Pre mladych a ludi s nizsim prijmom je pozicka z banky nedostupna bud z hladiska veku alebo zarobku. Najcastejsie od rodiny ci priatelov, az potom nasledovali nakupy na splatky a pozicky z banky.
Vyplyva to z reprezentativneho prieskumu financnych zvyklosti slovenskych domacnosti, ktory pre spolocnost Provident Financial realizovala agentura Focus.
Vysledky prieskumu ukazali, ze pozicat si peniaze od rodiny alebo znamych je najma pre mladych prijatelnejsie a dostupnejsie ako zadlzit sa v banke. Tuto skupinu opytanych reprezentuju ludia vo veku od 25 do 34 rokov a ludia s prijmami do 500 eur mesacne, pricom po pozicke z banky siahli respondenti vo veku od 35 do 54 rokov, zvacsa podnikatelia a kvalifikovani manualni pracovnici s rodinou, s cistym mesacnym prijmom od 900 do 1 100 eur. GENI RSS - Global Energy Network Institute - The Global Energy Network Institute (GENI) focuses on the interconnection of electric power networks between nations and continents, with an emphasis on tapping abundant renewable energy resources.
NAIVASHA, Kenya (AlertNet) – Kenya has inaugurated Africa’s biggest geothermal power project in a bid to meet its growing need for electricity and lower its consumption of nonrenewable energy. The 280 megawatt (MW) Olkaria Geothermal Project was commissioned by Kenya’s president, Mwai Kibaki, in July. India’s Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has issued a draft solar policy for Phase II of the country’s Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM), outlining its strategy to install 10GW by 2017 through mostly utility-scale projects. The US Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has released an updated 20-year version of its US National Solar Radiation Database. US PV manufacturer SunPower has entered into a definitive joint venture agreement with three of its partners based in Mongolia and China. Orix Corporation, a financial services company based in Tokyo, Japan, has entered into a strategic partnership with Kyudenko Corporation to jointly launch a a€?mega-solara€? power generation business on the Japanese island of Kyushu. Orix Corporation, a Japanese financial services group, has announced it will begin developing 81.6MW worth of a€?mega-solara€? PV plants at 17 sites across Japan. From 2013, solar-powered litter bins offering wireless internet will be placed on the streets around the city of Aberdeen in Scotland. Grid parity for residential and commercial consumers is within reach in many European countries, according to the PV Parity project consortium.
The President of Costa Rica Laura Chinchilla has officially inaugurated a 1MW solar park in Miravalles which is said to be the country’s largest PV plant to date and the largest project of its kind in Central America.
A slew of emerging markets for PV have been identified in a weighty new report from market research firm IHS, which has identified 20GW of PV projects across Asia Pacific, Latin America, Middle-East, Africa and "emerging Europe". US PV project developer SunEdison, Chint Solar, the Public Investment Corporation and the Kurisani Youth Development Trust have obtained US$314 million in long-term debt and equity financing for two large-scale solar projects in Limpopo province, South Africa. China’s CSP capacity could increase to 3GW by 2015, although more conservative estimates predict it will only grow to 1GW, according to a paper by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The installed cost of solar power systems in the US fell substantially last year and in the first half of this year, according the Department of Energya€™s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The National Solar Jobs Census 2012 published earlier this month revealed that solar companies are hiring faster than the general economy. The first African initiative to generate hydrogen from water using renewable energy has been installed in Morocco. The global energy map is changing “in dramatic fashion”, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said today, as it launched the 2012 edition of its World Energy Outlook. The US$12 billion should have been invested in harnessing renewable energy sites where a€?the wind blows the hardest or the sun shines the fiercesta€? such as in the deserts of Asia, the Americas and Africa, says Dr. World Resources Institute identifies 1,200 coal plants in planning across 59 countries, with about three-quarters in China and India More than 1,000 coal-fired power plants are being planned worldwide, new research has revealed.
Megalim Solar Power, a company established by BrightSource Energy and Alstom, has won the bid to build a 121MW solar thermal power plant in Israel.
Four years ago, six months before the last presidential election, I expressed skepticism about whether the United States would adopt a cap-and-trade carbon reduction plan, even though both candidates Obama and McCain had explicitly favored such a system. Tokelau has become the first territory able to meet all its electricity needs with solar power, officials say. Laos plans to start building a dam on the Mekong River this week, a step that neighboring Cambodia and Vietnam fear could imperil fish and cripple rice fields. Italy has a total of 456,575 grid-connected PV plants currently in operation, benefitting from the country’s Conto Energia V incentive programme, according to figures published by Italian energy agency GSE. LONDON, Nov 5 (Reuters) - The world will have to cut the rate of carbon emissions by an unprecedented rate to 2050 to stop global temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees this century, a report released by PwC on Monday showed. Iceland's famous for its breathtaking scenery, its geysers, its Blue Lagoon--and for sitting astride the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. According to RTT News, Gestamp and Zynergy’s joint venture (JV), Southern Solar, will complete the first 25MW of the project by March. On July 30thA and 31stA the world's largest blackout -- The Great Indian Outage -- stretching from New Delhi to Kolkata occurred. The Serbian government and Luxembourg-based investor Securum Equity Partners have signed a binding framework agreement for a 1GW PV deal. US PV project developer Tenaska has installed the first PV module forA its 130MW Tenaska Imperial South solar project located at the company’s Imperial Solar Energy Center South facility near El Centro, California. The Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) has approved loan facilities worth R9,668.50 billion (US$980 million) earmarked for 13 solar projects in South Africa. The solar plant holds a 56MW installed capacity and is outfitted with nearly 700,000 thin-film PV panels from First Solar. US PV manufacturer SunPower Corporation has announced the completion of a 13.78MW solar power system at the US Naval Air Weapons Station China Lake (NAWS China Lake) in California. The surge in solar activities in Japan is continuing with Tokyo-based Marubeni Corporation announcing plans to create a a€?mega-solar power businessa€? by building an 81.5MW solar plant in Oita City, Japan.
IKEA has allocated €1.5 billion to solar and wind projects up to 2015 in a bid to meet all its on-site energy demands from renewable sources by 2020. Perhaps more than any other state, California has acted on the scientific consensus that global climate change is real and man-made. The Energy Department released a new report on August 14 highlighting strong growth in the U.S.
It’s getting harder and harder to call wind power a niche source of electricity in the United States. Lockheed Martin secured a contract with the Office of Naval Research for the design and development of solid oxide fuel cell generator sets as an alternative to traditional battlefield power generation equipment.
Through the NY-Sun Initiative — a programme which aims to co-ordinate a well-funded solar energy expansion plan — US$107 million will be injected into the NY-Sun Competitive PV Program to facilitate the development of large-scale PV systems throughout New York, US, Governor Andrew Cuomo has announced.
Energy minister of Punjab, India, Bikram Singh Majithia announced new financial incentives to be incorporated into a revised renewable energy policy for 2012. The government of the state of Gujarat in India has confirmed it is exploring the possibility of setting up a 1,000MW solar power project in conjunction with the International Finance Corporation (IFC).
Through its Engineering and Support Centre, Huntsville, the US Army Corps of Engineers has issued a multiple-award task order contract (MATOC) RFP for US$7 billion in total contract capacity for the acquisition of locally generated, renewable and alternative energy through PPAs. When you see a lot of sixes coming up on a friend’s Monopoly dice, you might begin to harbor a suspicion that the dice are loaded. The global PV monitoring market is predicted to reach 23GW in 2012, according to the Global PV Monitoring 2012 report published by GTM Research. A partnership between the Interior and Defense departments will reopen 16 million acres of land to renewable energy development. According to a study by the Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics (BREE), PV, along with onshore wind, will be the cheapest sources of electricity in Australia by 2030. The latest installation figures from the German Federal Network Agency show that the country’s mid-year subsidy change for rooftop installations has caused a surge in solar demand for the first half of 2012, with more than 4.3GW installed in a period of just six months.
Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), a US electric and gas company, has announced that it will submit a request to New Jersey Board of Public Utilities (BPU) for approval to invest up to US$883 million to expand its Solar 4 All and Solar Loan programmes in order to develop an additional 233MW of solar capacity. US retail giant Walmart is continuing to fulfill its promise to invest in renewable energy and has installed solar panels on the rooftop of its College Avenue store in San Diego to generate electricity. According to Hellenic Transmission System Operator SA (HTSO), Greece has installed an additional 97MW of grid-connected PV capacity in June 2012, bringing its total PV capacity to 724MW. China’s PV manufacturing base saw a major setback in the first and second quarters of 2012, with a severe slump in exports sparking the government to step in and further raise its PV installation target to 50GW, according to the latest quarterly report on China’s PV market from IMS Research. Japan's largest single utility-scale solar power plant, using 290,000 multicrystalline solar modules supplied by Kyocera is expected to cost in the region of US$345 million or approximately ?27 billion when complet by autumn 2013. Perhaps not in the way Enerplan wished in a statement to France’s new president, Francois Hollande, but the country is pushing forwards with its plans for renewable energy generation. Shaded parking array designed and developer, Envision Solar International, has announced that through a new partnership with Aconfort, it will be developing new business initiatives through the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Spain. The latest global PV inverter market report from IMS Research paints a mixed business environment for the sector that has more than 150 active suppliers.
SolarCity announced that it has partnered with Credit Suisse on a second round of investment.
Credit Suisse, which just announced its US$200 million partnership with Solar City, has additionally advised that it has committed US$200 million to Sunrun. As California is in the midst of policy decisions that will determine its energy future, the GEA National Geothermal Summit will bring policy and industry leaders together in Sacramento Aug. Endemic overcapacity and continued price declines within the polysilicon sector impeded Korean OCI Company’s previously announced plans for the construction of two plants in May. Researchers have fashioned a new transparent solar cell that will not only permit windows at homes to generate power but also enable people to see outside.
Renewable energy will help in Afghanistan's energy scarcity problem according to a study by a researcher from Kansas State University.
SolarCity has embarked on the second phase of Project SolarStrong, a billion dollar initiative to install solar panels on 120,000 units of privately managed U.S. A new web application collects cost and performance estimates for electric generation, advanced vehicles, and renewable fuel technologies and makes them available for utilities, policy makers, consumers, and academics. Greater amounts of renewable energy are continually being added to the power mix in the Western states, so ways to integrate those resources are paramount.
New research by Columbia Engineering demonstrates remarkable optical nonlinear behavior of graphene that may lead to broad applications in optical interconnects and low-power photonic integrated circuits. Chinese company Sky Solar will be a conduit to help form a strategic partnership for bilateral free trade between China and Chile. Some of the weather extremes bedeviling people around the world have become far more likely because of human-induced global warming, researchers reported on Tuesday. Ireland must invest even more in renewable technologies, expand grid integration and improve energy efficiency, the International Energy Agency says in a review of Irish energy policies, published today.
By 2050, more than 6 billion humans are expected to live in cities, according to the United Nations.
Fresh off the record-setting solar weekend in Germany, the country's transmission operators say plans are in the works for a huge transmission line buildout to accommodate growing wind power resources. SunEdison has sold a total of 98MW of European PV projects, the company has announced, closing three transactions last week. The US Senate’s recent vote to not extend the Department of Treasury's solar energy tax incentive has resulted in a creative alternative by underwriters from financial institutions like Bank of America to Credit Suisse and Citigroup. A new report from the International Energy Agency (IEA) has determined that over the next five years, in spite of economic uncertainty, global power generation from hydropower, solar, wind and other renewable resources will increase by over 40% to 6,400TWh. The Japanese Bank for International Cooporation (JBIC) has signed a general agreement with ICICI Bank (Bank of India) for an export credit line of up to US$30 million to fund a variety of renewable energy projects, it has been announced. In 2011, California became the first US state to install more than 1GW of customer-generated solar energy, according to figures published by the California Public Utilities Commission. Japan has published its latest strategic energy plan, originally formulated in 2003 and reviewed every three years by conference bodies as well as various opinion polls.
Spain-based Solarpack Corporacion Tecnologica was recently awarded a contract to supply energy to northern Chile's Collahuasi copper mine.
The Obama Administration today announced 36 new states, local governments, and school districts have joined President Obama's Better Buildings Challenge. 350 megawatt photovoltaic facility in Nevada will benefit Moapa Band of Paiute Indians, generate enough power for over 100,000 homes.
Lux Research’s Putting High-Concentration Photovoltaics into Focus report is expecting for high-concentrating PV (HCPV) to start making a bigger footprint in the solar industry.
Chinese PV company Sky Solar is planning to invest in a 300MW PV project in Chile, according to a report by Reuters.
Speaking at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today announced that more than one hundred commitments and actions have been already mobilized in support of the UN’s global sustainable energy initiative.
How much renewable energy can the United States accommodate over the coming decades is the subject of a new report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). When Masayoshi Son heard about the nuclear meltdowns in Fukushima last year, he had a mini meltdown of his own. Japan approved on Monday incentives for renewable energy that could unleash billions of dollars in clean-energy investment and help the world's third-biggest economy shift away from a reliance on nuclear power after the Fukushima disaster. A new lithium ion battery technology may finally make the devices cheap enough and durable enough to turn electric cars from a niche product into a mass-market mode of transport. Cuba looks forwards to adding a 16.5 percent renewable energy contribution to the country's energy output as a crucial factor for security, sustainability and sovereignty.
Global investments in clean energy need to double by 2020 to avoid missing climate change targets, the International Energy Agency (IEA) said on Monday, calling on governments to spend more on technologies such as carbon storage and solar power.
Norwegian-based Scatec Solar and IFC InfraVentures have entered an agreement to develop a number of PV plants in West and Central Africa, the companies have announced.
IBM and CUNY Ventures, a City University of New York (CUNY) Economic Development unit, have partnered under the Smart NY program in order to encourage the adoption of solar. Having increased the allocation of solar projects to 350MW by 2016, in February this year, Karnataka Renewable Energy Development (KREDL) is in the process of seeking government approval for a solar park, following in the footsteps of states like Gujarat. Pakistan's slow economic growth and energy shortage could be coming to an end if proposals from Suntech to establish 100MW in the country are realized.
CNPV Solar Power executives were on hand, May 2, at Enel Green Power’s inauguration ceremony for its solar geothermal hybrid project in Stillwater, Nevada. Retail giant, Macy’s, has added a new solar array to the rooftop of its Edison, New Jersey distribution centre. An Energy Bag has been developed for undersea compressed air energy storage (CAES) of offshore wind, wave and tidal power. Bangladesh has evinced keen interest in importing power from Arunachal Pradesh, once the ongoing hydro electric projects in the state are commissioned. That's right - half of all of Germany was powered by electricity generated by solar plants. The Inter-American and Development Bank (IDB) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) have entered a co-financing agreement worth US$600 million to invest in renewable private-sector projects in South America and the Caribbean. Nicaragua’s Ministry of Energy and Mines has started construction on a 1.38MW project in the west of the country. The fast EV charger has been designed for fast charging in commercial and office areas, and can fully charges an electric car in 30-120 minutes. Seoul: India has formally offered to provide Pakistan with 5,000 megawatt electricity to fulfill its energy requirements on an urgent basis regularly which could be transmitted through Punjab without much delay. Due to an aggressive FiT cut of between 20% for residential and 30%, for large-scale PV installations the German government will introduce the FiT cuts from March 9, 2012. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has, in collaboration with New Energy Technologies, produced its largest-area OPV module ever at 170cm2. The State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC), the country's largest power supplier, pledged Tuesday to launch projects in the country's most remote corners, offering another 2.07 million people access to electricity by the end of 2015.
Over the past few years, Nicaragua's energy sector has become a State priority, and wheels have been set in motion to promote its development – as well as seek large-scale renewable energy projects. An eminent UK engineer is suggesting building cloud-whitening towers in the Faroe Islands as a "technical fix" for warming across the Arctic. Former president Bill Clinton and NRG Energy’s president David Crane visited Haiti to examine the progress of the solar power installations built in partnership with the Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF).
Standing on the shores of the Mediterranean, anywhere from Tangiers to Istanbul, it’s not exactly difficult to imagine the region’s renewable potential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has verified Alta Devices’ most recent and highest efficiency solar panel at 23.5%. There exists great wind energy potential that remains to be tapped in South Africa, experts said, reports Xinhua. Generation from wind turbines in the United States increased 27% in 2011 compared to 2010, continuing a trend of rapid growth.
Japan this week marks the one year anniversary of the devastating earthquake and tsunami that has since forced it to re-evaluate its nuclear strategy. A new report released today by the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research shows that Minnesota can meet 100% of its electricity needs with in-state wind and solar power, and (with ample energy efficiency investments) at a comparable cost to its existing electricity supply. Despite last year's bankruptcies of several solar manufacturers, including government-backed Solyndra, the U.S.
Based on stylistic comparisons such as striations inside body contours and the presentation of horns in twisted perspective, several Paleolithic art experts, including the first curator of the Chauvet Cave, Jean Clottes, have accredited the Portuguese friezes to the early Solutrean of about 20,000 years ago3.
In Portugal, the government did the opposite a€“ plunging ahead with a project destined to destroy the nationa€™s oldest cultural heritage by completing a 300-million-dollar dam whose reservoir will flood a valley packed with dozens of art sites spread over at least 17 kilometers. Yet construction continues - even on holidays - and the water is about to rise another hundred meters. A male ibex with his head shown in two positions, as if he were turning to watch the female behind him. As we drove up to a sentry box perched on the lip of a road into the vast, unnatural gashing of mountains at Foz CA?a, it was hard to tell if the young guard blocking us in a crisp red and gray uniform represented a well-heeled security service or an elite military unit - but it was plain that bluff and sweet talk wouldn't get us far.
The next time the car eased over the knuckles of a road crisscrossed by up-ended strata, past empty huts built just of stacked slabs, and jostled between overhanging and plunging cliffs until an avalanche of tailings from an old quarry almost blocked the path.
Here was one of the places of grandeur where our ancestors had first grasped visions and then concretized them by hewing - and sometimes painting - images into rock panels.
As I pushed forward and the river grew shallower, turtles became so numerous that their stacks toppled like circus acts from the brinks of submerged cliffs. As a draftsman, I could feel empathy for the beast flowing into the hands that had etched her. This first frieze stood at a fitting point, practically where the reservoir yielded to the original rapids and long pools of the virgin river. Far away across the moonscape of rutted ramps, knots of men stood before tunnels as fleets of dump trucks, made so tiny by distance that they only gave away their magnitude by over-sized wheels, eased to the brink of platforms, and added avalanches to tailings. Above us, the titanium-white cleanliness of the cement plant's towers stood in bold contrast to the devastation, like a phalanx of gigantic chess-rooks bunched for the kill.
According to press articles, the dam-builders had recognized him as the true discoverer of Portugal's first reported Paleolithic engravings, at nearby Mazouco, even though the doctoral student's mentor, Professor Vitor Oliviera Jorge, had stolen his thunder.7 They had given Rebanda a job as their obligatory salvage archaeologist when the new doctor somehow couldn't get a position on a faculty.
In return, all he'd had to do was wait till their concrete curtain had gone up and its reservoir had risen into a sea so voluminous and costly that its drainage would have been unthinkable. My goateed interlocutor smirked as he told me I could try looking for the doctor at the complex built for the previous dam, 15A kilometers downstream.
But I'd hit pay dirt: the fact that I might hear Rebanda's mea culpa was more than Ia€™d hoped for.
Sebastian elected to wait outside and embarked on Jules Verne's Journey to the Center of the Earth as I knocked at the locked door.
Still, I complimented her on her English, sympathized with them for having to put up with this hierarchical bother, and kept spinning innocuous questions, while she kept waiting for me to go. When Rebanda's secretary came out again, to see if she could get either me a€“ or her boss - to give up as the wait grew embarrassingly long, I asked her what the round silos with tipped roofs on the hills had been used for.
But the next time, after they had gotten used to my rounds, I stepped inside and admired a sequence of two eight-foot-tall maps full of pins.
Something was wrong: in addition to the constellations of pins extending for 17 kilometers upstream from the construction site, there were dozens downstream, along the reservoir behind the dam just outside!
Finally, so many hours had passed, and she'd informed the doctor so many times that I was still hanging around, that I was forced by the sheer need for new scenery to vary my route, and drifted through empty rooms. The only thing the reports agreed on was that Rebanda had somehow discovered the flooded portion of Canada do Inferno by the previous autumn22 a€“ asking the EDP to lower the Pocinho reservoir by just 3 meters in November 1994 so he could study the engravings.23 a€?They told me it was too expensive,a€? Rebanda had told the New York Times. So who had shot these photographs, which looked like they had been taken when the sites were dry vegetated hillsides instead of among the muck and bare banks below a fallen waterline? I realized that the photos of the dry sites might have been taken before the Pocinho Dam, which had flooded them, had even been completed a€“ over 12 years before! UNESCO had suggested Clottes, who, in an uncanny convergence of good and bad karma, was taken on a whirlwind tour of the tip of the iceberg at Canada do Inferno, then immediately whisked to a press conference in Vila Nova do Foz CA?a on Dec 16th, 199428 a€“ just two days before the discovery of the Chauvet Cave that catapulted him, as its first interpreter and protector, from the summit of the French archaeological establishment to world fame. But Clottesa€™ judgement was mixed, confirming that the art could be dated on stylistic grounds to the early Solutrean or even late Gravettian of twenty to twenty-four thousand years ago while suggesting that flooding the valley might be the best way of protecting it, since Portugal was ill-equipped to protect such widely dispersed panels from vandals!29 a€?There is no easy solution,a€? he told a reporter. What the press forgot to emphasize with quite as much fervor was the fact that Clottes had prefaced his Solomonic verdict by saying, a€?Whatever happens, the engravings must be preserved and not be damaged.a€? Clottes might have felt that he could safely pass the buck because no art conservationist could honestly guarantee the engravingsa€™ fate once they were subjected to currents carrying abrasives, burial under the petrifying alluvia that accumulates behind dams,33 and the worlda€™s most destructive solvent a€“ water, which would dissolve pigments and destabilize rock that had proven its resistance to aerial conditions over tens of millennia. While chatting up the gaunt fellow traveller at the construction site, Ia€™d pretended to make small talk by asking engineering questions, including one about the depth of the sediment that had accumulated behind the Pocinho dam.
The irony of it was that Clottesa€™ efforts to be honest without irritating his hosts had been the spark that the French diplomats had dreaded. Despite the fact that the great prehistoriana€™s reputation would remain largely intact, and with good reason, in much of the rest of the world,34 the Portuguese intelligentsia began to shun him. A€ propos of CA?a, two Portuguese rock art researchers, who couldna€™t stomach Clottes after his press conference, ironically echoed him by telling me, confidentially, that flooding the engravings could still be a blessing since it would save them from graffiti and those boogeymen of archaeologistsa€™ dreams, prowling collectors.


My guess is that he was so beleaguered by advisers that he was just trying to get out of an awkward situation as quickly, judiciously and diplomatically as possible. I mentioned to Rebanda that I had just attended the lecture on Chauvet, that I even had a videotape of it right there in my camera.
So it's true, I thought, drowning the site was Rebanda's solution to the problem of ownership of photographic rights. But then, what about Rebanda's self-serving talk of photo credits, not to mention the engravings already submerged by the dam at the doorstep a€“ and his belief that the engravings were doomed to be flooded? Strangely enough, I could again see it being both ways, since the roots of tragedy are self-deception and entwined motives. He must have realized that I was rooting for him to pull himself out of his tailspin, because suddenly he decided.
Upon leaving, Sebastian asked to check out the Pocinho dam, so I drove round an interchange into an empty parking lot with planters. As the sun slanted over the plateau into the wilderness of the CA?a valley, I decided to sneak into a side-valley to the north of our campsite that Rebanda's map had cluttered with pins. Then, after breaching a wall of rushes, we broke to the reservoir's edge - and were met by a horned skull stuck on a stake. Suddenly, I remembered what Rebanda had said about the engravings' association with witchcraft. Being obstinate (or perhaps because of the prehistoric setting), I started whittling stone, knapping a microlithic surgeon's kit, and then bent single-mindedly to my task - failing till I was disgusted with myself and worried for my victim (which I had bizarrely associated with Rebanda). This time there were two guards behind an overhanging military fence crested by barbed wire. The guard who beckoned us in was rearing a guard-dog puppy, which scampered around, tumbling over ledges and using its chin to lever itself over steps. Our guide was a decent young man who couldn't help feeling uneasy blocking access to these bold masterpieces at the source of all our arts. Still, these guards were actually tame as the locals poured down to catch a glimpse of the animals through the fence.
After he'd hastened to take up his time-clock again, I wandered if there might not be even more testimonials of man's attraction to this classical Eden with its islets and fords in the flowery river, and browsed through a plowed orchard, along a contour which I judged would have been the valley floor half a million years ago. We knew the next dawn would be our last, so we broke camp in blue light to explore the teeming side-valley beyond the first auroch. Not Portugal's - OURS - because this art is so old, despite its elegance, that we share the blood and genius of those distant ancestors who awoke to the universe, whether our cavalcade of ancestors migrated around the Old World or came across the Bering Straits 14,000 years ago. Footnotes have been added to the internet version of the article to provide historical perspective and more detail about sources than the versions that were published & distributed in 1995. 1 The three discoverers of the Chauvet Cave were Eliette Brunel Deschamps, Christian Hillaire, and Jean-Marie Chauvet.
2 The IPPAR announced the existence of the valleya€™s engravings on November 19, 1994 but a video was made of them in 1993. 10 Bahn 1995 for a re-capitulation of the same accusations against the IPPAR & Rebanda. 33 Bednarik & Jaffe have been the most outspoken spokesmen about delusions concerning the protective qualities of reservoirs a€“ which not only inundate art panels with water but deep alluvial deposits that make their later recovery dangerous and impractical. 34 Interestingly, a few years after this appeal was written, Clottes came under fierce attack and even ridicule by many representatives of the French intelligentsia, including some of the countrya€™s most prominent prehistorians, after he and David Lewis-Williams published a€?The Shamans of Prehistory: Trance and magic in the painted cavesa€? in 1996.
As soon as their results indicating that the art might be only 3,000 to 6,500 years old (if not even younger) were announced a€“ which actually made the engravings even more astonishing, potentially rewriting the history of rock art or even making Portugal the last bastion of the Paleolithic tradition a€“ the most important Portuguese right-wing weekly screamed that the direct-dating results proved that stylistic daters like Clottes had perpetrated a a€?FRAUDa€? (O Independente, 7 July 1995).
It should also be noted that the individuals who participated in the debate were often somewhat unwittingly drawn into playing secondary or tertiary roles in a struggle between the Portuguese Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Industry. 40 In November 1995 - six months after this call-toa€“arms was published and circulated to Prehistoric Art Emergencya€™s volunteers (who Ia€™m glad to report included a young actor, Yann Montelle, who went on to earn a doctorate in prehistory) - a book edited by Jorge called a€?Dossier CA?aa€? appeared with 20 contributions by him or his wife.
44 After writing this article in May 1995, it occurred to me that I might have missed one of the main reasons for eliminating Rebanda from Portugala€™s archaeological milieu a€“ the fact that he was so effective at finding rock art that drew international attention, first to Mazouco, then to CA?a.
49 When I wrote the article, I assumed that the two young men were Rebandaa€™s subordinates and referred to them as a€?draftsmena€?.
50 After initially denigrating both the art and the idea of extracting it, the EDP later adopted the idea as one of its three strategies for overcoming opposition to the dam project. Ultimheat est interesse par tous catalogues, documents techniques, notices d'utilisation, manuscrits concernant des composants et equipements de chauffage ou des appareils electrothermiques anciens. Ultimheat is interested by any catalog, notices, technical literature, manuscript, about antique components, heating equipment and heating appliances.
If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly. 30, 2012) — Developers of renewable energy and shale gas must overcome fundamental geological and environmental challenges if these promising energy sources are to reach their full potential, according to a trio of leading geoscientists. The Solar Foundation's review of the US solar workforce found that as of September 2012, the solar industry had grown to 119,016 workers under its definition of those "who spend at least 50% of their time supporting solar-related activities". The completion of Africa’s first wind–hydrogen system is a collaboration between the Pure Energy® Centre in Scotland, Sahara Wind Inc, and Al Akhawayn University in Morocco. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has launched a new tool and redesigned DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center Web site to help fleet managers, municipalities and consumers choose from a wide variety of alternative fuels and energy efficiency strategies for reducing petroleum use, vehicle emissions, and operating costs.
This year, though neither President Obama or challenger Romney has uttered the words "climate change" during the campaign, my prediction is that the United States will soon adopt some kind of carbon plan, regardless of who wins. Among energy wonks, Iceland is also well known for using its abundant renewable energy, and especially for tapping the volcanic roots of the island in developing its geothermal resources.
It has been noted that Rohit Rahindernath, CEO and MD of Zynergy stated that the Southern Solar will buy 202 hectares in the Madurai and Ramnad districts, with the JV planning to sell the power generated by the plants directly to industrial consumers. This blackout caused by northern power grid failure had put nearly 700 million people -- twice the population of the U.S. Last year, wind turbines represented one-third of all new generation capacity built in the country, behind only natural gas.
Lockheed Martin's fuel cell technology will be integrated with solar panels, providing the military with the power needed to perform missions while using dramatically less fuel.
Gujarat estimates that the project could cost around Rs 8 to 9 crore per MW, therefore, the 1,000MW project could cost anywhere between Rs 8,000 to 9,000 crore.
Moreover, non-tracking PV is estimated to go on to become the cheapest power generation technology in Australia by 2050. This marks the company’s 100th solar installation in California and is in line with its aim to expand its solar portfolio to more than 75% of its stores in the state, approximately 130 stores, by the end of 2013. HTSO also revealed that the country’s PV systems generated 161.5 GWh of electricity in the same month. Tough competition in the global market place, vast oversupply and falling prices has put Chinese manufacturers’ balance sheets under huge pressure and China’s government has responded by more than doubling its long-term installation target from 20 to 50 GW by 2020. With project finance now in place, construction of the plant in Kagoshima City, on land owned by IHI Corporation, will start in September. Delphine Batho, the new minister for ecology, sustainable development and energy, announced the results of two tenders for solar plants. Although having defended reasonably well against price declines, compared to the rest of the supply chain, the market research firm is forecasting inverter sector revenues to only increase by 3% in 2012, while shipments increased nearly 25%. The investment will go towards building solar panel installations and will help offset the upfront cost of solar panels for SolarCity customers.
The investment will help support the purchase and installation of thousands of residential solar systems in the US. Nevertheless, its North-American arm, OCI Solar Power, has signed a landmark deal with CPS Energy in San Antonio, Texas, to develop more than 400MW of projects. The Transparent Cost Database (TCDB) app provides technology cost and performance estimates that can be used to benchmark company costs, model energy scenarios, and inform research and development decisions.
With the placement of a sheet of graphene just one-carbon-atom-thick, the researchers transformed the originally passive device into an active one that generated microwave photonic signals and performed parametric wavelength conversion at telecommunication wavelengths. CEO Amy Zhang recently attended a banquet hosted by Chilean President Sebastian Pinera in the capital, Santiago, an event also attended by Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao and his entourage. Yet they ruled it out as a cause of last year’s devastating floods in Thailand, one of the most striking weather events of recent years.
Ports, which constitute more than half the world's largest cities, will face unique challenges as their populations swell. The projects include a 60MW PV plant in Karadzhalovo, Bulgaria, which was sold to a consortium of investors including the First Reserve Energy Infrastructure Fund, Saudi Arabian developer ACWA Power and Turkish private equity firm Crescent Capital. The report, Medium-Term Renewable Energy Market Report 2012, finds that renewable electricity generation should expand by 1,840TWh between 2011 and 2017; nearly 60% more than the 1,160TWh growth found to have taken place between 2005 and 2011. The scheme is aimed at both bridge finance as well as long-term finance of solar projects and will be offered to companies already under PPAs. Other private Japanese institutions will also co-finance the loan, adding another US$50 million to the credit line, making the credit a total of US$80 million. The company has been responsible for the design and construction of the plant and has also supplied 13,000 thin-film PV modules for the installation. The report, California Solar Initiative (CSI) also demonstrates that 311MW were installed in the investor-owned utility territories last year.
The latest revision includes a road map of energy-based economic growth and reformation of the energy infrastructure. According to a statement emailed to Bloomberg from Compania Minera Dona Ines de Collahuasi, the company will deliver 60,000MWh of energy a year from two solar plants, beginning in Q4 2013.
These new commitments total nearly 300 million square feet in job-creating building energy upgrades, equivalent to more than 130 Empire State Buildings.
The research company’s new report expects for HCPV to have a 31% compound annual growth rate until 2017, growing to 697MW in five years. Sky Solar, in collaboration with Chilean Sigdo Koppers and the Chinese Development Bank, has announced the signing of an agreement on Tuesday, under which Sky Solar is looking to invest US$900 million to construct the 300MW solar power park over three years. Waltham, Mass.-manufacturer A123 Systems has produced a cell that delivers 20 percent more power, works at temperatures as low as a€“30 degrees Celsius and as high as 60 degrees C, and should be just as easy as current batteries to manufacture.
IFC will be financing the projects while Scatec will be responsible for designing, developing, constructing and operating PV plants with a capacity of 10MW or more in different African countries.
The program aims to develop the ability to analyse and understand key solar market indicators that make solar systems more cost competitive by using IBM's Intelligent Operation Centre (IOC) for Smarter Cities.
KREDL wishes to build the 1,000 hectare solar park at Mannur village in Bijapur, India, through a public-private partnership (PPP) model. Speaking at a meeting attended by Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gilani, Minister for Water and Power, Naveed Qamar, secretaries of the ministries of EAD, Water and Power, chairman NEPRA, CEO AEDB, Pakistan's ambassador to China and senior officials of relevant ministries, Dr Shi Zhengrong, chairman of Suntech, announced plans for the phased installation of plants with a generating capacity of 20MW each. CNPV supplied its PV modules for the project, which has 33MW of geothermal capacity and 26MW of solar capacity.
Overall, the country’s reliance on foreign oil has fallen since 2005, with net imports of total consumption declining from 57% in 2008 to 45% in 2011 – claimed by the administration to be the lowest level since 1995. The solar farm, located 12km from the city of Diriamba, will be partly funded by the Japanese, with an investment of US$12 million.
It can also charge to set levels in a shorter period of time if a full charge is not necessary.
Due to an aggressive FiT cut of between 20% for residential and 30% for large-scale PV installations, the German government will introduce the FiT cuts from March 9, 2012 to eliminate a rush of installations to beat the tariff change.
The companies’ engineers have worked together on developing New Energy’s SolarWindow technology that allows the generation of electricity on see-through glass windows. 21, 2012 – As part of the Obama Administration's "We Can't Wait" efforts to strengthen the economy, create jobs and support business growth, Administration officials announced three significant actions to expand the government's purchase of biobased products, promote regional rural job creation efforts, and develop a rural healthcare workforce, all of which build on the historic investments the Administration has made in rural America over the past three years.
In doing so, it also unveiled a plan that could have big implications for renewable energy across the continent. Not only were frescoes of rhinos, horses and lions over 30,000 years old found in a cave in the Ardeche on Dec.
Although theya€™re probably right, ita€™s worth noting that these same specialists used similar criteria to ascribe the animals of Chauvet to the same period - until carbon 14 results pushed their age back over 10,000 years, shattering the notion that prehistoric art had evolved linearly, like technologies. In France, the Ministry of Culture placed its new treasure under the most draconian protection, despite the fact that the country already has the lion's share of Paleolithic art. Standing right in front of some of the most spectacular engravings, the Secretary of State for Culture dismissed them as being nothing more than a€?childrena€™s doodlesa€? a€“ whereupon the students from Foz CA?aa€™s high school turned the official into a laughing-stock by presenting him with a schist slab covered with their own scribblings4.
It's now or never, the author of the following article decided in April 1995, as he set out to evaluate the engravings, find out the truth, and propose solutions. My 13-year old son and I had flown to Porto in Portugal and driven far up the Douro valley into the northeastern mountains, prepared to maneuver around obstructions whether by negotiation or hiking through the back door. Still, here was our first encounter with the powers that be, so I took this opportunity to probe, and get a first step up the hierarchical ladder. So I explained how Sebastian and I had come so far to see the Paleolithic glories that Portugal would be displaying with pride, spoke of credentials, and placed us (and our pen) in his hands. Still, we had our bearings, and drove off into the late afternoon to penetrate the heart of the forbidden zone. We were getting closer, very close now, and could spy loops of a trail among the folds of a distant ridge. And here too was the arena where one of the greatest feuds between discoverers and custodians of the past had exploded since the conflict between Othniel Marsh and Edward Drinker Cope over the fossils of extinct giants in Sioux territory during Custer's battles. With swifts swirling in up-drafts around our heads, we scrambled and picked our way among sheer precipices and ledges.
Its tight horseshoe of cliffs and rubble made the perfect hiding place for our car and tent from the gray guards roaming the surrounding crests with binoculars.
Sebastian snuggled tighter into his sleeping bag, so I set out to reconnoiter alone, systematically working quadrants and contours between our quarry at Fariseu and Piscos brook. Somewhere among the jumble of a thousand rock faces would be an ancient image - perhaps masked by lichen or so faint one had to trace its parts before seeing it whole. The numbed waters suddenly spangled upstream with glitter and so many flowery white tresses of water plants that the currents looked like sudsy pastures. After all the noisy demonstrations against the dam in Lisbon, how were they to know how much clout a nosy prehistorian might have? Whatever was going to happen to him afterwards in the backwater of Portuguese archaeology had surely been inconsequential, since experience proved that nobody made much fuss over sites that were out-of-sight and out-of-mind - especially with archaeologists beholding to dam-builders and political appointees for access and records. According to the insinuations, he could have continued his documentation right up to the headwaters as his masters worked their way upstream step by step.
I sensed that this crowd felt their doctor deserved to be the one to tell fellow archaeologists that they might as well ask to visit Atlantis. Sure enough, there was the 12 year-old Pocinho dam sweeping the valley with a clean curtain.14 But the silos of this former construction site's cement plant were speckled with rust, the ranks of its offices and dormitories were deserted and almost every window was broken.
Fortunately, Sebastian was becoming ever more engrossed in Verne's book, spelunking towards the planet's core, so I began to gravitate down halls for exercise and companionship, coming to the door of the room where the secretary was braiding the blind's cord while two laconic draftsmen labored over tracings of horses, ibexes and aurochs. It has been insinuated that Rebanda probably discovered Rock 1 at Canada do Inferno as early as November 1991.18 In Dec. So, quixotically, he had proposed building a dry-dock around the outcropping, and, failing that, underwater exploration.
If so, the power utility may have known of incredibly rich sites years before the first blueprint for the new dam! Clottes was the worlda€™s reigning prehistorian a€“ the man who had risen to the pinnacle of the French archaeological establishment and held the only keys to the holy grail of art caves - the unbelievably strong and ancient Grotte Chauvet. After inspecting the 15% of the art that remained above water at the site in the rising dama€™s shadow, because the EDP had hardly felt it necessary to lower the water for the visit of the foreigner sent by the now antagonistic IPPAR, Clottes stepped before a highly polarized press corps. The dam-builders and their government backers felt vindicated while much of Portuguese public was crestfallen or furious. The dam had become a poisonous political issue in a national election with the President and his fellow Socialists attacking the center-right Prime Minister for its willingness to sacrifice both the nationa€™s patrimony and vineyards to a flaky building scheme. As if the owners of villas built around the new lake would really allow it to be drained 100 meters to its bottom - where almost all of the known panels would soon be drowned a€“ once every decade!
Suddenly, the Portuguese public felt that the dam-builders were not only destroying the nationa€™s most ancient claim to world grandeur and civilization, but that they were in league with a man who would never have been so cavalier with Paleolithic masterpieces in his own country! When I later asked Portuguese archaeologists if they were going to attend an up-coming conference organized by Clottes, they recoiled.
First, because Clottesa€™ retinue of hosts, diplomats and reporters was rushing him and putting him in a bind a€“ even if his stature, pride, and role as UNESCOa€™s expert on rock art had led him into it.
They even echoed his faith in getting dam operators to regularly empty the vast lake a€“ despite the glaring evidence of the EDPa€™s behavior at CA?a itself.
No sooner had Clottes triggered a public outcry, than he began to explain away his tepid defense of the CA?aa€™s importance by saying that he had not been shown enough art to form a true idea of the valleya€™s richness.35 But the truth is, he was shown Rebandaa€™s trove of drawings from submerged sections and sites upstream36 and could have been more demanding. After all it was a lot of money, the government was inflexible, the controversy had become a campaign issue a€“ which meant that his advice would seem like foreign meddling - and the elections were still far off. When, in fact, the long-term rights for the cave in France would belong to its Ministry of Culture a€“ which was already attacking its discoverer, Chauvet, for the pittance hea€™d received for his pictures. But I could hardly hold my tongue: why on earth had he invited people from this caste of academics back into his life - and the valley - when at least one of them had apparently abused him?
The picture was compelling: SimAµes and her husband angelically insisting that the world must be told, while the hireling screamed demonically over the fire, accusing university archaeologists of trying to hog the credit yet again. If Rebanda had known SimAµes and Jaffe were going to paint him into a corner, wouldn't he have raced for the exit? Both Rebanda and SimAµes de Abreu could have been traitors and saviors at once, and as long as I was with this archaeologist, I felt bound to encourage the savior in him. It must have seemed like an insult to him after all his efforts, so with an anarchic gesture, he announced, what the hell, he'd photocopy their fax when it came, so we could enter a second.
Huge black derricks hulked atop the dam beside a row of gate-lifting pistons that looked like Big Berthas. We bagged the warning or omen, caught and released a giant water beetle - the kind that injects deliquescing enzymes into living frogs, then sucks out their juice - and worked our way along what was actually the upper tier of a disappearing cliff. When art panels are located in the CA?aa€™s side valleys, they are apparently concentrated on northern slopes. I was a willing guide as we skewered corn kernels on hooks, lashed lines around a log and threw the lethal leashes into the dark. They were a hundred yards apart, making perpetual rounds as they kept time clocks happy by cranking them every few paces with keys chained to the fence. It was probably his first job after military service, but he was intelligent enough to realize that hea€™d been hired as a pawn in a vast conspiracy to keep Portugal's greatest cultural wonders out of sight and out of mind, till they could be obliterated.
One, because any plan to remove the friezes not only meant assigning a value to them, but keeping the controversy alive.
The mountainous dirt road forked, meandered and even skirted an imposing castle,51 but several classes of children were making the long dusty pilgrimage on foot while carloads of adults in their Sunday best made the excursion to see the only engravings to have escaped the censors - either because the site at Penascosa was so far from Lima Montiero's spyglass or because the valley was gentler here and had always been farmed. I hadn't passed the first olive tree when I happened upon a well-knapped hand-axe, and then another!
On-line commentary entitled a€?Some corrections about the CA?a petroglyphsa€? in TRACCE no.
While Chauveta€™s name was given to the cave itself, the names of his co-discoverers were given to two of its large chambers. Mila SimAµes de Abreu and Ludwig Jaffe were the founders of the APAAR (AssociaA§ao Portuguesa de Arte e Arqueologia Rupestre), which has been a member of IFRAO (International Federation of Rock Art Organisations) since Sept. In an on-line commentary, Jaffe denounced what he perceived as a continuation of the scandal under new management: a€?In December 1994 IPPAR passed the responsibility for the rock art in the Coa valley to Mario Varela Gomes and Antonio Martinho Baptista.
Their critics often subscribe to the doctrine that modern ethnographic evidence cannot be used to interpret ancient cultures. Although Bednarik was one of the earliest crusaders for CA?a - calling for the EDP to stop building the dam in Nov. The leftist press and Portuguese archaeological milieu reacted with just as much reflection, ignoring both Bednarika€™s qualifiers and his pioneering role in organizing the world campaign to fight for the whole valleya€™s salvation (see Dossier CA?a p. Of the 66 contributions written by individuals, not one is by Nelson Rebanda, whose ghost a€“ to anyone interested in intellectual property a€“ haunts every line.
After the CA?a scandal served its purpose as an electoral issue that helped the Socialists to win power, the new government kept its campaign promise by protecting the CA?a Valley but used the goodwill engendered by the decision to blunt criticism while flooding other huge assemblages of rock art. 3; Catherine Vincent, writing in Le Monde on March 11, 1995, goes into much more detail about one particular vineyard, Ervamoira, that would have been lost, along with its exceptional Port wine. The first was to prove that the engravings were not Paleolithic a€“ an effort that entrapped researchers who wanted to apply experimental direct-dating techniques.
Vyberovu vzorku, ktoru vybrali metodou kvotneho vyberu, tvorilo 1 036 respondentov, ktori reprezentuju populaciu SR vo veku nad 18 rokov z hladiska pohlavia, veku, vzdelania, narodnosti, velkostnych kategorii sidiel a krajskeho clenenia, pricom prezentovane vysledky prieskumu vychadzaju zo vzorky 866 respondentov v produktivnom veku od 18 do 64 rokov.
According to the 2011 Wind Technologies Market Report, the United States remained one of the world’s largest and fastest growing wind markets in 2011. To help ensure reliable energy supplies for the nation’s military bases, while protecting the environment and saving taxpayer money. But as demand increases in the world's warmer regions, global energy consumption for air conditioning is expected to continue to rise dramatically and could have a major impact on climate change. Each round included an investment of US$100 million from Credit Suisse, for a total of US$200 million. The plant was connected to the grid in March 2012 and had been funded by an IFC €155 million debt financing agreement. The SEIA predicts solar installations could increase by 75%, exceeding the 3,200MW goal for 2012. With this new finance scheme, Waaree can provide financial support for companies investing in PV in India and for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM).


The CSI program has received a budget of US$2.4 billion and is aiming to reach 1,940MW of solar capacity by the end of 2016. The strategy is to ensure growth and encourage multi-faceted international trade by taking into account the social cost and price differences between nuclear, thermal and renewable energy generation.
Among the first countries in which Scatec and IFC are planning to develop solar power plants are Benin, Cameroon, Togo, Niger and Burkina Faso.
Initiated and owned by Enel Green Power, the project is said to be the world’s first and only geothermal hybrid project. Enfinity owns the solar plant and under a 20-year PPA, will sell the electricity produced to Macy’s at a fixed rate. According to Nicaraguan newspaper El Nuavo Diario, the PV installation will become the largest in Central America. Today's announcements are the latest in a series of executive actions the Obama Administration is taking to strengthen the economy and move the country forward because we can't wait for Congress to act.
18th1, but Europea€™s biggest open-air gallery of Paleolithic animals was reported just a month earlier in the CA?a Valley of northeastern Portugal2. Regardless of how old the CA?aa€™s art turns out to be, it is unique in its richness above ground and astonishing in its illustrations of movement - with animals tossing their heads with the same stop-action dynamism found at Chauvet and only millennia later in photography and Futurist painting.
The Chauvet Cavea€™s prehistoric bestiary was proudly splashed across magazines around the world. Soon, the guard turned into a regular lad, wrote down the chief engineer's name and pointed beyond the ramp-laced moonscape - into the wilderness. In this walled garden, the conflicting passions of archaeologists had exploded around a campfire, set a president and prime minister against each other, and cowed the emissaries of UNESCO.
Lizards skidded into fissures, a rusty blade wedged in a nook beside a sliver of cliff garden spoke of an emigrant who had never returned, but the walls seemed barren. Over and over again, the scene seemed set, the rock stretched, but its lines were just fractals. I yanked myself up to a platform less than a step wide and a ten-foot long cow - an auroch! By holding the animal's form and movement vividly in mind, the maker had poured himself into its body and experienced a power beyond abstraction, beyond even tool-making, to thrill to the new power of passing through the looking-glass into another being.
A stream, running pure as its springs over crisp cresses between alternating bull rushes and crags, almost made it to the river unaltered, but met it just below the threshold and sank into an estuary. We had arrived at Pandemonium and would try to insinuate ourselves into an audience with the Chief Engineer himself.
Only one was so spotless and redolent of perks, though, with its rolled lawn incongruous in the desert, that we knew right where to head among forking roads.
I was hardly surprised when these well-fed pros passed the buck to the only gaunt and partially toothless fellow traveler among them. So they decided to play it safe by dumping me on their pet nemesis, the organizationa€™s own archaeological a€?hirelinga€?, Dr.
He could have added to his hoard of exclusive photos and measurements, imposed interpretations, and generally lorded it over his peers - for who could have naysayed him with his treasures locked a hundred meters deep in so many great watery safes?10 And to think that all the dam-builders' pet archaeologist and his accommodating superiors at the Portuguese Institute for Architectural and Archaeological Heritage (IPPAR)11 in Lisbon - to whom Rebanda had reported his discoveries at least twice12 - had had to do to pull off this economically patriotic (not to say mutually beneficial) stunt was keep their mouths shut! After having suffered at the hands of his mentor, Professor Jorge, why had Rebanda put himself at the mercy of two similar academics and representatives of an international body to boot - Mila SimAµes de Abreu and her archaeologist husband, Ludwig Jaffe, who represented the International Federation of Rock Art Organizations (IFRAO)? At least such nuisances would keep him from getting up to more mischief by turning up new discoveries.
But, finally, a secretary answered my summons and let me into a vestibule empty except for a display of postcard-sized photographs of some of the engravings, and a cartoon caricaturing the scandal - which I reckoned had been knowingly posted to co-opt criticism. I couldn't quite make out the man's features through the crack, but it was obvious he was gushing recriminations - and no wonder: the entire archaeological profession had ganged up on the pariah.
We all knew I had crossed a threshold, but, after all, I had paid my dues, and in any case, I padded off to the foyer again. Yet they'd prattled to the press that they had found the art a year ago, and then more like two years ago, and now, word had it, a€?onlya€? three years ago25 - when it was always somehow too late to stop the process leading up to construction, which had only started in September a€™94.26 The gall! Instantly, I whipped out paper and scribbled the fastest copy of the main map that my hand could draw. After SimAµes de Abreu and Jaffe had unleashed the scandal by revealing the conspiracy to flood Europea€™s richest assemblage of open-air Paleolithic art, the IPPAR and Portuguese Ministry of Culture had scrambled to get their own expert witness a€“ and, in a further twist, had asked UNESCO to recommend an expert to challenge the power companya€™s growing efforts to prove the art wasna€™t Paleolithic but recent27 a€“ in which case, the EDP seemed to think that the public would drop the subject as being the relatively recent work of peasants drawing their cows. For all their heightened sensitivity to having CA?aa€™s fate evaluated by a foreigner, the Portuguese press viewed Clottes as a referee and expected a verdict. Then, as fate would have it, Clottes was back in the headlines within the week, announcing drastic measures to protect Francea€™s new crown jewel, Chauvet. And as if anyone could even find new art during the two weeks a lake might be emptied (every hundred years) while everything was coated with algae and grime! Opposition editorialists had a field day with Clottesa€™ apparent hypocrisy and dismissiveness towards Portugal - and demonstrators flooded the streets.
Two, because people are often driven to produce their greatest work and worst mistakes by similar drives. Rebanda was even fooling himself on this score, I thought - after all, the Foz CA?a photographs would probably end up belonging to Portugala€™s own ministry or even the EDP.
Scientists - like lawyers - ply an adversarial trade, but the chance to put Portugal into the archaeological heavens a€“ and to boost their own reputations with it - had given many researchers more ulterior motives than usual. Personally, I couldn't see anybody bedding down for the night and traipsing out the next morning with people who had announced that they were going to expose him.
In essence, my heart a€“ if not my mind - had taken his side for the moment; he was the underdog, on the verge of a nervous breakdown, and I was concerned that he might even attempt suicide.
If I didn't mind coming back at 9 the next morning, he apologized, the approval should be there.
But basically the dam was a streamlined machine without much need for local intervention or maintenance.
My unequivocal certification of their global importance only made him uneasier, as he didn't know whether to feel flattered or upset. We peered into a dovecot, a squat white tower lined inside with empty compartments like a city after a plague. Suddenly, a deeply hammered auroch on the rock stood out boldly as a road sign - alerting us to an entire herd. The geology, erosion, & silica skins protecting engravings all seem similar on both slopes, so I theorize that this positioning is not simply a taphonomic illusion created by the disappearance of engravings on the southern slopes. I wasn't expecting anything when I ambled down at dawn, but there it was: a big mound under the bank! From what I could tell, even his draftsmen had decided to take the day off 49, once they realized the coast was clear. By God, I thought, if the flooders don't save them, I hope the townspeople storm the valley!
If the guards hadn't been under strict orders not to sell admissions, they'd have made a killing; but then any financial association with the art is anathema to the dammers: the next thing they knew, they'd have a revolt on their hands! And like the first guard, when he realized that I had somehow gotten authorization despite my evident opposition to the reservoir, he let out his pent-up indignation - for we were insiders. As we passed the threshold between the deadened depths and virgin current with its billowing water-foliage, we had to skirt and climb over a sheer wall blocking the side-valleya€™s entrance.
The intertwined couple, spanning the length of a single real horse, was still necking in Eden after twenty millennia. Rock Art and the CA?a Valley Archaeological Park: A case study in the preservation of Portugal's prehistoric parietal heritage. Although it is true that one must be extremely circumspect about doing so, such evidence often opens new perspectives that have more in common with the subsistence systems of ancient cultures than does our own, and the two authors showed considerable originality and courage in exploring it. 1994 - most Portuguese archaeologists with access to the CA?a sites now shun him as thoroughly as they do Clottes and Rebanda. 539, for a resolution, written in defense of CA?a, by Bednarik, in a book filled with vitriole against him). These retractions confirmed that some of ZilhA?oa€™s criticisms of the direct dating attempts were well founded, but dona€™t necessarily reflect on other matters raised in his disputes with Bednarik and Jaffe. In the English sections, Jorge generously credits numerous associates and generations of Portuguese prehistorians by full name, while studiously avoiding any mention of Rebanda except where it is unavoidable, and then only with his last name between brackets.
The second was to make casts of panels for a museum a€“ which may have damaged some panels. A grid failure of this magnitude has thrown light on the massive demand for power in a country and its struggle to generate much-needed power supply.
In a few states, such as South Dakota, Minnesota and Iowa, wind provides more than 10 percent of all electricity.
ACWA subsidiary NOMAC and SunEdison will operate and maintain the plant under a joint vernture agreement. The only negative could be that developers may have to offer higher interest rates than more established asset-backed bonds in order to attract investors. Kornilakis MEPE, a Greek logistics company, had the system installed on its 68,000mA? warehouse roof. Co-developed by SunConnect, the project received longer-term financing through PSE&G’s SREC-based solar loan program.
Germany is pretty much singlehandedly proving that solar can be a major, reliable source of power - even in countries that aren't all that sunny. The Terra SC uses the widely available 3-phase 32A input, eliminating the need for a costly grid connection upgrade. While the paintings in the French cave, which became known as the Grotte Chauvet, often have engraved contours, the Portuguese menagerie may also have been painted, but, being outdoors, their pigments have usually weathered away. As shadows welled from the valley, we turned from the scarps and trundled downwards into the cleavage, till the road turned into a path to the water through a profusion of poppies. Finally, I discerned a flock ambling down through dry brush, then a shirt flashed a white dot, and we converged within hailing distance on opposite banks. Even ideal panels on either side of a fig tree bulging titanically from a small cave were barren. A stand of poplar trees crackled like Chinese New Year with small birds, abundant as leaves.
It was a good thing we had his name, Lima Monteiro, because the Securitas guard on this side meant business. Our compact car slid in among Mercedes and I stepped into glare, drawing cool stares from fleshy faces. My interlocutor explained that the Chief Engineer was powerless to help me, so he couldn't be bothered to give me an audience. Of course, the stories went, the honorable witnesses had refused to become accomplices and had immediately denounced the whole plot a€“ writing open letters to the Portuguese President, Vice President and Director of IPPAR - with carbon copies for the press.13 If only his employers had known that Rebanda was so naive! She announced that it was no use disturbing the doctor, who I could see through a jarred door talking to someone over the phone with peevish vehemence. Finally, I suggested that she didn't need to keep me company while I waited for the good doctor to get off the phone. That's strange, I thought as I wandered off again, mulling over a mental photograph of the site distribution.
And here were others, even closer to the construction site, at "RA?go de Vide", which had been submerged by the same old dam! Still, she caught me; whereupon I went on elaborating it, asking questions, and then padded back to the foyer again to continue my vigil. After all, the archaeologists and reporters had allowed the Tagus petrogylphs to be drowned with hardly a whimper. Not only did the contrast with his actions in Portugal now smack of a double standard, but there was a piquant irony. With stakes this high, both parties unleashed their opinion-making machines, making hash of Clottesa€™ carefully weighed words as quickly as theya€™d vilified Rebanda. Clottesa€™ words may have been earnest, but with stakes this high and politicized they were about as reasonable as Pontius Pilatea€™s attempts to keep the peace.
I prefer to think the latter, and that his only mistake was thinking that people on both sides were lucid and reflective enough to interpret his verdict correctly. In Rebanda's place, I'd have calmed down and let the traitors fall to sleep, but then I'd have snuck away - trekking fast through the dark, picking myself up when I fell, but getting out - bloody knees and all - and calling that alarm first! Furthermore, I had no doubt - whatever pacts he'd struck - that he would make up for them if only approached constructively. After we'd faxed it, I was sorry to see him having to still recall and refax, as he nudged the request repeatedly through the unyielding bureaucracy. Sebastian and I scrambled and tacked among the carious cliffs, till there was nothing left but rock overhanging the water itself.
But a huge horse, leaning over the depths, was both more graceful and cryptic, for someone had wedged a rusty horseshoe into a crack between its hooves. No sooner had I chipped the thin device and steadily shoved each curve straight, than the hook slipped smoothly free. Only Rebanda's long-suffering secretary had to keep her post and occupied herself by taking up the relay of calling and faxing. These red and gray devices were not only customized to match the guards' uniforms, but showed off the latest in high-tech materials and molding. As we wound our way down towards the reservoir among towering red cliffs, he took quiet pride in pointing out the hidden elements of scattered engravings.
But then Piscos Brook ran between trees, pastures and cane-groves, with cliffs full of shelters and stone panels at each bend. La Pintura, The Official Newsletter of the American Rock Art Research Association (Member of IFRAO) Volume 21, Number 3, Winter. In the same book, which Jorge compiled to record the campaign he was spear-heading to save CA?a a€“ a laudatory effort, if there ever was one, that made Jorge synonymous with yet another of Rebandaa€™s finds - Bednarik is repeatedly dismissed as a a€?charlatana€? (pp. Jaffe accused the trio, who had taken over responsibility for the archaeological resources of the valley, of endangering art panels and refusing to allow qualified foreign researchers or even Dr. Whatever the case may be, the problem of rock art conservation is still as far from resolution in Portugal as it is in most other places in the world.
All that remains, where jagged outcroppings of schist jut from brushy slopes - exposing terminal facets perfect for murals - are hauntingly sinuous outlines of deer, horses, ibexes, and wild cattle called aurochs. The first flurry of press articles had mentioned that many of the engravings were already submerged by the cofferdam holding the river back for the more monstrous wall rising downstream from it.
I sent greetings and the shepherd expostulated and gestured animatedly upstream towards towering slabs. For me, all of mankind's later accomplishments, all our later experience of good and evil only become possible after such art. The irrelevant exchange had sparked sympathy as we both waited - and waited, in similar irrelevance to someone too consumed to give us heed. I would have to go to Lisbon, and no, it wouldn't do any good for him to fax; he didn't have an iota of authority. Despite all the insinuations about Rebanda and IPPAR, they were actually the first to try blocking the philistines with the clout of an institution as important as UNESCO. About thirty years before, Francea€™s equivalent to the EDP had taken the entire Ardeche Gorge, where the Chauvet Cave had just been found, from its entrance at Sauze to a rainbow-huge, natural arch - Vallon Pont da€™Arc, next to Chauvet - by eminent domain, to build a dam. These conscientious people know that theya€™re barely tolerated by the forces of Mammon - scraping crumbs from the tables of vast enterprises armed with dynamite and bulldozers - and make compacts all the time with them, telling themselves, for instance, that the alluvial strata that cement plants exploit are always too tumbled to contain intact Acheulian hearths. If only he'd announced the discovery, co-opted his employers, and splashed masterpieces across magazine covers while the art's existence was still fresh, he might have won honor, fame, a very small fortune (and maybe even kept his job). Within weeks, local academics had begun signing their names to Rebandaa€™s discoveries, tracings, and interpretations while forgetting to cite him. I'd have been the one to announce the existence of the largest gathering of open-air Paleolithic engravings in Europe to the world. Slate slabs, thoughtfully laid into a wall as steps, led down through a canopy of fig trees into a cavernous wallow between cliffs. I woke Sebastian in time to see the beast lumber over the bank and glide away, and then it was high time we checked out our other line at the doctor's office. Noon passed as we still waited together like an old couple, talking about the doctor's misery, Australian rock art, translations; whatever.
The guards stiffened as Sebastian and I had the gumption to breach a forbidden zone and stride blithely forward. There were so many warblers piping and whistling, there must have been a dozen species with overlapping territories.
Botha€? - Baptista and Gomes a€“ a€?were closely involved in the rationale to submerge the rock art (to 'protect it from vandals'); in fact, on 8 November Baptista spoke of how sedimentation behind dams should protect rock arta€? - my italics.
After our departure, Bednarik and three other researchers (Alan Watchman from Canada, plus Fred Phillips and Ronald Dorn from the USA), who believed that they had found ways to date rock art directly, studied some of the CA?aa€™s engravings during separate visits. 1995 that was led by Mounir Bouchenaki, the IPPAR formed a scientific committee consisting of Antonio BeltrA?n, Emmanuel Anati and Jean Clottes, who came back for a second round. And so, forgive me, but in comparison to these ancient windows, cathedrals seem to have anti-climatic and overwrought power.
Except for the absence now of bigger species, this was how Solutreans had experienced the world - with whistling, mooing, barking, roaring and trumpeting not just on the Serengeti, but to the frozen north! So much will go unrecorded because of all this fuss.a€? a€“ So, Rebanda is resigned to the inevitability of the flooding, I thought.
If the dam had been built, a dozen known art caves would have been flooded or affected by rising water tables. So rather than condemn Clottes, perhaps the Portuguese should simply admit his diplomacy opened the debate, even if one might wish that hea€™d been a crusader. From Chauveta€™s pinnacle, its gatekeeper was probably right to dismiss the scratchings, which I too thought could have been the kneading of bears, but the contrast between the levels of encouragement was striking. Although they granted him the discovery of Hella€™s Canyon (in footnotes), other sites that Rebanda had already noted were soon claimed by competitors as Rebanda was effectively silenced. And Vitor and his wife, Susanaa€? - was it my imagination or did her name stick in his craw? Their stingy hypocrisy and philistinism revolted me: they wouldn't spend a penny on protecting such discoveries, but they'd drown the world up to its headwaters to keep driving Mercedes. Goldfinches sparked into the air, a crested hoopoo flashed orange and black, and the shaggy canes were a tumult of avian chatter. Jaffe was also the IFRAO representative of the SocietA  Cooperativa Archaeologica, Le Orme della€™Uomo, Italy (Bednarik 1994). But not before signing controversial non-disclosure agreements with the EDP, which was hoping that their techniques would yield dates so recent that they could be used to ridicule stylistic daters who had identified the engravings as Paleolithic (Baptista & Fernandes 2007, p. Intermittent splashes smacked echoes off the walls, a frog croaked and some beast keened a cry we had never heard. When I asked if they could intercede on our behalf, she said one had to apply in person, in Lisbon, and have connections. In fact, paw prints indicated that we had missed cornering another feral dog or fox in its lair.
Surgically, it was a nightmare: I'd have to pry its head out, keep its neck extended, wedge open its powerful beak and finally thrust the treble barbs down its throat, so as to carefully extract their burr, without snagging them again! Finally, they agreed that one of them would walk parallel to us, down the fence-line, to let us in the distant gate. At our feet, frogs skipped like pebbles and painted turtles rowed earnestly in tangled water blossoms - all for the taking. Unless you and I and all of us together add our voices to those of the Portuguese citizenry trekking down for a last look, and reclaim what is OURS! The story of the denunciation is from Bednarik (1994) and Simons in the New York Times (1994).
Even the Chauvet Cave, which was unknown, might have been threatened by the changing water table!
Unfortunately, Bednarik, who is one of the worlda€™s most encyclopedically informed, accomplished, and bold prehistorians, walked right into the trap. Jorgea€™s utter dismissal of Bednarik was clearly motivated by the lattera€™s implicit condemnation of the way that Jorge had appropriated Rebandaa€™s earlier discovery at Mazouco, instigating Rebandaa€™s secrecy that was one component of the CA?a a€?cover-upa€? (Bednarik 1994, p. Later, Bednarik spear-headed another campaign to save a Portuguese rock-art assemblage from inundation a€“ this time behind a dam in the Guadiana Valley - and noted that a€?None of this helps the rock art of the Guadiana, condemned to inundation under billions of tonnes of lake sediment as the reservoir silts up over the next 70 yearsa€? a€“ again, my italics. Do you think I'm such a fool as to invite the man who deprived me of the credit for my first discovery, to come see my greatest wonders if it wasn't because I needed all the allies I could get; if it wasn't because I even needed the universities to help save them. Ironically, the mandarin in Porto would come out smelling like roses for his campaign while the roles of several well-meaning prehistorians, if I may insist upon the word, were simplified so as to make them better scapegoats. First, because his dating system, which was based on determining the degree of micro-erosion undergone by a rock face, had been developed in Australia, where climate and geological conditions are different from Portugala€™s. This odd statement flies in the face of Bednarika€™s consistent defense of both the CA?aa€™s art and other assemblages, suggesting that it was a ploy to get the EDP to allow them to test their methods.
Even though both men concluded that their observations proved that the art was no older than the Neolithic, Bednarik did not repeat the notion, when announcing his results, that a relatively recent vintage diminished the arta€™s importance or the need to protect it a€“ quite the contrary.



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