The problem is over time small things gets missed: we create titles that are too short or too long, we miss opportunities of giving a good ALT description for an image, and websites we linked to get deleted or an internal page gets deleted. Nibbler is one of my favorite website audit tools because not only is it in depth in uncovering errors with your website but you receive a score for each section. What else is great about Quicksprout is we’re shown the number of backlinks and social shares.
Once you are done, you have the option to export the report in either a PDF document or an Excel spreadsheet. Screaming Frog provides a little less visuals than the other tools listed, but it provides you the easiest way to see everything about your website behind the scenes.
In case you missed out on anything using the above tools, SEO SiteCheckup will point out the last of the errors. SEO SiteCheckup has a place to insert your website on the homepage for an audit, but you can also register for a free trial account.
Like all the other tools, you receive a score, and you are also shown whether the errors you need to fix on your website are important fixes or semi-important fixes. It’s best to go through your website once a month with the tools above to ensure your website health is where it needs to be to succeed online.
Ed’s devotion to education, mentoring, and science is now memorialized through the Edward W. Note: May 1 is the next deadline for graduate student applications for Supplemental Training for Education funding. While CEd-Tox offers some excellent courses to learn about the basics of toxicology risk assessment, including for medical devices, an exclusive course on the safety assessment of food products has yet to be offered. I feel that this course helped me to learn some qualitative and quantitative tools used for the risk assessment of food products. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) invites nominations of scientific experts from a diverse range of disciplines to be considered for appointment to the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) and the EPA Science Advisory Board (SAB) and five SAB committees described in this notice. Expertise Sought for the SAB: The chartered SAB provides strategic advice to the EPA Administrator on a variety of EPA science and research programs. For further information about the chartered SAB membership appointment process and schedule, please contact Mr.
The National Organic Standards Board (NOSB) was established to assist in the development of standards for substances to be used in organic production and to advise the Secretary on the implementation of the Organic Foods Production Act of 1990 (OFPA). The mission of ToxSci, the official journal of the Society of Toxicology, is to publish the most influential research in the field of toxicology. Thank you for attending the SOT 55th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana, March 12‒17, 2016. We are looking forward to developing an exciting program from the proposals submitted for consideration for the 2017 Annual Meeting. Society Of Toxicology 2016 - Wednesday Plenary Session from Society of Toxicology on Vimeo. During the 55th  SOT Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, members volunteered to serve as SOT Reporters, providing written descriptions and commentary on some of the meeting's scientific sessions.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) Staff Office requests public nominations of scientific experts to augment the SAB Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) for the review of the EPA's draft Toxicological Review of Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS).
Nominations are being sought for individuals who have expertise and qualifications necessary to contribute to the accomplishments of the Board's objectives. The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announced the establishment of the Secretary's Advisory Committee on National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives for 2030 (Committee) and invites nominations for membership. The Committee will be established to provide independent advice based on current scientific evidence for use by the HHS Secretary (the Secretary) or her designee in the development of Healthy People 2030. The rapid rise in e-cigarette (e-cig) use warrants major investigation into their health effects. Among the intriguing data presented, notable were the in vitro findings on the effects of e-cig smoke on genes associated with cell cycle regulation, oxidative stress, mitochondria stress, and the associated DNA damage in human airway cells. The 2016 Annual Meeting and ToxExpo held a number of workshops and sessions geared toward an audience of trainees within our society.
Speakers highlighted the need for a diverse workforce with an array of skill sets and that training opportunities exist across the toxicological sectors to provide a tailored experience that can uniquely assist each trainee to accomplish their career goals. Speakers dismissed the common misconception that students are viewed as "disappointments" by advisors if they do not want to pursue a career in academia. I encourage current students and postdocs seeking additional postdoctoral opportunities to check out the SOT Job Bank site. This platform session represented a diverse range of topics relative to food-associated agents, tackling some of the top leading diseases worldwide that are heavily associated with inflammation, such as lung cancer and diabetes. Anti-genotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity of Chrysobalanus icaco L., an exotic fruit (presented by Vinicius Venancio). Concerning carrageenan literature, McKim states there are two large opposing bodies of evidence—an aspect familiar to many areas of science. Collectively, the session established the need to define the effect of various dietary intakes to prevalent diseases. When dietary components are statically associated with reduced risk of disease, can a causal relationship be postulated for the dietary component or a dietary pattern?
Can animal models that have different digestive anatomies be appropriate models to address metabolic pathways from human dietary exposure?
As previously mentioned, I attended this session as a novice in the mechanisms of inflammation as it is related to diet. The use of read-across continues to expand around the world, propelled largely by REACH data requirements. Currently, there is not agreement and alignment on what constitutes a good read-across prediction. Workshop attendees learned about OECD’s recent evaluation of four case studies from around the world that evaluated differences in read-across evaluations, including a Canadian read-across of 14 substituted diphenylamines and a Japanese read-across of 19 allyl esters. Nicholas Ball warned of the dangers of negative read-across, which occurs when reading across to confirm the absence of toxicity for one endpoint (such as liver toxicity), but failing to recognize that the surrogate chemical may cause toxicity for another endpoint (such as testicular toxicity).
A treasure trove of upcoming meetings and publications mentioned during the workshop should contribute to increased rigor and body of knowledge that goes into read-across.
Kristine Willett and Bharat Chandramouli discussed the use of epigenomics and metabolomics, respectively, to investigate the effects of various chemicals on the zebrafish, a model organism of growing interest for environmental monitoring. Of course, identifying all the salient components of an AOP is a challenging task, particularly when the level of salinity in the water is affecting your fish experiments, as was reported by Daniel Schlenk.
Speaking of unexpected places, the session concluded on a high note with a delightful presentation from Caren Helbing, who developed a transcriptomic methodology for investigating non-model species. Taken together, these presentations offered an exciting look at how -omics technologies may be applied in novel ways to solve some of the big problems of environmental monitoring. Large amounts of in vitro data are being generated from high-throughput screening programs, and linking them to human exposure is paramount for their use in safety assessment. As we move further away from animal models, more emphasis is placed on the reliability of these in vitro models.
As a user of several predictive in vitro assays and computational toxicology platforms, hearing updates from experts in the field was fantastic!
Personally, I would like to see more work in the area of in vitro to in vivo predictions of oral exposure. Lastly, I felt particularly reassured that international validation committees, such as the European Union Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL-ECVAM), are still actively working on reducing uncertainty with in vitro data. Although disasters often occur because of natural events, humans influence the impact and sequelae of both natural and manmade disasters by choosing specific response measures.
Penn State football coach Joe Paterno once said that the minute you think you’ve got it made, disaster is just around the corner. An important criteria for inhalation toxicity is to evaluate both acute and repeated exposures, and in vitro methods must be able to successfully receive the exposure and to mimic how the response is observed in humans. Mitochondria (MT) are organelles commonly referred to as the powerhouse of the cell due to the fact that their main function is to generate ATP to provide energy for cellular functions. Developing therapies for MT disorders poses a great challenge due to the fact that MT are susceptible to mutations from environmental, lifestyle, and genetic factors.
Because MT are present in all cells, defects can affect multiple tissues and cause a wide range of disorders from cancer to Parkinson's. Although we are still far from reaching the goal of improving MT disease pathologies, studies using different model systems to assess toxicology of MT disorders are certainly paving the way to therapeutic development in the near future. During the "Nanotoxicology and Ocular Drug Delivery: One Size Does Not Fit All" session, Nigel Walker (NIEHS-NTP) gave a great overview, highlighting some of the general concerns with nanomaterials. As Alan Boobis explained in his presentation, with all the pressure to publish and chase after funding, it can be tempting to let slip some of the best practices that we were taught as students, and this temptation becomes a systemic crisis when published papers aren’t held to the same standard as student coursework. Speakers Martin Stephens and Judy LaKind provided insight into how we might improve reliability and reproducibility in toxicological and epidemiological studies.
The number of empty seats at the session was disheartening because these speakers addressed many aspects of scientific publishing that researchers prefer not to think about, but which are vital to the core of scientific research.
We all think of ourselves as rational people, and it can be uncomfortable to think that perhaps we aren’t entirely objective when publishing our work.


Bette Meek provided a brief introduction and gave a good overview of the course objectives and what participants can expect from the course. Jay Zhao from the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) discussed dose-response information including default (allometric scaling) and pharmacokinetic approaches, including a live benchmark dose application from completed assessments. Robinan Gentry from Ramboll Environ presented information documenting actual exposure and data useful in determining a default measure of exposure. Finally, John Lipscomb from the US EPA presented risk characterization and demonstrated the development of drinking water maximum contaminant levels, maximum contaminant level-goals, reference values, and cancer slope factors, as well as methods to estimate risk at a given contaminant level. The course booklet had a worksheet on the risk assessment examples, which were completed during the course. At the end of the course, attendees were provided a risk assessment problem and were asked to characterize the hazard, estimate exposures, develop measures of toxic potency, and develop risk values for a hypothetical environmental contaminant. Dean Jones presented his research in which known metabolic pathways are used to identify unknowns. The mixtures work presented in the symposium indicates that the bulk of mixtures research is still in the theoretical phase, with much work left to be done before mixtures tools are used on a regular basis to inform decisions pertaining to hazard identification or risk assessment. Among the 6,830 participants at the 55th SOT Annual Meeting, international attendees accounted for 22 percent. The Society is grateful for the generous contributions of the 50 diverse organizations that provided support for this stellar meeting.
My business has a website, your business has a website, and there’s plenty of websites that talk about websites. These tools will uncover broken links, track down missing ALT text, test your site’s speed, and more so you can optimize your website for search engines and user experience. Of course, you receive an overall score for your website, but each section is broken down into its own score. Neil Patel was even kind enough to draw a line over the image of our website’s home page to show use where “above the fold” is. We are even shown the most popular articles on the website according to the number of social media shares. I’m talking about title tags, header tags, meta data, how deep each page is on the website, broken internal and external links, response codes for each page, broken images, and tons more. For some reason, we hope the problems just take care of themselves, but sadly, they don’t. Edward Carney was known to many for his outgoing sense of humor, his passion for music, and love of family, but among toxicologists he was known for outstanding leadership in developmental biology and developmental toxicology. Carney Trainee Award Fund Endowment Fund and how you can support this fund or the many other funds that are part of the family of the SOT Endowment Fund. Through this course, I learned that probability is the language of uncertainty and variability.
The SAB Staff Office is especially interested in scientists with expertise and experience in air quality relating to criteria pollutants. Some of the recipients are shown below, who were photographed immediately before the Sunday, March 13 Awards Ceremony held at the SOT 55th Annual Meeting in New Orleans, Louisiana. At the conclusion of this meeting, several items remained unclaimed in the SOT Headquarters Lost and Found. For this reason, it is good to provide your draft proposals directly to the endorsing groups well in advance of the submission deadline to leave time for their review and feedback and any recommended revision prior to formal submission to SOT (deadline for this is April 30). Nominations for membership to the Committee must be submitted by 6:00 pm ET on April 18, 2016.
Among the presenters of the "Electronic Cigarette Research" platform session were academic and industry researchers who presented the latest findings on various aspects of e-cigarette use, ranging from delivery systems, nicotine levels, solvents, and flavors.
However, in vivo studies presented in the session indicated potentially decreased toxicity to rodents in three subchronic studies when compared with traditional combustible cigarettes.
Several examples were presented for which programs within government agencies and academic institutions provided external mentorship, internship, and training opportunities with other industries.
This site has up-to-date postdoctoral position openings, as well as application information, and also myriad of other career opportunities.
In addition, presenters covered mechanistic probing experiments on the effect of dietary components or contaminates on inflammation. As I quietly sat amongst approximately 100 people and listed to the presenters, I found their ability to engage audience participation as a testament to the importance of food and nutritional toxicology. In my assessment, this session was a great opportunity to listen to current research in the field and to learn mechanisms of inflammation as related to components of the diets. In the read-across approach, endpoint information for one chemical (source chemical) is used to predict the same endpoint (such as cancer or aquatic toxicity) for a similar chemical (target chemical). Thomas Hartung said that more than 75 percent of REACH dossiers include read-across, while the use of other data gap filling approaches, such as QSAR, trail well behind. Many read-across practitioners are familiar with OECD’s guidelines on grouping chemicals for read-across (2nd edition, 2014), which can be downloaded from OECD at no charge. The proliferation of ever more powerful computing, chemical characterization, and sequencing technologies have given rise to genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and a galaxy of other -omics disciplines which seek to characterize the full cellular (or organismal) complement of biological molecules for which they are named. Gerald Ankley was part of the group that first articulated the paradigm of AOP, which has been widely embraced by toxicologists and risk assessors, and during this session, he presented on the complexity of analyzing chemical mixtures and fitting -omic data to AOPs. Both presenters agreed with Ankley that -omics technologies offered an effective means of filling in the gaps of AOPs, which may then have predictive use for other chemicals. Schlenk used a combination of transcriptomics and behavioral assays to demonstrate that the salinity of the water could exacerbate the effects of chlorpyrifos on salmonoid olfactory responses. In the example Helbing presented, she reminded the audience that the African-clawed frog xenopus  (which enjoys wide use as a model organism) diverged evolutionarily from the most common American frogs around 300 million years ago. Such a global paradigm shift in the world of toxicity testing is exciting since years ago the idea of using in vitro data to make a safety assessment may have seemed like a pipe dream.
Seeing the power of combining these data sets to estimate metabolic clearance and learning how they could model repeat exposure was one of my biggest take-aways. Although an OECD-approved protocol exists, perhaps the predictive power can still be improved if we incorporate more of the newly generated data sets from various screening programs.
As an example, Jerold Last (University of California, Davis) spoke about the toxic respiratory effects of California wildfires posed by particulate matter, and contrasted this toxicity with the toxicity of chemicals in fire response formulations that are toxic to both humans and the environment (such as PFOS and PFOA). The work presented during this HH session demonstrates that toxicologists are indeed looking around the corner and are implementing tangible improvements in disaster preparation methods and policies. Mutations that cause DNA instability often lead to a wide range of MT diseases, which was the topic of the "Mitochondria As the Central Target of Environmental Contaminants, Pharmaceutical Agents, and Toxicants: Mechanisms of Toxicity and Disease" session.
Also, unlike other genes where there are two copies per cell, one from each parent, only a single maternal copy of the MT gene is present. Recent findings presented during this session have identified manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) as a master regulator in redox signaling in MT, which when overexpressed leads to reduced respiration. After injecting the different nanoparticles either intravitreally or subretinally into the eyes of rabbits, they determined that chitosan increased inflammation the most and increased retinal degeneration, while also having a low transfection rate. Efforts by pharmaceutical companies to reproduce the findings of papers have grim statistics: The results of only six of 53 papers could be reproduced by Amgen, and only 14 out of 67 could be reproduced by Bayer. When these studies are used to inform policy decisions and regulatory practices, there is potential for significant problems. They agreed with Boobis that transparency, consistency, and rigorous objectivity must inform the peer review process and that plenty of guidelines and best practices documents exist, but are frequently ignored in whole or in part in many publications. Accurate and complete data reporting may not make it easier to publish, given that journals prefer to only publish positive results, but it is vital for the scientific community to know what has been tried and what hasn’t. But people are inherently biased emotional creatures, and we have to work hard to overcome these internal biases when conducting and publishing research. The unique thing about this course was that the speakers used a real-world example as a teaching tool. Jane Ellen Simmons communicated why toxicologists need to appreciate the role that mixtures and unknowns play in affecting the toxicity of a product; for example, smoking and asbestos increase the relative risk of lung cancer by a factor of five when exposure occurs concurrently. Instead of starting with a series of known chemicals, biological activity is predicted by starting with metabolic pathways. These scientists came from as far away as Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Egypt, Europe, Israel, Japan, Nigeria, South Korea, Turkey, United Kingdom, and from every corner of the United States. Goering, “to provide a forum for novel discoveries and approaches related to toxicology and to facilitate the advancement of toxicology by fostering the integration of toxicology with other biomedical disciplines. As you review the posters, start planning for the 2017 SOT Annual Meeting, March 12‒16, 2017, Baltimore, Maryland.
We all have great intentions on building a solid website from the ground up with all the bells and whistles, and we do a good job at it. Ed was President of the Teratology Society, President of the SOT’s Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology Specialty Section, and a distinguished scientist with the Dow Chemical Company.
This fund was seeded with contributions from many colleagues, close friends, and relatives who understood the need to honor Ed and his commitment to toxicology and education. At J&J, I was responsible for the risk assessment of several categories of consumer and personal care products to be launched in North America.
Thus, I requested Supplemental Training for Education (STEP) funding to participate in the "Qualitative and Quantitative Risk Assessment Online” course by the Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (JIFSAN) in order to fill this gap.


After this course, I can easily distinguish the discrete data set from the continuous ones and I am now familiar with the most frequently used probability distributions for risk assessment and the Monte Carlo process. Moreover, this class provided me with some basic knowledge and literature that will be very helpful in the near future as I step into the real world of toxicology risk assessment all over again. For further information about the CASAC membership appointment process and schedule, please contact Mr. The chartered SAB reviews all SAB committee and panel draft reports and determines whether they are appropriate to send to the EPA Administrator. Award recipients from left to right are Rachel Church, Alison Harrill, Paul Watkins, Karissa Adkins, and Merrie Mosedale. To have the email Table of Contents (eTOC) alerts delivered to you as well as Advance Access notification of the latest papers and research in Toxicological Sciences as soon as they are accepted and posted to the website, register online. Any interested person or organization may nominate qualified individuals in the areas of expertise described above for possible service on the augmented CAAC panel identified in this notice.
Framed around health determinants and risk factors, this approach will generate a focused set of objectives that address high-impact public health challenges.
The belief that e-cigs are a safer alternative to traditional tobacco cigarettes has yet to be validated, and the marketing aimed at young individuals is especially concerning.
Are people using e-cig at a much higher frequency because they are believed to be safer than regular cigarettes?
McKim and colleagues reconstructed an in vitro experiment which found carrageenan was a pro-inflammatory food additive. Questions and comments ranged from alternative methodology to personal experiences with food additives. Despite the widespread use of read-across, expertise among rank and file toxicologists is relatively limited.
OECD’s 141-page guidance provides a good framework for read-across, but has limited practical examples for newer practitioners to follow. These massive screening approaches provide unprecedented insight into mechanisms of toxicity by providing snapshots of the full range of cellular or organismal responses to toxicants. One of the most intriguing ideas that he discussed was FACS-based monitoring—a method of using biological systems to detect what instruments cannot. His talk provided a thoughtful reminder that AOPs are only as useful as they are complete, and that sources of enhanced toxicity may lurk in unexpected places. To get around this issue, untargeted RNA sequencing is used to piece together the genome using Trans-Abyss. Huge advancements in this field have been made and global regulatory bodies are considering these data in the decision-making process.
Aubrey Miller (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) described work that the NIH Disaster Research Response Program is undertaking to better prepare for disasters and avoid repeating mistakes associated with past disaster responses. In addition, the thickness of the epithelium changes according to the location, which interrupts distribution. To make matters worse, MT lack a robust DNA checkpoint and repair mechanisms to correct for mutations.
Both homozygous and heterogeneous DNA polymerase gamma (Pol g), the only replicative DNA polymerase in vertebrate MT, were found to cause developmental defects that adversely affect the central nervous system (CNS) without impairing MT function or respiration rate, highlighting the importance of identifying defects associated with specific mutations prior to developing therapeutics. The different sources of chitosan were analyzed and were later found to contain LPS, which they believe led to the high rate on inflammation in those samples. Stephens and LaKind also heavily emphasized the importance of reducing bias before and during the publication process through effective experimental design and statistical methodologies. The course represented perspectives from industry, academia, and government (US and Canada). The talks were organized according to the Risk Assessment Paradigm: hazard characterization, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. For those of us involved in the design or assessment of chemical-intensive products or formulations, mixtures assessment does not invoke delight, but instead dread because there are few easily accessible mixtures assessment paradigms or models. Such automated metabolomics systems (including one with the memorable name mummichog, which is American Indian term for groups, and is also name of a small fish that live in groups) can someday be used to assess collective activity of complex mixtures, including uncharacterized fractions.
The fund proceeds will support travel awards to trainees attending meetings that offer significant educational opportunities in the field of reproductive and developmental toxicology, such as the Annual Meetings of the Society of Toxicology and the Teratology Society.
Kirstin Bircsak, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania studying the role of placental drug transporters in fetal protection. Since then, I have always kept myself updated on this fascinating area through the Society of Toxicology (SOT) CEd-Tox courses and contemporary literature. JIFSAN is jointly administered by the US Food and Drug Administration and the University of Maryland. The Secretary of Agriculture will appoint individuals to serve a five-year term of office beginning January 24, 2017, and ending January 23, 2022. While the Watson and Crick paper gets the most attention, there were two other outstanding papers in that same issue by Wilkins, Stokes, and Wilson and by Franklin and Gosling that provided foundational evidence for the model described by Watson and Crick. Various delivery systems available on the market allow the user to manually adjust the voltage and nicotine levels, which introduces even more variables into already mucky waters. So far, long-term studies have yet to be seen and more research is needed to address these issues. It seemed that the diverse SOT attendees were all intrigued with ways to advance the current understanding of dietary components improving human health status. For data-poor chemicals, read-across shows great promise to assess physicochemical properties, toxicity, environmental fate, and ecotoxicity endpoints. OECD’s new case study evaluation demonstrates that OECD is focused on moving guidance into practice.
FACS-based monitoring has the potential to identify previously unmeasured or unknown environmental chemicals by using cells as high-tech canaries in the environmental coal mine to indicate which toxicants are found at biologically relevant detection limits.
Her methodology is particularly exciting for environmental scientists interested in studying sentinel and non-model species in the environment, who heretofore would have to go through the cost and challenge of whole genome sequencing in order to get any genomic data. The talks presented in the "Moving Beyond Prioritization Towards True In Vitro-Based Safety Assessment" workshop provided interesting insight into the current state of the science, applicability to real-life cases, and future directions for international consortiums and validation bodies. It's always reassuring when we see real-life examples of how this work can be used since this is the goal, right? Multiple presenters overcame this issue by introducing in vitro models that cultured with various cells, such as a layer of dendritic cells followed by epithelial cells. This would also apply to the even smaller nanoparticles, so thorough study of absorption is important when using nanoparticles as a drug delivery system. The PCEP resulted in low inflammatory response, but did have some retinal degeneration and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction.
Begley guided the audience through several papers and picked apart methodological mistakes, misleading graphs, and a questionable statistical techniques that are sadly all too common in published literature—even in reputable journals. It was endorsed by the Risk Assessment and Regulatory and Safety Evaluation Specialty Sections. Michael Holsapple commented “As former colleagues at Dow, Ed was a close personal friend.
In competition with several presidential election primaries the same evening, this antic-filled event drew an enthusiastic and appreciative crowd. McKim hopes to encourage reproducibility among labs in order to identify what is the real event. This approach is proven to build expertise, and the US Environmental Protection Agency took a similar approach years ago when rolling out benchmark dose modeling to the masses. The MNP had the best results, including low inflammatory response and low retinal degeneration with moderate transfection success. He was always willing to reach out with a scientific insight, with a thought-provoking question, or with just a kind word. We truly appreciate their efforts and encourage everyone to check out their coverage of the 2016 SOT Annual Meeting and ToxExpo.
In his presentation, McKim suggests laboratories achieve reproducibility by adherence to Good Laboratory Practices (GLP), complete characterization of experimental materials, and reducing confounding or contaminating factors.
Walker mentioned the Nanomaterial Registry, a website sponsored by the NIH that is a tool for the storing, sharing, and analysis of data on nanomaterials and their biological and environmental implications.
Ed helped shape the future of many toxicologists, not just at Dow, but also within the Society of Toxicology.
Our environment truly shapes who we are: from our social upbringing, nutritional sustenance, exposures to a variety of exogenous chemical and biological species, to the symbiotic relationship with our planet.
Carney when I applied for this award, I have since come to learn about the significant positive influence he had on the field of reproductive and developmental toxicology both as a scientist and leader. Our field provides the mechanistic basis of the potentially adverse effects of these complex factors that are essential to the understanding of biology.



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