during the endurance exercise. Depending on exercise intensity, pyruvate will either enter the mitochondria or be converted to lactate. Additionally, the previously mentioned 2-fold increase in mitochondrial enzymes will also enhance mitochondrial respiration capacity. In an effort to investigate the endurance potential of humans, researchers have input VO2max, economy, and lactate threshold levels into theoretical models to predict the ideal performance for a marathon (Joyner 1991).
The human body is dependent on fats (lipids), and carbohydrates (blood glucose and muscle glycogen) to support ATP regeneration for sustained muscle contraction (Roberts & Robergs 1997).
With increasing exercise intensity (at or above 70% VO2max), there is a shift towards more carbohydrate metabolism to support continuous exercise (Roberts & Robergs 1997). However, regardless of training status, at exercise intensities nearing lactate threshold, there is a greater predominance of carbohydrate utilization for substrate supply because the metabolism of carbohydrates (resulting in the formation of ATP) is more efficient with regards to the oxygen consumption (Robergs & Roberts 1997). This training adaptation extends the duration and intensity of the endurance exercise prior to muscle glycogen depletion, and subsequent fatigue becomes prolonged. Later in the week, the individual decreases training intensity and consumes a high-carbohydrate diet – resulting in enhanced muscle glycogen stores. Consequently, the limitation to performance in these longer, lower intensity events is the result of physiological mechanisms other than substrate supply and oxygen availability, and may be the product of muscle damage. Inadequate fluid balance throughout prolonged bouts of exercise or training sessions results in several deleterious physiological events including increased heart rates and temperatures.
These findings indicate that regardless of training volume or intensity, 10-30% of the variability in VO2max is genetically determined. Elite endurance athletes generally possess high percentages of slow-twitch muscle fibers in muscles contributing to their respective endurance exercise. To continue exercise for extended durations, sustained muscle contraction must be maintained and is dependent on the continuous provision of both oxygen and fuel. After working with various Blackout guns for the last year, I have to say AAC met those design goals. They work just fine on smaller hogs, but I wanted a tougher bullet, so I started developing my own Blackout loads.
My two most accurate loads are the 180-grain Speer Hot-Cor bullet over 15 grains of Lil Gun at 1,695 fps and the 150-grain Hornady SST over 15.5 grains of H110 at 1,822 fps.
It’s loaded with the 110-grain TAC-TX; a flat-base, solid-copper bullet with polymer tip that is designed to expand at Blackout velocities but stay together to drive deep. With my Thunderbeast suppressor attached, it is quiet enough for late-night, suburban hunting. Problem was, a round on the verge of instability tends to tumble in flight if conditions aren't perfect.
If we understand these relationships, we can make more rationale business decisions about how and where to spend our improvement dollars. It is suggested that the athlete replicate as closely as possible similar training loads in the 24 hours leading into each testing block. However the gain in doing this is far outweighed by the inability to compare the athlete across the 4 years of data using the previous starting work load and increment.
If 15 s sampling periods are used, the maximum oxygen uptake is the highest value obtained on the basis of any four consecutive readings.
The ADAPT* (Automatic Data Analysis for Progressive Tests) software package is to be used to calculate these thresholds from the test data.
By virtue of their appearance in this open-access journal, articles are free to use, with proper attribution, in educational and other non-commercial settings.
Paul has published numerous articles on product experience and aesthetics in major international journals and is co-editor of “Design and Emotion: The experience of everyday things” [2004] and “Product experience” [2008]. The pleasure types that Jordan (1999) proposes basically correspond to different types of motive consistency, a particular appraisal type. For instance, in a frustrating situation, such as when a word processor does not respond while one is trying to finish a document before a tight deadline, the answer to this question is most likely to be negative, and a negative emotion such as anger or worry is likely to occur. For instance, for sadness the overall meaning is an irrevocable loss, whereas for joy it is a progress towards realization of a goal (Lazarus, 1991).
The first is to identify the appraisal components that are involved in the process that elicits emotions in human-product interactions. In order to devise a comprehensive yet manageable set, only components included in at least two of these models were selected, resulting in the following list: motive consistency, intrinsic pleasantness, expectation confirmation, standard conformance, agency, coping potential, and certainty. In contrast, situations appraised as conflicting with what one wants, or motive inconsistent, will evoke an unpleasant emotion. One can experience satisfaction or disappointment when the outcomes respectively confirm or disconfirm these expectations.
For instance, a skater who succeeds in making a difficult move may experience pride because he attributes the success to his effort and skill.
This component is similar to the expectation component, as each standard can trigger a corresponding expectation.
The manifestation of this appraisal, in the case of anger, usually involves aggressive behavior towards the person or the object that is found responsible for the unpleasant situation, in an attempt to change the unpleasant aspects of the situation or to restore the social respect. Someone may be afraid that she has lost her valuable necklace when she notices that it is not in the usual place. The second approach, asking people to recall their emotional experiences, partly overcomes this problem.
In the third phase, participants were interviewed about the details of their emotional experiences and the underlying appraisals. For each report, they were also asked to describe what had happened, and to explain why they experienced that particular emotion. Participants either picked one of the listed emotions or reported an additional emotion that was not included on the list. The reports of these respondents showed a disproportionately high number of cases of irritation and anger. During the session, the photographs of the products were shown, which facilitated recalling the experience and communicating the details of the experience with the interviewer. General motives are universal goals and needs; those shared by all humans, such as the need for social belonging.
The particular motive types and specific motives related to each case that were identified are presented in Table 3. Only one case involved a long-term benefit (taking good care of teeth); however, this case was also accompanied by a pleasant tactual feeling of the toothbrush. Drinking coffee made with a coffee machine, or completing the arrangement of songs according to their genres in a music player software program are examples of those types of situations.
In this account, although the user did not attribute any responsibility to the carafe that is used to fill the cup (because the lid on the carafe was not fastened tightly), the situation was still irritating.
In our view, this implies that the high control potential is inherent in a typical human-product interaction episode.
In some cases, it can be the product itself and in other cases it can be about another person, such as a co-user of a product. There are other emotions—such as pride, contempt, admiration, and gratitude, to name just a few—that may not be frequently experienced but still have a powerful influence on how we relate to products and how we accept or reject products in our lives. Only the first two levels, which operate outside consciousness, have causal roles in emotion elicitation; that is to say, an emotion may be experienced without any conscious appraisal of the situation (Kappas, 2006). Designing with the goal to prevent anger is designing to prevent motive inconsistency, standard violation and external agency.
A model of appraisal in the emotion system: Integrating theory, research, and applications.
The quantification of physique, which can be called anthropometry, of top level athletes is a reference in relating sports performance and body structure.
The selected anthropometric dimensions were based on (a) the factor analytical classification of physique to characterise the different components of body build,13 (b) the measurements as used in studies on male and female rowing athletes,4–7 14 15 and (c) the measurements used in the physical fitness surveys on Belgian boys16 for reference. Finalists are heavier and have higher values for length, breadth (except for the bicristal diameter), and girth dimensions than the nonfinalists (table 2). The male junior rowers were 7% taller and 27% heavier than the reference group.16 On the basis of the descriptive data for 14 male adult champions,21 Shephard2 concluded that outstanding rowers are 10% taller and 27% heavier than the general Canadian population.
No differences were found between junior rowers and elite lightweight rowers.6 Long legs increase the drive phase of the rowing stroke. The chart can be used as a screening device and the interpretation of any profile should therefore be seen in its specific individual context. Contributors: J B, A L C, and J V were responsible for all the financial and administrative functions of this study. Much about the mystery of muscular strength is just now being unraveled with the advances in genetics research and will be the topic of a future article. The relative importance of each function in limiting endurance performance has been discussed, researched and debated by exercise physiologists for decades. Oxygen is transported in the blood bound to a molecule called hemoglobin located within red blood cells. In addition, a 20% increase in capillary density (the anatomical location of oxygen exchange between the blood and muscle) has also been reported with endurance training, signifying an improved distribution and extraction of blood within the muscle (Robergs & Roberts 1999). In fact, high correlations between 10-km running performance and economy have been reported between runners with comparable VO2max values (Conley & Krahenbuhl 1980). This allows the endurance exerciser to maintain faster steady state tempos during training or racing, leading to improved endurance performance. At exercise intensity levels below the lactate threshold, pyruvate enters the mitochondria and muscle contraction continues through oxidative ATP production. The combined result of these adaptations is a delayed timeline to lactate threshold and greater capacity to perform endurance exercise. Availability and utilization of these substrates plays a significant role in the limitations to endurance exercise.
While carbohydrate substrate supply is limited, lipid supply in most individuals is unlimited.
Unfortunately, this practice, though effective, is also mentally and physically demanding for the individual. Research has suggested that rising body core temperatures may cause fatigue in the muscles (by impairing mitochondrial respiration) and central nervous system (Fitts 1994). The genetic influence on VO2max has been attributed to both central and peripheral factors with the genetic effect on cardiac output having been reported to be as high as 50% (McCardle, Katch, & Katch 1996). In fact, elite marathoners have been reported to have greater than 90% slow-twitch muscle fibers in muscles of the leg (Costill, Fink, & Pollock 1976).
Although each of the physiological limitations is modifiable through endurance training, it is important to recognize that genetic factors play a tremendous role in the trainability of these limitations and their capacity.
Familial aggregation for VO2max response to exercise training: results from the HERITAGE Family Study. Adaptations of skeletal muscle to endurance exercise and their metabolic consequences, Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 831-838. It averages pretty close to its claimed 2,350 fps in both of my guns, and it shoots headshot tight at 100 yards.
Two hogs dropped in their tracks, while the toughest covered just 55 yards in a wild, heart-shot dash. Subsonic ammo is definitely quieter, but I have yet to get the accuracy I require from such loads, and they drop so quickly that they really work best in a controlled environment, such as hunting baited pigs from a blind so that you can zero for the exact shot distance.
Not a huge difference in velocity, and only a very slight difference in trajectory out to 300m. Rain, fog, and even cool weather would upset the original setup and cause it to destabilize in flight. For example, if you could guess that a million dollar change to process could get you a 1.5X result, whereas the same investment in technology could get you a 2X result, and assuming you only have the one million dollars to spend, wouldn’t knowing the greater ROI influence your investment decision?
In cases such as this it is left to the discretion of the coach and scientist to decide what should be the appropriate starting work load and increment foir that athlete. The study started with a sensitizing task to make participants familiar with reporting their emotional experiences. In cooperation with several international companies, he studies why and how consumer products evoke emotions. Moreover, different levels of mental processing, as identified by Norman (2004), coincide with different levels of appraisals.
When a situation is appraised as an irrevocable loss, be it the end of a romantic relationship or the loss of a cherished object, sadness is the resulting emotion. A complexity in this challenge is that appraisal patterns proposed by different theoreticians show minor differences in terms of involved components.
In that sense, intrinsic pleasantness can be considered as a particular type of a motive consistency appraisal, which is related to the main motive of survival and which does not require any mental representation of that particular motive during the appraisal, meaning that it is a direct perception level appraisal. In emotions like anger or admiration, other people or objects are found responsible for bringing up the evocative situation.
To exemplify, one who believes that a car should not break down after a single year of usage, as a standard, will also expect a new car to be free of problems in the first year of ownership.
In contrast, emotions such as fear or anxiety involve low coping potential, meaning that one appraises oneself as having little control or power to change the situation, which results in a moving away from the situation.
The 29 participants, all master’s students at the Industrial Design Engineering Department of Delft University of Technology, were paid for their participation. Then, they were asked to report the product that had been involved in the experience, describe the events that took place, and provide a causal explanation for the emotional activation.


To ensure variability, the remaining participants were asked not to report examples of anger and irritation.
Statements referring to the relevant components summarized in Table 1 were identified for each emotion.
Although a user cannot reverse motive-inconsistent aspects, such as hurting oneself with a corkscrew, he or she is still capable of coping with the motive-inconsistent aspects of the product, such as eliminating further problems by getting the product that is not functioning repaired, using the product with more care, or even by replacing the product with another one or a similar substitute.
When the expectations were merely about outcomes of interaction and not about particular product qualities, the motive inconsistency was attributed to the circumstances.
Secondly, it may support the proposition that the pleasantness appraisal is a particular type of the motive consistency appraisal.
Fortunately, appraisal theory explains a wide variety of emotions and can be used to provide an understanding of those other emotions within the human-product domain.
In this hierarchy, attainment of a lower level goal or motive marks progress towards a higher level motive. Therefore, a robust theory of appraisal should address those automatic and direct appraisals. Although this can be a first step in formulating a more tangible design goal, it is still abstract.
To compare the anthropometric data of finalists and nonfinalists, an independent two sample t test analysis was carried out. No significant differences are recorded between finalists and non-finalists for skinfold thicknesses, except for the triceps skinfold.
Malina22 suggested that there is no effect of regular training for rowing on statural growth and noted that rowers are already taller than average during childhood, maintaining their position relative to reference data during childhood and adolescence.
In conclusion, elite male junior rowers are tall and heavy, with greater length, breadth, and girth dimensions than a reference group of the same chronological age.
However, a clearer picture of the body’s physiological limitations to endurance exercise is better understood. However, in well-trained endurance athletes, with much higher cardiac outputs (which is the product of heart rate and stroke volume), pulmonary diffusion may become a limiting factor to VO2max. Contrariwise, stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per heart beat) increases substantially from endurance training.
Individual exercise economy is enhanced with endurance training and has been explained by improvements in biomechanical techniques in performing the specific physical activity (Roberts & Robergs 1997). In fact, research has consistently reported high correlations between the lactate threshold and performance in a variety of endurance events including running, cycling, and race-walking (McKardle, Katch, & Katch 1996). However, at exercise intensity levels above the lactate threshold, the capacity to produce ATP through mitochondrial respiration is compromised, and pyruvate is converted to lactate. After approximately 2 hours of intense steady state exercise, muscle glycogen stores become significantly depleted resulting in fatigue, regardless of the presence of an adequate oxygen supply.
Dehydration also results in higher heart rate values for the same submaximal intensity due to decreased stroke volumes, resulting from the lower blood plasma volumes.
Similarly, training improvements in economy and lactate threshold are parameters that are also genetically regulated.
The advantage of more slow-twitch muscle fibers includes greater mitochondrial capacity, increased oxygen consumption, and increased performance in endurance exercise.
It is therefore critical for coaches, fitness instructors, and personal trainers to recognize the all of the physiological components limiting endurance performance as they design exercise programs to improve endurance capacity. Were I setting up a gun exclusively for subsonic, suppressed use, I would choose an even faster twist rate.
I shot three hogs with the Hot-Cor load and two with the SST (all weighed between 80 and 140 pounds). I was not able to recover a bullet, so my friend Irvin Barnhart placed a 200-pound boar on top of a 55-gallon barrel of water and shot the pig once through the shoulders and once on an angle that hit mid-rib and exited the off shoulder.
Add to that the growing popularity of the 77 grain 5.56 load, and the gap gets even closer. The .300 BLK is legal for deer and hog anyehere that rifle cartridges may be used for big game hunting. Faster twist rates solved that problem, but also did away with the original point of the round, which was to tumble for wounding effect. Scientists can contact either the Head Coaches, HPD or Tony Rice for additional consultation if required. With a combination of experience sampling and in-depth interviews, the emotions experienced when interacting with products and the causes of these emotions were captured. He and his colleague are presently finishing a book in which this approach is laid out [publication in 2010]. Desmet (2002) investigated how product appearance evokes emotions and proposed that appraisal theory can be used to explain how products elicit emotions. Smith and Kirby (2001) identified three levels of processing in appraisals: appraisals that involve (1) direct perceptions (such as pain sensations) that do not require the activation of mental representations (visceral level), (2) automatic associative processes that activate memories of previous experiences outside of the consciousness (behavioral level), and (3) conscious reasoning (reflective level). In the second approach, appraisals are not described in terms of a single and basic question, but in terms of several questions, each focusing on a different aspect of the situation: “How does this situation relate to my motives?”, “To what extent was this situation expected?”, “Who or what is responsible for this situation?”, among others. As design researchers, we are not sure which of these components are most suitable for explaining emotions in human-product interactions.
Specifying the type of motive that is involved in that situation may deepen this understanding. However, in order to have a more specific and detailed account of appraisal components, we adopt the perspective of Ortony, Clore, and Collins (1988) and Scherer (2001), and treat the pleasantness appraisal as a separate component. For some other emotions, the event cannot be attributed to any particular person or object and is attributed to circumstances, such as being happy about finding the “perfect” pair of shoes in the market by chance. For example, computer anxiety, in literature, is usually associated with an appraisal of finding oneself powerless to manipulate and control the computer (Busch, 1995). The inclusion of intrinsic pleasantness as a basic appraisal component enabled Scherer (2001) to differentiate happiness from joy: happiness involves an intrinsic pleasantness appraisal, whereas joy does not.
According to them, in an anger episode, one experiences the situation as a violation of social standards and norms. In other words, reporting emotional experiences that happened a while ago may result in changed or incomplete data (Schorr, 2001).
Based on the low return rate for the first 19 participants (average return rate was 4.36 out of 6), the signaling schedule was changed to cover ten days, and only one SMS was sent per day. Contextualized motives are situation-dependent specifications of the general motives, as with exercising on a treadmill to keep fit. Even when the intrinsic pleasantness of the product evokes the emotion, the pleasant aspect was already expected.
In 6 other cases, where the expectation focus was on the product, product agency was observed.
In the study, participants were asked to focus on the last product that they used and felt something about.
Scherer (2001) treated the pleasantness appraisal as a separate component because, in his approach, sensorial pleasure is motive-independent. For instance, to be successful in working life (general goal) one must be in the office on time (contextualized condition), in a proper condition (contextualized goal), and one should fulfill her responsibilities on time (contextualized goal).
However, given the need for an explorative first step in the domain of appraisals in human-product interactions, only conscious appraisals were investigated in this study. It can be made more concrete if it is possible to specify what sort of motive consistency to evoke or what sort of standard violation to prevent. The stature of the junior rowers is similar to that of adult heavyweight elite rowers, except that the junior rowers are lighter. For all rowing events, 80–100% of the competitors were measured, including 83% of the winners and medallists as well as 89% of the finalists. Table 4 gives a comparison of the mean age, stature, and body mass of male junior23–25 (J Bourgois and J Vrijens, personal communication) and senior6 18 19 26 27 rowers competing in international championships. Within the group of elite male junior rowers, significant differences exist between finalists and non-finalists in length, breadth, and girth dimensions and for body mass.
A L C coordinated the study, designed the protocol, was appointed the criterion anthropometrist for this study, participated in the execution of the study, particularly data collection, data documentation, quality control, and analysis of data, and participated in writing and editing the paper. Whether you are a world-class athlete or a recreational runner, your capacity for endurance exercise has similar physiological limitations. The very high cardiac outputs that highly trained athletes attain shortens the time period for blood to pick up oxygen in the lungs, possibly leading to lower blood oxygen saturation levels (Robergs & Roberts 1997). Much of this rise is due primarily to the increased chamber size and wall thickness of the left ventricle (the heart’s hardest working chamber because it pumps blood throughout the body). It has been proposed that the best predictor of endurance performance is the maximal steady state workload achieved near VO2max (Weltman 1995). The metabolic pathways supporting exercise intensity above the lactate threshold are only capable of sustaining muscle contraction for short durations, thus limiting endurance activity (Bassett & Howley 2000). Research has demonstrated that the ingestion of carbohydrates during exercise can prolong the duration of exercise beyond the time supplied by muscle glycogen stores (Coggan & Coyle 1989). It is possible for heart rate values to approach maximal levels despite the submaximal nature of endurance exercise during severe dehydration (Roberts & Robergs 1997). High correlations between slow-twitch muscle fibers and endurance performance have been reported in both running and cycling (Costill, Fink, & Pollock 1976, Ivy et al 1980). All the shots were broadside, every bullet caused tremendous internal damage and exited, but all five pigs ran between 30 and 120 yards after they were shot.
I just bought a new DPMS AR-15 in 223 and I would not be afraid to take a hog with it out to 200 hundred yds.
Implementation of the new drag factor settings and sliders will be mandatory from Nov 2009. The scientist will place a small quantity of Finalgon on one of your earlobes, or on some fingertips to ensure that the capillary blood is arterialised prior to sampling.5. The results indicated that the appraisal patterns as proposed in general appraisal theory can also be traced in human-product interaction for all four emotion groups.
His main research aim is to develop theory that can assist the designer in designing products that evoke intended emotions. Desmet has published his research in several journals, and presented his work at international platforms. A product appraisal is an automatic assessment of the effect of a product on one’s well-being. The comprehensiveness of appraisal theory renders it a prominent perspective in psychology.
The answers given to each of these questions are named as appraisal components and each discrete emotion involves a particular pattern of those components (Roseman, 2001; Scherer, 2001). The second challenge is that the available appraisal components should be made more tangible because they are too abstract to be useful for design purposes.
The motives, as discussed in appraisal literature, may be as abstract as universal human needs or human concerns (Frijda, 2007), such as belonging, or as concrete as particular goals (Lazarus, 1991), such as completing a project document or purchasing an expensive car. For example, an expectation that a particular chair structure can carry a certain amount of weight is not shaped by social standards but by our personal experience with that particular structure or material. Only when the loss is certain or the necklace is found, the emotion may change to sadness or relief. In addition, the motive consistency for happiness is not as high as motive consistency for joy, according to this model.
The third approach, the naturalistic approach, was selected for the current study because it minimizes both of these previous problems. The signaling times were randomized over participants and days, in an attempt to cover a variety of different daily activities that may take place throughout the day. Although this choice can be supported to some extent by views of some theorists (Roseman & Evdokas, 2004) stating that conscious appraisals may accurately reflect automatic and direct appraisals, in order to develop a robust theory of appraisals in human-product interactions, future work should focus on automatic appraisals.
For this, we have to identify those particular motives, standards, and expectations that are involved in emotional experiences with products. Compared with non-finalists, finalists are heavier (but still lighter than the adult heavyweight elite rower) and taller, with greater length, breadth (except for the bicristal diameter), and girth dimensions. The scores for 20 anthropometric dimensions are located on the chart together with the corresponding percentile values—for example, P5, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, and P95. The mean stature of elite junior rowers varies between 187 and 192 cm, which is similar to the adult heavyweight elite rower (185–192 cm). J V initiated and coordinated the study, discussed ideas, and participated in the protocol design, analysis of data, writing and editing the paper. Endurance exercise can be defined as the ability to perform cardiovascular exercise, whether it be cross-country skiing, spinning, running, aerobic exercise or swimming, for an extended period of time (Robergs & Roberts 1997). Despite this possibility, pulmonary diffusion is thought to play a minor role in the overall limitation of oxygen delivery for endurance performance.
However, from endurance training, both the left and right ventricles have expanded capacity to fill with blood. A reduced viscosity may improve blood flow through the blood vessels, especially the smallest vessels which will enhance oxygen delivery to working muscle mass (Wilmore & Costill 1999). When muscle glycogen stores are exhausted, individuals experience fatigue and muscular pain. Individual fiber type proportions also genetically regulate the training adaptability to the physiological parameters of VO2max, economy, and lactate threshold (Robergs & Roberts, 1997).
If you or your boss has to have numbers, you’re going to have to assign those numbers yourself. One of the simplest ways to understand the relationships between process improvement and business performance is to chart it in a simple analysis matrix like the one shown in Table 2. The scientist will adjust the ergometer drag factor to that appropriate to your competition category (see Table 1) and provide you with the work loads for your 6 increments (see Table 2). On the basis of the results, an initial specification of those appraisals and design directions are proposed. The perspective of this project is based on cognitive emotion psychology, and his aim is to identify appraisals that are related to emotions elicited during user-product interaction. He is a co-founder and executive board member of the International Design for Emotion Society, and scientific advisor for SusaGroup, an organization that facilitates design for meaningful experience processes.
Desmet proposed four main types of product appraisals: the relation of a product to one’s goals, the sensorial appeal of the product, the legitimacy of an action represented by the product, and the novelty of the product. However, like other psychological theories, it does not focus on our relationships with products. For instance, pride involves appraising a situation as consistent with one’s motives and caused by one’s own person (Roseman, 2001). Motivation literature presents different classification schemes that may be of help in identifying types of abstract motives (Maslow, 1970; Ford, 1992).
In this approach, participants are asked to report their emotional experiences (or their emotional expressions are observed) while they engage in their daily activities. For instance, on a typical work day morning, in order to be at work on time and in a proper condition, one may need a cup of coffee to get ready for the working day, and this calls for an interaction with a coffee machine. We are currently developing and testing tools, such as online questionnaires, that can be used to identify those particular motives, standards and expectations. It allows sport scientists and coaches to construct anthropometric profiles easily for individual rowers against templates. R P, B Van R,M T,M J, and R L participated in the protocol design, discussed ideas, participated in data collection, particularly measuring and data analysis, and contributed to the paper. Rowing performance, a mathematical model based on analysis of body dimensions as exemplified by body weight. One is limited in this pursuit by a complex integration of multiple physiological functions. The heart, being a muscle with the ability to extend, also attains a greater stretch from the increased blood volume, which results in a stronger elastic recoil for ejecting the blood to the body tissues.
An increase in red blood cell volume is also possible with endurance training (not consistent with every person), which could lead to an additional increase in the blood’s oxygen carrying capacity.
This table provides examples of activities that can be considered process improvements, the correlating expectation in a business performance enhancement resulting from the improvement, and a description of the relationship between the improvement and the business performance results. Based on the prospective model of interaction appraisals, he aims to develop, test, and apply ‘design for emotion’ strategies. Norman (2004) also focused on the mental processing that gives rise to affective responses.
In this paper, we explore and investigate ways to conceptualize and operationalize appraisals for the domain of product design. According to appraisal theory, joy is experienced in response to an event that is consistent with one’s motives. Currently, it is not clear how these abstract motives are translated into more concrete ones in our interactions with products.
Depending on the scope of the term of “motive,” one can also see pleasantness as a particular type of motive consistency appraisal. With the help of these tools and structured procedures that we aim to develop in the future, support of this perspective on emotional design can be fully actualized. Weight classification is part of rowing in World Championships (since 1974) and in Olympic Games (since 1996) at the senior level, but not at the junior level. J L participated in the protocol design, discussed ideas, performed and interpreted statistical analysis, and contributed to the paper. Despite the multifaceted nature, endurance exercise is characterized by one simple requirement – the necessity to sustain repeated muscle contraction.
The variation in individual maximal stroke volume explains most of the range observed in VO2max in trained and untrained individuals. The scientist will position the gas collection apparatus (respiratory valve etc) and ensure that the athlete is as comfortable as possible.
He identified three levels of processing: a visceral level governing responses through direct perception, a behavioral level involving learnt but automatic affective responses, and a reflective level involving affective responses due to conscious thinking.
In doing so, we hope to assist those who want to use appraisal theory for understanding or explaining emotions experienced in human-product interactions. The thematic approach provides more than the sum of the components and may provide a holistic understanding of the intended emotion. This criterion is fulfilled through two basic functions – the ability to consume enough oxygen and an adequate fuel provision. During incremental exercise to maximal, untrained individuals experience a plateau in stroke volume at an intensity approximately 50% VO2max, whereas with highly trained endurance athletes, stroke volume continues to increase up to VO2max (Robergs & Roberts 2000).
It is important to add that during intense endurance exercise the body redistributes blood flow to the metabolically active skeletal muscles, readying the tissues for extraction of the needed oxygen. Take several light strokes and the scientist will make any necessary adjustment to respiratory hoses or other apparatus to ensure that the hose is not pulling on the breathing apparatus at any stage during the stroke.7. In line with those levels, Norman proposed three design strategies: design for appearance (visceral design), for ease of use (behavioral design), and for reflective meaning (reflective design). However, it may be difficult for designers to relate commonly reported themes like “irrevocable loss” or “demeaning offense” to emotional experiences with products. Given its general nature, this condition most probably does not provide the designer with additional insights. The capacity for oxygen consumption is reliant upon the physiological parameters of maximal oxygen uptake, lactate threshold, and economy of movement in the given activity. The scientist will collect a pre-exercise blood sample from the earlobe or fingertip using a Lactate Pro analyser.
For that reason, in this paper, we have adopted the componential approach for describing appraisals. In this paper, both challenges are addressed with a three-phased explorative experience sampling study. Although less holistic, this approach can be useful for writing clear design briefs because it facilitates a more systematic and fine-grained analysis of emotions.
The goals were (1) to identify the appraisal components of particular emotions in human-product interaction, and (2) to specify the identified components to make them more tangible for application in the design domain. Hydration levels and genetic factors also play influential roles in the capacity for endurance exercise. The scientist set the ergometer output display to show Watts for each stroke as well as set the work load time and rest interval.9. Participants reported their emotional responses to products whenever they were prompted to do so by an SMS.
This article will review the main physiological mechanisms limiting endurance exercise and performance. The scientist will attach the nose clip and prepare to start the test if the test requires gas analysis.
In total, 170 emotion records were collected and elaborated on in a subsequent in-depth interview stage. These reports covered 29 different emotions, and the number of reports per emotion varied among different emotions. The diary reports and decoded interview accounts for these emotions were analyzed for the involved appraisal components. During the 1 min rest period, you are permitted to remove the gas collection apparatus to have a drink. The following section briefly reviews the appraisal components and patterns that have been proposed for these four emotions.
However, it is important to ensure that the breathing apparatus is back in position well before the start of the next work bout (approximately 10–15 s). There is only the standard 1 min break between the end of the final submaximal step (6th step) and beginning the 4 min maximal step. If possible try to even split the 4 minutes rather than starting conservatively and then coming home strong. Coincident with the maximal performance assessment will be the attainment of maximal heart rate, blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption.15. At the end of the test, the scientist will help you remove the breathing apparatus as rapidly as possible. An earlobe or fingertip blood sample should be collected and analysed at the completion and 4min post completion of the final maximal step. De evaluatie van conditie en techniek bij top: en subtoproeiers op een isokinetische roeiergometer. Effects of intense annual training on body components and other somatic traits in young male and female rowers.



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