DESCRIPTION: A Benedictine monk named Andrew Walsperger from Salzburg created this world map in 1448 at Constance. The orientation of the mappamundi towards the South is perhaps the first aspect that surprises and intrigues the modern spectator who is used to North-oriented maps, and who is therefore disoriented by the effort required to identify landmasses which not only have 500-year-old outlines, but which are also turned a€?upside down,a€? thus losing their familiar shapes. The earth is surrounded by an ocean except at the far South, at the top of the map, where Africa stretches to the edge of the circle. The map mentions curiosities allegedly only occurring in Africa: Amazons, Pygmies, one-footed beings, long-eared beings and humans with tails. Descriptions of the representational method, indications in the measurement banner beneath the chart picture and the signatures prove that his map was one of the last products of European monkish cartography. A refinement of the Walsperger map is the convention of placing a red dot by each city controlled by Christians; pagan-ruled sites received a black dot. To understand the Ptolemaic influence, it is necessary first to be aware of a school of science under the leadership of the mathematician and astronomer Johannes de Gmunden at the University of Vienna and the prelate Georg Mustinger at the Augustinian monastery of Klosterneuburg, now in suburban Vienna.
Although only coordinate tables survive for the earliest versions of these circular world maps of the Vienna-Klosterneuburg school, Durand reconstructed maps from the tables, most of which are to be found in a 522-page codex in the Bayerische Staatsbibliothek. This evidence suggests that 15th century cartographers were clearly impressed with the Ptolemaic model and took pains to demonstrate that, although they did not agree with all of Ptolemya€™s information or method of using coordinates, the tradition was to be revered.
In 1490 Henricus Martellus Germanus (#256) developed the second Ptolemaic projection for his world maps and fitted the new discoveries into it, as did the globe of Martin Behaim (#258). It has become clear to some cartographic scholars that South America was represented as a huge peninsula of southeastern Asia on many world maps of the 16th century, from the Zorzi sketches of 1506 to the Livio Sanuto map of 1574. It is not so well known that this very same peninsula existed already under the name of India Meridionalis on earlier maps, drawn before the arrival in the western hemisphere of Christopher Columbus.
However, the Martellus maps show a very good representation of the South American hydrographic system, including all the great rivers in the sub-continent. A deeper study of the same maps has made possible the identification of several capes on the Atlantic coast, the swamps of the Rio Negro in Brazil, and Lake Titicaca. There was thus no known pre-Columbian historical exploration of South America by the European nations.
The earlier maps extant include the so-called mappaemundi drawn by medieval churchmen in Western Christendom. In order to detect this peninsula on pre-Martellus maps, we needed an identifying criterion. The above mentioned sequence identifies the Dragona€™s Tail on the Walsperger Map, made in Constance in 1448.
The Walsperger map has been reproduced and commented on by several historians of cartography, particularly Roberto Almagia and Dana Benet Durand. The following is a theory expressed by Paul Gallez regarding the depiction of South America prior to Columbusa€™ voyages. In the southernmost part of South America (?), there are the words, next to a strait: Hic sunt gigantes pugnantes cum draconious [Here live some giants who fight against the dragons]. Traditionally, the so-called Legend of the Patagonian Giants is attributed to Antonio Pigafetta, the chronicler of Magellana€™s voyage. The map called Nova Cosmographia per totum arculum dated 1440, (#247) by Durand, and the anonymous Zeitz map dated 1470 by the same author (#251), belong to the same family as the Walsperger map. In the later Middle Ages, explanations of the map paintera€™s intentions are sometimes found on the map itself, as in the case of this map. Ptolemy was an important name to the German school, but it seems as though his work was not very well understood. AlmagiA , Roberto, Monumenta cartografica Vaticana (CittA  del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944), Plate XII.
Vatikanischen Bibliothek, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXVI (1891), pp. AlmagiA , Roberto, Monumenta cartografica Vaticana (CittA  del Vaticano: Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, 1944) Volume I, pp. Durand, Dana Benett, The Vienna-Klosterneuburg map corpus of the fifteenth century (Leiden: E.
Gallez, Paul, a€?Walsperger and His Knowledge of the Patagonian Giants, 1448,a€? Imago Mundi 33 (1981), pp. Wittkower, Rudolf, a€?Marvels of the East: A Study in the History of Monsters,a€? Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 5 (1942), note 6 on p. Description: During a naval campaign against Venice in 1501, a Turkish fleet captured a Spanish ship in the western Mediterranean. The map found its way to Suleiman the Magnificenta€™s Topkapi Palace where it remained undetected for four centuries.
A long passage describes Columbusa€™ first voyage experiences, from initial difficulties in obtaining sponsorship to encounters with the natives. The Piri Reis map is drawn on gazelle hide, with a web of lines criss-crossing the Atlantic called a€?rhumb linesa€?, typical of the late medieval marinersa€™ charts. Among the mapa€™s illustrations are two lozenges, which give the scale, and beautifully drawn ships, some accompanied by inscriptions which record important discoveries. The Iberian Peninsula and the coast of west Africa are carefully drawn, in a manner suggesting the style of the practical marinersa€™ charts called portolanos. Another immediately striking feature of the map is the number of islands, most of them legendary, and some of them adorned with parrots. The most striking topographical detail, and the one that has caused the most discussion, is the chain of mountains running through South America - the mountains which Charles Hapgood (Maps of the Ancient sea Kings) identified as the Andes.
The coastline of northeastern South America indicates that information came from Ojeda, Vespucci, or one of their companions.
In 1511 Piri Reis began to draw a new map of the world which was to incorporate all of the recent Spanish and Portuguese discoveries. In Gallipoli, where he temporarily retired, Piri Reis reduced his source maps to a single scale - a difficult task in those days - and spent three years producing his map.
As for the northern part of the map, we see here how Piri Reis benefited by the new Portuguese maps and recorded on it the discoveries made before 1508 on the North American coast by Amerigo Vespucci, Pinzon and Juan de Solis.
All the principal rivers in South America are marked on the map, though the names are not written, it is remarkable that he should have shown the river La Plate on the map, when Pinzo and Juan de Solis passed by it and from all accounts, never even noticed it. An even more important argument for the Columbian origin of this part of the map is the fact that the real Cuba, as an island, is missing. Close studies of the Caribbean portion of the map confirm the idea that the map possesses all the important information that was on the map of Columbus drawn and sent to Europe in 1498 and also on the map of Toscanelli that Columbus had in hand when he first ventured out on his voyages (Book III, #252). The real Antilles are shown on the map not as islands, but as Columbus believed it to be, as a continent.
Piri Reis calls the eleven islands on the southeast of Haiti a€?Undizi Vergine,a€? which shows that the number of the islands is not expressed by the word a€?onzea€? which means eleven in Spanish but by its equivalent in Columbusa€™ mother tongue, Italian. Scattered about the map are some other entries that also enlighten us about various details in the discoveries. By a picture near the island of Santiano is a note stating that the names of these places were found and given by a Genoese sailor brought up in Portugal. Towards the north, on the map is a picture of a fish on which is drawn a woman and a man making a fire, nearby is another ship and three people in a boat. The map in question is drawn on a gazelle skin by Piri Reis who had made a name for himself among the Western and Eastern Scholars through his detailed geographical book on the Mediterranean Sea entitled Bahriye [a€?On the Seaa€?] and which testifies to his capacity and knowledge in his profession. As the same thing will be noticed in the maps of ancient and mediaeval times, the map of Piri Reis contains important marginal notes regarding the history and the geographical conditions of some of the coasts and islands. The map in our possession is a fragment and it was cut of from a world chart on large scale. In one of these marginal notes the author states in detail the maps he had seen and studied in preparing his map.
Piri Reis, in a special chapter in his book Bahriye mentions the fact that in drawing his map he has taken note of the cartographical traditions considered international at that time. The following entry-notes begin from the northwest corner, turn southward, then proceed along the perimeter, and finally continuing in a winding fashion towards the center. There we find the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean and the newly discovered regions of North and Central America.
The pieces of land seen at the side are the peninsulas of Honduras and Yucatan, discovered in 1517 and 1519 respectively.
In this second map the drawing of the coastlines shows greater improvement in technique and also close resemblance to the modern conception of these areas.
On this map, as on the previous one, there are some explanatory notes, but they are recorded more briefly. Over the second set of scales further north he says again that the distance between two sections is 50 miles and between two dots 10. Beside place-names in the notes near Labrador he says a€?This is Baccalao, The Portuguese infidels discovered it. Another interesting term used on the map is what he calls the tropics: a€?Daya€™s Lengtheninga€?. The line drawn over Cuba should, of course have been drawn further north, and the peninsula of Yucatan should have been put entirely below it; but that much accuracy could not be expected of the cartographical technique of the period. As it can be easily observed from this map, Piri Reis continued following the new discoveries with great interest. In the capitals of Portugal, Marrakesh and Guinea, there are pictures of their respective sovereigns. IV.A A  This map was drawn by Piri Ibn Haji Mehmed, known as the nephew of Kemal Reis, in Gallipoli, in the month of muharrem of the year 919 (that is, between the 9th of March and the 7th of April of the year 1513).
The first thing I noticed about our bottle of Renato Ratti wine was the soldier on the label. Some years later, I visited the Renato Ratti Antiche Cantine, located in the Langhe hills near the town of Alba, which since the 19th century has been the wine capital of Piedmont.
Our escort is Massimo Martinelli, chief enologist at Renato Ratti and co-owner of the estate together with Renato Ratti's son Pietro.
Ratti gradually built up his estate, as well as his reputation as a proselytizer for wines from the region. For Ratti, the natural side effect of this research was to visibly identify the cru on the label. A savvy marketer, Ratti also seized upon the idea of packaging Albese wines in a distinctive bottle, again based on an historical model. The drawing comes from a booklet Martinelli wrote and illustrated in 1993, called Storia delle etichette del vino (A History of Wine Labels). That began to change when noble families started storing premium wine in glass bottles around 1600.
Paper labels first emerged in the mid-1700s, initially used by champagne houses that were eager to distinguish themselves from their competitors, and also needed a form of identification that wouldn't fall off during transport. Martinelli singles out the bit of paper that got him started back in 1964: a label for the famed Mouton Rothschild estate that incorporates an original pen-and-ink drawing by Salvador Dali.
Patricia Thomson is co-director of La Dolce Vita Wine Tours and a frequent contributor to Pasta. It conforms to the traditional type of world representation during the European Middle Ages and this representation of the known world accords with the contemporary monkish cartographic world view. Most of the diagrammatic manuscript mappaemundi of the period 1150-1500 are oriented to the East. This late medieval mappamundi, represents a transitional type of cartography that was beginning to unfold in Western Europe before the Renaissance. Eastern Asia contains, interestingly enough, all red dots except for Zandala, the fake paradise. There are, however, two surviving original maps that Durand believes are based on this genre: this one and the Zeitz map of about 1470 (#251). Fra Mauro felt it necessary to apologize for not following the parallels, meridians, and degrees of the Geography on his world map of 1459 (#249), because he found them too confining to show discoveries (presumably in Asia) unknown to Ptolemy.
This is the India which Columbus was looking for, because it was marked in the right place on his maps. In the post-Columbian series, the isthmus of Panama is represented with its true width, because it had been heard of by Columbus and other explorers from the aborigines; in the pre-Columbian series, the union of the peninsula with Asia is much broader, because nobody had exact information about it. The pre-Magellanic maps have South America extending only to some degrees South; on post-Magellanic maps the land extends to 53 degrees South. On these pre-Columbian maps, the drainage net is much better drawn than on any other representation made before 1850. So Gallez believes that the deep and sound European knowledge of South America before its exploration by Columbus and his Spanish and Portuguese challengers has been firmly established.
But the detail of its hydrographic features mapped by Martellus in 1489 (#256) is a fact, even if this fact remains historically unexplained. In this way we have identified the Dragona€™s Tail on three maps drawn between 1440 and 1470.
As cultured persons, both Pigafetta and Magellan would have seen such maps as Walspergera€™s or others of the same family, and they would surely have taken aboard some copies of them. They mention respectively: dy Risen vechten und streiten wider dy lint wurm and Homines gigantes pugrant cum draconibus. An inscription on all the maps reads, a€?Ptolemy placed the inhabited world as 180A? from north to south.a€? Of course, Ptolemy did no such thing.
Heinrich, a€?Eine neue mittelalterische Weltkarte der vatikanischen Bibliotheka€?, Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fur Wrdkunde 26 (1891), pp. Heinrich, Die Entdeckung Amerikas in ihrer Bedeutung fA?r die Geschichte des Weltbildes (Berlin: W. Heinrich, a€?Eine neue mittelalterische Weltkarte der Vatikanischen Bibliothek,a€? Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fA?r Erdkunde zu Berlin, XXVI (1891), 371-406. The cartography of such maps is very poor: for instance, on the maps of Hieronymo Girava 1556, Johann Honter 1561, Giacomo Gastaldi 1562 and Francesco Basso 1571, the Rio Amazonas has its source in Patagonia and flows from south to north.
Gallez believes that the non-recognition of the sphericity of the earth on these mappaemundi was a definitive hindrance, because in such a flat and circular world, there seems to be no place for a large and protruding peninsula like the Dragona€™s Tail.
One of the prisoners taken had earlier made three voyages to the West Indies with Columbus and carried with him a set of Columbusa€™ American charts. Piri also became an admiral and is remembered as a scholar of navigational science and an accomplished linguist. In 1929 this remaining fragment was discovered when the palace was being converted to a national museum. Most scholars do not believe these lines were used to indicate latitude and longitude but were used as an aid in laying out a course.
One is almost certainly an account of the expedition of Cabral in 1500; Cabral discovered Brazil when he was blown off course across the Atlantic while on his way to India. Here many of the place names are given in Turkish, rather than being merely transliterated from Portuguese or Spanisha€”showing that the Ottomans had practical experience of their own along those coasts. The accompanying inscription tells a tale from the life of the Irish Saint Brandon, a charming medieval legend.

Maps showing islands scattered through the Atlantic were current ita€™s the later Middle Ages, and a globe made by Martin Behaim in 1492 (Book III, #258) - the same year Columbus first set off- shows a quantity of them; so does the Toscanelli map (Book III, #252), which we know Columbus used. The delineation of the coast of Brazil on the Piri Reis map is much more accurate than that of the Caribbean. The rivers that issue from their base are obviously meant to be the Amazon, the Orinoco and the Rio Plata, and the animal with two horns standing on the mountains is Hapgooda€™s a€?llamaa€?. In the map Piri Reis adopts and applies the rules of emblematic signs mentioned on page 28 in the Bahriye.
In the bibliography attached to the map he claims that his map is as sound and accurate for the seven seas as the map of the Mediterranean. Some of the place names on the South American coast, like Santa Agostini, San Megali, San Francisco, Port Rali, Total Sante, Abrokiok, Cav Frio and Katenio show a close resemblance to their modern forms. Outside the parts relating to Columbusa€™ map, the scales in miles are astonishingly accurate. And so it should be on a Columbian map, for Columbus thought Cuba was part of the mainland of Asia, and drew it accordingly. Hence Piri Reis calls Central America a€?the County of Antiliaa€?, and the North American coast a€?the coast of Antiliaa€?.
This is another indication of how faithful Piri Reis was to Columbusa€™ map, keeping close to the information of Columbusa€™ map which apparently possessed all that was on the earlier Toscanelli map, Piri Reis handed down to us the oldest map of America and informed us about various aspects of the most important phase in the history of the discoveries. Beside the picture of a ship near the Azores is written that this Genoese vessel came from Flanders, was shipwrecked, and that the survivors discovered these islands.
In anther entry close to the picture of a ship drawn near the South American coast he summarizes all the information given in a map by Nikola di Juan who was shipwrecked there.
This is the story of Santa Brandon which was very popular in the middle ages, and was recorded in the a€?thousand and one nighta€? stones.
The Illustrated London News published a reproduction of it on 25th February 1932, which prompted a detailed letter by a prominent Turkish historian.
Piri Reis is the son of the brother of the famous Kemal Reis who was the Turkish admiral in the Mediterranean Sea at the last quarter of the 15th century. When the photographic copy of the map is carefully examined, it will be noticed that the lines of the marginal noted [sic] on the eastern edges have been cut half away. In the marginal note describing the Antilles Islands, he states that he has used Christopher Columbusa€™ chart for the coasts and islands. The coasts (the names of the coasts) and the islands are taken from the chart of Columbusa€?. Therefore Piri Reis had made a study of some of the charts that represented the world, and according to his personal statement, he has studied and examined the maps prepared at the time of Alexander (the Great), the a€?Mappa Mundisa€™ and the eight maps in fragments prepared by the Muslims. Such a map is not owned by anybody at this time, I, personally, drawn [sic] and prepared this map. The cities and citadels are indicated in red lines, the deserted places in black lines, the rugged and rocky places in black dots, the shores and sandy places in red dots and the hidden rocks by crosses. Each of the roses is divided into 32 parts and the division lines are extended beyond the rose frames. Besides these, on Africa there are pictures of an elephant and of an ostrich, and on South America of lamas and pumas. It is related by the Portuguese infidel that in this spot night and day are at their shortest of two hours, at their longest of twenty two hours. On the way to the village of Hind a Portuguese ship encountered a contrary wind [blowing] from the shore. And in this country it seems that there are white-haired monsters in this shape, and also six-horned oxen.
It is said that in ancient times a priest by the name of Sanvolrandan (Santo Brandan) travelled on the Seven Seas, so they say.
Unlike the first map, drawn under the influence of Columbus, the islands of Cuba, Haiti, the Bahamas and the Antilles are drawn quite accurately. The note on the left-hand corner of the map, under the scales with the long and ornamental points, gives the signature of the author as well as the date 1528 (A. In his own words the explanation runs as follows: a€?Bu hat gun gayet uzadigi yere isarettira€? which means that these lines indicate the part of the world where the days grow longer.
We should, therefore, acknowledge the greatness and value of the work among other maps of the period after pointing out briefly to its various merits and demerits. It is remarkable that, by taking into account the results of the new discoveries, he should correct in this map the inaccuracies of the first in which he was misled through his unquestioning confidence in Columbusa€™ map.
With his 18th century red-plumed hat, swallow-tailed coat, long musket and dagger, he looked both dapper and formidable. The Renato Ratti winery is well worth a visit, not only for its highly regarded wines, which include Dolcetto d'Alba, Barbera, Nebbiolo, and, most importantly, a line of single-vineyard Barolos. Martinelli gathered these artifacts with Ratti, his uncle and the winery's founder who died prematurely in 1988. He led the charge to improve how Barolo is produced, arguing for modern technology and for the reintroduction of certain older techniques.
They assembled a map locating the historic vineyards for Barolo, a wine developed in the mid-1800s that quickly became the favorite drink of King Carlo Alberto (thus Barolo's epithet 'the king of wines and wine of kings'). Marcenasco, Conca, and Rocche are the names of historic vineyards prominently displayed on Ratti's line of Barolo.
While digging for antiques, he stumbled across an unusual 18th century bottle from the area, shaped somewhat like the round-shouldered burgundy bottle, only slightly more angular.
The winemaker has authored more substantial books, including Il Barolo come lo sento io (Barolo as I see it).
As they discovered that aging enhances wine, the bottles evolved, going from bulbous to cylindrical. Other wine producers followed suit, at first writing the vintage or place of origin by hand. The chart with a diameter of 57.5 cm is surrounded by circles representing the heavenly spheres and the a€?heaven of crystala€?. But among the maps contemporary with that of Andreas Walsperger is the 1459 world map of Fra Mauro (#249), the so-called Borgia world map (#237) of the first half of the 15th century, and the Zeitz mappamundi (#251) of the last quarter of that century are all oriented to the South. Its contributions to cartography were but a fraction of its legacy of scientific manuscripts, including astronomical treatises, star catalogs, and tables of planetary motions, eclipses, and conjunctions, as well as general works on mathematics, including trigonometry. Andreas Walsperger, in this mappamundi of 1448, stated a€?In this figure is contained a mappa mundi or geometrical description of the world, made from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude, latitude, and the divisions of climate, and with the true and complete chart for the navigation of the seasa€?. Examples of such maps are those made in Florence and Rome in 1489 by Henricus Martellus (#256). There is no record extant of anyone reporting that they had seen any land or island south of the equator, nor did anybody pretend to have explored the inner part of a trans-Atlantic continent and to have mapped its rivers. We may thus believe that this knowledge already existed before Martellus, and we should look at older maps in search of the sources which he could have had at his disposal. Then there is a small, almost square peninsula which bears the name Aurea Kersonesis, leaving no doubt about its identification. They thus knew that, following their maps, they would have to sail to the south along the coast of the Dragona€™s Tail until they reached the Land of Giants, and that at the end of that land, they would find a passage to the West, to the Sinus Magnus, and thus a way to the Moluccas. Both maps confirm the fact that Walspergera€™s mention of giants in Patagonia was not a fancy of the cartographer: it was part of the geographical lore of the time. His maps showed the world only as far as 16A? south of the equator, and he opined that the rest was probably uninhabited or uninhabitable.
In this fortuitous manner Kemal Reis, the famous Turkish admiral, acquired maps of great importance showing a newly discovered part of the world.
He produced charts, an important book on navigation, and a superb map of the world, which employed the Columbus maps taken by his unclea€™s sailors. Delineated in nine colors, the map shows the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining parts of South and Central America, the islands of the West Indies, and parts of southwestern Europe and West Africa. He also refers to information from Portuguese and Arabic sources that proved important in developing his delineation of Africa and Asia. Faithfully copied by Piri Reis from one of his source maps, it is evidence that at least one of the mappaemundi mentioned as sources by Piri Reis was a medieval European production.
The relationship and distance between South America and the west African coast, for example, is much more correct than on most European maps of the time - and the place names along the coast, clearly transliterated from Italian and Spanish names, are taken from accounts of the voyages of Amerigo Vespucci and others. Interestingly, though, the Piri Reis map is not the only early map - nor the first - to show mountains in the interior of South America. While Guadalupe and the islands immediately adjacent in the Lesser Antilles are remarkably accurate; the island of Hispaniola [Haiti] has quite a different form here from other contemporary maps, it is more reminiscent of the contemporary shape of the East Asian island, then called Cipangu [Japan]. Thus he indicates the rocky regions with black, the sandy and shallow waters with reddish dots, and the rocky parts in the sea that cannot be seen by sailors with crosses. From the various Turkish names on these coasts like Babadagi, Akburun, Yesilburun, Kizilburun, Altin Irmagi, Guzel Karfcz, Kozluk Burnu, Iki Hurmalik Burnu, etc., we deduce that in his drawing he made use not only of the Portuguese maps in his possession, but also of the information supplied by various Turkish sailors faring along these coasts. Except for the two entries about the name and the date of the map, all the other entries are written by a calligrapher.
In its northwest corner, for example, there is a large island labeled Hispaniola - today the home of Haiti and the Dominican Republic - which Columbus discovered on his first voyage and where he set up a colony, marked by the three towers on the map.
Most striking of all, it is almost identical to the conventional representations of Marco Poloa€™s Cipangu [Japan] on late medieval maps such as Behaima€™s and Toscanellia€™s. On Pirs Reisa€™ map, the wedge-shaped projection on the mainland opposite Hispaniola is almost certainly the eastern tip of Cuba; the southward-trending coast below is an attempt to draw Cuba as if it ran north and southa€”as Columbus believed it did. The island of Trinidad is written as Kalerot, which probably is derived from a cape on this island that Columbus called Galera. It is true that at a certain spot quite near the North American Coast there is marked an island called the Antilia, but evidently that stood for the legendary island popularly regarded as fabulously wealthy and prosperous at the time when Columbus first started on his voyages.
By recording the explanations given by the Spaniard who had taken part in the three expeditions of Columbus and was later captured by Kemal Reis, he related the story of these discoveries from an original source free from the later legendary tales that have grown about them. From another entry we learn that the sea there is the Western Sea, but the Europeans call it the Spanish Sea, and after the discoveries of Columbus the name is changed to Ovasana, i.e. In one of the notes on the Atlantic Ocean he mentions the Treaty of Tordesillas 1599, and a certain line that divides the Spanish and the Portuguese possessions.
But Piri Reis does not neglect to add that the legend comes down not from the Portuguese but from the old Mappa Mundi. History records Piri Reis Beya€™s last official post as admiral of the Fleets in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean.
Three lines only, which from the title and head lines of the map, were written in Arabic; and this is done to comply with the usual traditional way which is noticed on all the Ottoman Turkish monuments up to the very latest centuries. He sets forth the narratives of the voyages made, by a Spaniard a slave in the hands of Kemal Reis, Pin Reisa€™ uncle, who under Christopher Columbus made three voyages to America. State Department, through their ambassador in Ankara, procured reproductions of the Piri Reis map for the Library of Congress.
Each wind-rose is equal to one sea mile, as is shown in the measurements on the areas near the wind-roses.
But it is reported thus, that a Genoese infidel, his name was Colombo, he it was who discovered these places. Impelled by the storm it came upon these islands, and in this manner these islands became known.
There is, however, a slight distortion in the map from the true position of the continent as we know it today. In this second map Piri Reis showed only the parts of the world that had been already discovered and left the unexplored areas blank, explaining this by the fact that they were as yet unknown. Delineated in nine colors, the map shows the Atlantic Ocean and adjoining parts of South and Central America, the islands of the West Indies, and parts of southwestern Europe and West Africa.A  Many lengthy notes in Turkish appear on the map, including geographical descriptions and detailed information on the sources of the delineation. Under the porch, an array of winemaking tools take shelter: odd-shaped carts for hauling grapes from the field, oblong barrels suspended on metal armatures, small sickles for trimming vines, iron barrel hoops, and other weathered gadgets.
The silver-haired winemaker is looking rather bohemian, dressed in a loosely tied ascot, oxford-cloth shirt, and faded jeans.
One was the historical practice of vinifying grapes from separate vineyards, or cru, rather than creating Barolo from blends, as was then the trend. These were often higher elevation plots with southern exposure--patches where the snow melted first and where the sun could work unhindered on the slow-ripening nebbiolo grapes. But his little booklet is a surprisingly engrossing read, telling the story of how wine has been stored and identified over the ages. With the invention of lithography in 1798, a whole new chapter opened up, and modern labels were born. On antique-yellow paper is a falcon within a shield A­ a motif borrowed from the heraldic coat of arms that Ratti and Martinelli found when they first took over the dilapidated property. To the East, left on the chart, where the earthly Paradise is established as a city with towers and walls, are the sources, going from left to right, of the rivers of Paradise: Pison, Tigris, Euphrates and Gichon.
Some belong to a subgroup of maps called the Vienna- Klosterneuburg map corpus, the world maps, according to Dana Benett Durand, which were compiled with the help of coordinates. There is one lone red dot on the West African coast, but there is no place-name given - could this be a relic of the Portuguese voyages? Most of these were recopied versions of earlier medieval works, but nevertheless Klosterneuburg constituted a seed-bed of scientific innovation. The best preserved copy is in the British Library and there is also a poorer copy in the University of Leiden. Then there is a bay with the same position, form and extension, as the Sinus Magnus on the Martellus map and on Behaima€™s globe, which has been identified as the Sinus Magnus.
Considering that in 1489 Martellus knew about the inner courses of many South American rivers, we have no reason to doubt that, forty years earlier, Walsperger knew of the Patagonians. The meeting with the Tewelche in Saint Julian was the full confirmation, for Magellan and Pigafetta, of what they already knew from their maps.
The 180A? on his maps was the measure of longitude from the Fortunate Islands to the east coast of China. Some belong to a subgroup of maps called the Vienna- Klosterneuburg map corpus, the world maps, according to Dana Benett Durand, which were compiled with the help of coordinates.A A  After its translation into Latin by Jacobus Angelus about 1406-7, the popularity of Ptolemya€™s Geography increased steadily throughout the 15th century, as reflected in the frequency of printed editions from 1475 onward. Crone it fails to reach the standard to which the public of the time was already accustomed. Although fragmentary, this work and the Zorzi sketches (#304) are the only world maps with a direct Columbus delineation for part of America. The Nicold de Caveri map (#307), now in the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris, and the WaldseemA?ller chart both show the east coast of South America, though schematically drawn, and a chain of mountains adorned with trees. In his drawing of the coastline and in his marking of the sites of importance on it we again notice his remarkable accuracy. Evidently this part of the map is drawn in accordance with the Ptolemaic idea of the world.
Immediately below Hispaniola is Puerto Rico, and to the northeast is a group of 11 islands labeled Undizi Vergine [The Eleven Virgins].
It is interesting that Behaima€™s globe and other maps influenced by Marco Poloa€™s description of Cathay show a very similar wedge-shaped projection opposite the island of Cipangu; if Columbus thought he was off the coast of Asia he may have drawn the mainland this way to correspond to its then conventional representation.

Puerto Rico is named here San Juan Batichdo, and on its eastern coast is drawn the picture of a fortress. It is to be noted, however, that beside the island is a note that states that, contrary to the common fallacy, the island is not prosperous. This shows that the Turkish geographer made use of many sources and did not neglect the latest information nearest to his age, and that he was very careful about his bibliography.
These three lines in Arabic testify that the author is the nephew of Kemal Reis, and that the work was written and compiled in Gelibolu in the year 1513. He also states, in his marginal notes regarding the South American coast that he saw the charts of four Portuguese discoverers.
The Library of Congress was particularly anxious also to obtain a copy of Columbusa€™ maps upon which Piri Reis claimed in part to have based his own map.
On both the lands and the seas there are entries sometimes relevant, sometimes irrelevant of the pictures. For instance, a book fell into the hands of the said Colombo, and he found it said in this book that at the end of the Western Sea [Atlantic] that is, on its western side, there were coasts and islands and all kinds of metals and also precious stones. For this reason the Portuguese infidels did not land on these shores and these are also said to be very hot. They traveled from the western land to the point of Abyssinia [Habesh] in order to reach India. They thought it dry land and lit a fire upon this fish, when the fish's back began to burn it plunged into the sea, they re-embarked in their boats and fled to the ship. On his map it is written that these rivers that can be seen have for the most part gold [in their beds]. They have made an agreement that [a line] two thousand miles to the western side of the Strait of Gibraltar should be taken as a boundary.
Up to now it was known by these names, but Colombo, who opened up this sea and made these islands known, and also the Portuguese, infidels who have opened up the region of Hind have agreed together to give this sea a new name. This error was committed, due to neglect in not taking into consideration the ten to thirteen degrees of difference in angle on the contemporary compass. Today we know that the Portuguese explorer, Gaspar Corte-Real, discovered Terra Nova in 1500, and his brother, Miguel Corte Real, a year later in 1501, discovered Labrador.
Thus, Piri proved, once again, how he observed the principles of scientific methods in drawing this map. The people eat the flesh of parrots and their headdress is made entirely of parrots' feathers. It was a fleeting thought, quickly pushed aside by the wine itself--a hearty Barbera with unexpected depth that pleased everyone at the table and proved a perfect counterpart to our creamy risotto con funghi. Adjoining the winery is a 15th century abbey, and inside this modest brick building is an extensive private wine museum. Like many piemontese natives, he's a man of few words, but the collection inspires him to offer tales and tidbits when nudged.
But glass bottles were not sufficiently elegant for lordly dining; wine came to the table in crystal glass decanters. Some are neatly filed or framed, while thousands of others are stuffed in boxes, waiting to be catalogued. Then there's a profuse outpouring of elaborate designs following the invention of lithography. Around Alpha and Omega they form a group (Seraphim, Cherubim, Throne and Dominationes), the very first beginnings (Principatus), the archangel and angel. Thus it is not surprising that, around the mid-15th century, a mappamundi was oriented to the South. In particular, the maps and coordinate tables associated with this school help to fill in a period of relative cartographic obscurity between the Claudius Clavus map of about 1425 and the tabulae modernae of the later Ptolemaic manuscripts about 1450. Walspergera€™s map testifies generally to an enduring belief in fables and monsters: a€?And around this pole [the Antarctic one] are most amazing monsters not only of the animal variety but even among humansa€?.
The Walsperger map comes with a statement of purpose, announcing that it has been a€?made geometrically from the cosmography of Ptolemy proportionally according to longitude and latitude and the divisions of the climates.a€? Yet latitude and longitude do not appear on the map. One of the earliest world maps showing such influence by displaying, for example, the closed Indian Ocean of Ptolemy, is the 1414 Pirrus de Noha map (#239) accompanying a manuscript of Pomponius Mela. In particular, the maps and coordinate tables associated with this school help to fill in a period of relative cartographic obscurity between the Claudius Clavus map of about 1425 and the tabulae modernae of the later Ptolemaic manuscripts about 1450.A  Between 1425 and 1430, Mustinger and his collaborators were working on a map genre that assimilated the Jerusalem-centered medieval world map with elements from Ptolemy and the portolan [nautical] charts, which when reconstructed are similar in their general geographical configuration to the circular Vesconte-Sanudo maps (#228). Presumably he referred to both the novelty of its delineation and the profuse depictions of people and animals that violated the customary Islamic prohibition against portraying living objects in artworks. The de Caveri map was drawn between 1502 and 1504, long before the eastern coast of South America had been explored. This unusual chart with its complicated and fascinating history includes the only surviving delineation by Columbus of his discoveries.
Another reason for this may easily be the inadequacy of the Arabic script then in use, for expressing Turkish words. Eight years later, when he had finished the preface to the book he affirms that, further south it is not land but sea, which shows that he was following later discoveries with careful attention. The fact that this name is in a recognizable form of Italian, as opposed to Portuguese, is evidence, as Kahle pointed out, of its Columbian origin. Probably because Columbus was convinced, on his first voyage at least, that he had found the fabled Cipangu, and he may have drawn Hispaniola in this shape to support his claim. There is, however, another island to the west of Trinidad, again with a picture of a parrot near which is written San Juan Batichdo. From about twenty charts and Mappae Mundi, these are charts drawn in the days of Alexander, Lord of the Two Horns, which show the inhabited quarter of the world; the Arabs name these charts Jaferiyea€”from eight Jaferiyes of that kind and one Arabic map of Hind, and from the maps just drawn by four Portuguese which show the countries of Hind, Sind and China geometrically drawn, and also from a map drawn by Colombo in the western region I have extracted it. The Portuguese do not cross to that side but the Hind side and the southern side belongs to the Portuguese. From the notes beside them we gather that the distance between the divisions stand for 50 miles, and that between two dots for 10 miles.
Beside the measurements there is a note indicating the mileage, where he says that the distance between two sections is 50 miles and between two dots 10 miles.
Brendan, the legendary Irish monk who in the sixth century supposedly discovered an island in the North Atlantic called the a€?Promised Land of the Saints.a€? Long sought by sailors, St. Martinelli admiringly points out the huge wooden screw at the center of a giant wine press, carved by hand centuries ago. Since the wine they drank was local, poured directly from barrel to pitcher, they knew what was going into their glass. Castles, landscapes, floral motifs, medallions, escutcheons, art nouveau flourishes, and all manner of typography tumble forth onto the tiny paper canvases. Andreas Walsperger, in fact, did not even think it necessary to address the issue, probably considering it congruent with the wider culture of his readers and patrons.
Sweden is an island with the towns Stockholm and Upsalia; and in Russia there is Norgadia [Novgorod]. Another red dot is found on Taprobana and the island where Saint Thomas is thought to be buried, and another marks the stone tower on the narrow land bridge to East Asia. Konrad Kretschmer, who discovered the Walsperger map back in the 1890a€™s, said with disgust, a€?Not a single line of the map is from Ptolemy!a€? This is not quite fair, as random features from Ptolemy appear, such as the Aurea Kersonesus [Golden Chersonese] in the Far East, an enclosed Caspian Sea - though a Caspian gulf is also retained - and the stone tower that marks the border with India. The map was not only unusual in Turkey, but few people in any country, including Spain and Portugal, had access to a chart of the world incorporating the new discoveries. As there is a striking similarity between this map and the Piri Reis map, it is therefore possible that one of Piri Reisa€™ source maps was based on that of de Caveri.
And yet, from the point of view of the historical importance of these geographic discoveries, this map is particularly significant for Central America.
Drawing various islands on the South American coast opposite Trinidad shows the influence of Columbus, who believed this newly discovered continent to be a group of islands. So confident was Columbus in this that while he was near the coast of Cuba in 1494 he had his conviction recorded by the notary public on the boat, Fernand Perez de Luna, and asked all the crew to sign it, as we can now see from the document signed on the 12th June, 1494, which declares that, since it is quite evident that this is a continent, thereafter whoever attempts to contradict this statement shall be fined to 10.00 Maravedis pieces and also his tongue shall be cut out. It was not widely recognized fifty years ago that Columbus died in the belief that he had discovered Japan.
Its vapor is full of darkness.a€? The above-mentioned Colombo saw that no help was forthcoming from the Genoese, he sped forth, went to the Bay of Spain [king], and told his tale in detail. Before this it was thought that the sea had no end or limit, that at its other end was darkness.
Among the legible words are San Cilormi, Monte Krago, Detonos, Die Sagram, Ponte Sogon, Didas and Sare. Brendana€™s island was widely believed to exist in Columbusa€™ time and appeared in some form and location on most early European maps.A  According to Piri Reis himself, the map was based upon eight Ptolemy maps, an Arabic map of India, four new Portuguese sea maps of Sind, Hind and China, and the map of America drawn by Columbus.
I also learned that the little soldier was just part of a larger piece--namely, an effort to preserve Alba's rich wine heritage, with its stories, artifacts, and lessons in winemaking. A small plaque on a chain identifying the wine's provenance would be hung around the decanter's neck. Some explanations also include the influence of the contemporary Islamic cartography, the cosmographical concepts of Aristotle, and, of course, the maritime commercial focus of Walspergera€™s time of the Indian Ocean and thus towards the South.
Reality is recognized in the Holy Land, where all dots are black, and Russian orthodoxy is apparently considered beyond the pale, as all places in Russia are also marked with black.
It had not yet freed itself from the fabulous appurtenances and the ancient monastic pattern. No wonder that, having regard to his maps, he concluded that this river flowed from Paradise. On the other hand, Heinrich Winter blames the pernicious influence of Ptolemy for the mapsa€™ abandonment of the accurate geographic forms of the contemporary sea charts. Undoubtedly the reason why Piri Reis, too, shows it as a continent was not because he was afraid for his tongue, but because he would not question the veracity of a piece of information given by such an authority as Columbus, who had been to those parts of the world several times. My map is as correct and dependable for the seven seas as are the charts that represent the seas of our countriesa€?. Nor was it known in the 1930s that other maritime explorers from Europe had sailed the Atlantic centuries before Columbus. So that the present map is as correct and reliable for the Seven Seas as the map of these our countries is considered correct and reliable by seamen. After being driven by a storm in a southern direction they saw a shore opposite them they advanced towards it [illegible]. Now they have seen that this sea is girded by a coast, because it is like a lake, they have called it Ovo Sano. It is quite possible that Piri meant by that Balboa who crossed Central America and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513.
A giant terracotta urn inspires a story about the Etruscan wine vases recovered from the sea and scraped for DNA. Over time, these became elaborate miniature artworks, crafted from silver, mother-of-pearl, ivory, and porcelain.
This feature is reminiscent of the sea charts, which found it useful to put religiously keyed symbols or flags on the various ports. A scale for calculating distances is found at the bottom of the Walsperger map [it is more decorative than trustworthy]. Cuba is shown as a continent also in the map of Columbus dated 1498, which formed the basis for Piri Reis later on; in the rough sketch drawn by Christopher Columbusa€™ brother, Bartholomew, in 1503 (#304), in the map of the world made by Ruysch in 1508 (#313), and even in the marine map by WaldeesmA?ller in 1507 (#310). A glass wine beaker with an undulating horizontal spout conjures a narrative about air seals made of olive oil.
Handblown Albeisa bottles stand in line like cousins at a wedding, each bearing a family resemblance but with idiosyncratic profiles.
Martinelli tells me these meticulously accurate drawings were based on an extensive collection of toy soldiers assembled by a kindred spirit in nearby Bra.
To the south of Greenland two large pieces of land are shown; the one in the north is called Baccalao.
And so it goes, through rooms of agricultural implements, wine labels, and antique bottles.
To the side, rows of dusty brown bottles from 1800 are arranged to demonstrate the influence of Burgundy and Bordeaux. Above Jerusalem, which in accordance with the traditional manner is placed at the center of the world sphere, the Red Sea is depicted.
The above-mentioned slave said to Kemal Reis, he had been three times to that land with Colombo.
Nearby is a drawing from Martinelli's own hand, showing the evolution of glass bottles from 1650 to 1850.
He also mentions his interest in local Piedmont history--a fact evident in every corner of the museum.
He said: a€?First we reached the Strait of Gibraltar, then from there straight south and west between the two .
In another note further down near Terra Nova he says that though these coasts were discovered by the Portuguese, all is not known as yet, and only the parts that have been discovered are shown on the map. Further south still one can see the peninsula of Florida drawn very much as we know it today. Having advanced straight four thousand miles, we saw an island facing us, but gradually the waves of the sea became foamless, that is, the sea was becalmed and the North Stara€”the seamen on their compasses still say stara€”little by little was veiled and became invisible, and he also said that the stars in that region are not arranged as here. The eastern prolongation of the continent, extending as far as Java Insula, and separated from Asia only by a narrow strait, once again brings us back to the true Ptolemaic tradition of an enclosed Indian Ocean, as does the placement of the Nile River in the heart of Africa. They anchored at the island which they had seen earlier across the way, the population of the island came, shot arrows at them and did not allow them to land and ask for information. Seeing that they could not land on that island; they crossed to the other side of the island, they saw a boat. It happened that these people were of that nation which went from island to island hunting men and eating them. They said Colombo saw yet another island, they neared it, they saw that on that island there were great snakes.
The people of this island saw that no harm came to them from this boat, they caught fish and brought it to them in their small ship's boat [filika]. It appears that he [Colombo] had reada€”in the book that in that region glass beads were valued. And also loading their ship with many logwood trees and taking two natives along, they carried them within that year to the Bey of Spain. But the said Colombo, not knowing the language of these people, they traded by signs, and after this trip the Bey of Spain sent priests and barley, taught the natives how to sow and reap and converted them to his own religion. The names which mark the places on the said islands and coasts were given by Colombo, that these places may be known by them.

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