Along side of these traces of God-likeness, co-exist distorted perceptions resulting from Adama€™s fall.
Be a Moses not just one of the regular guys in the crowd who judge after their natural sight. This is our online source for great projects and instructional material about Goda€™s visual language. 1 Timothy 4:12 (LB) encourages, a€?Dona€™t let anyone think little of you because you are young.
Matthew 18 tells us to admonish a floundering Christian whom wea€™ve seen engaging in ungodly conversation or behavior. DESCRIPTION: In so far as ancient cartography is concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian artifact is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by agents of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul General in Egypt, between 1814 and 1821 and now preserved in the Egizio Museum of Turin, Italy.
It is now known that Drovetti obtained both the quarry map and tomb plan, along with many other papyri, from Amennakhtea€™s family tomb at Deir el-Medina. The extant papyrus consists of two principal sections, earlier thought to belong to two different documents. The second section of the papyrus comprises a number of fragments for which the final placement, based on careful study of the fibers of the papyrus, has yet to be made. The Turin Papyrus fragments were long considered the earliest surviving topographical map from Egypt to have come to light. The route marked as leading off from the cross valley to the left is likewise described as a€?another road that leads to the ym.a€? The placement of the second section to the right of the map of the gold region seems correct, since it would then constitute the beginning of a papyrus roll, which would normally suffer greater damage. The difficulties in matching features depicted and labeled on the papyrus with those on the ground are compounded by the absence of any indications of scale.
Two geologists from the University of Toledo in Ohio examined the map and recognized topographical features from the map, a roadway still in use and the mountains on both sides, shown as cones.
An ancient Egyptian map drawn on a scroll of papyrus paper was discovered between 1814 and 1821 by agents of Bernardino Drovetti, the French Consul General in Egypt. The current reconstruction of the map in the Egyptian Museum, which dates to the early 1900a€™s, is incorrect in several of its details.
The map was rolled up when discovered and subsequently handled, and this explains the especially poor preservation of the rightmost portion in Figure 3, which formed the outer abraded surface of the scroll. The Turin papyrus map is notable for being the only topographic map to survive from ancient Egypt and also for being one of the earliest maps in the world with real geographic content.
From the good agreement between the modern maps of the area and the Turin Map, it can be seen that the papyrus clearly depicts Wadi Hammamata€™s long course and eventual confluence with wadis Atalla and el-Sid, the surrounding hills (shown as stylized conical forms with wavy flanks that are laid out flat on both sides of the valleys), the quarry for bekhen-stone, and the gold mine and settlement at Bir Umm Fawakhir (a€?Well of the Mother of Potterya€™). Fragment A shows five cultural features associated with the gold-mining settlement, including: four houses, a temple dedicated to the God Amun (the large white area subdivided by walls), a monument stone honoring King Sety I (1290-1279 BC of the New Kingdoma€™s 19th Dynasty), a water reservoir, and, at the confluence of wadis Hammamat and el-Sid, a water well with an encircling wall that casts a shadow on its right side. On map fragments A and H, within the main valley represented by multi-colored dots, there are three small drawings of trees, which from their form can be identified as Tamarisks. The papyrus map also has numerous annotations written in hieratic script (the cursive form of hieroglyphic writing) that identify the features shown on the map (see Table 1 for translations), including: the destinations of the valley routes (texts 1-3, 9 and 16 on fragment A), the distance between the bekhen-stone quarry and gold mine (text 17 on fragment E), the location of gold deposits in the hills (texts 4-5, 11-12 and 16a€™ on fragments A and D), the gold-mining settlement (texts 6-8 and 10 on fragment A), the bekhen-stone quarry (text 20 on fragment H), and the sizes of the quarried bekhen-stone blocks (texts 23 and 25-28 on fragments M-P). Besides being a topographic map of surprisingly modern aspect, the Turin papyrus is also a geologic map because it accurately shows the geographic distribution of different rock types (the black hills with Hammamat siliciclastics, and the pink hills with Dokhan volcanics, Atalla serpentinite and Fawakhir granite) and the lithologically diverse wadi gravel (the brown, green and white dots within the main valley that represent different kinds of rocks), and it also contains information on quarrying and mining (see Table 2 for a description of the geologic units). There he was told to gather a large quantity of copper [which would have been used for the tools wielded by the workers excavating the royal and private tombs] and bring them to the Temple.
Guards of the Treasury, Paynodjom and Amenmose son of Tjewenany, and the servant Pnekhemope. Synopsis, Part 2: Hori returned to Karnak Temple in the company of Paynodjom and Amenmose plus the two Foremen of the Tomb, Nekhemmut (Horia€™s brother) and Anherkhe. The map was made about 1150 BC by the well-known a€?Scribe of the Tomba€? Amennakhte, son of Ipuy.
If the map was made for Ramesses IVa€™s big quarrying expedition then why did Amennakhte keep it, and why did he and others reuse its backside for documents and drawings unrelated to the map? The more important section is a fragment, measuring approximately 40 cm high, generally called the a€?map of the gold minesa€?. Near the junction of the cross valley with the upper route a circular, dark-colored image is marked, with a second partially overlapping design in a darker black line.
Its principal feature is the continuation of the wide, winding route of the wadi interspersed with stones.
The papyrus clearly has a character distinct from the cosmological drawings of the universe or of the routes to, or depiction of, the after-life found within the formal context of religious art. This requires the resolution of questions concerning the placement of fragments in the second section and the identification of the places to which the roads to the left of the viewer are said to lead.
The map would then show on the right (that is, the West) the darker a€?schista€? areas of the main part of Wadi al-Hammamat, with the gold mines of the region of Bir Umm Fawakhir some twenty-five kilometers to the East. Annotations on the second portion of the papyrus suggest that the document was drawn up in connection with work on the extraction and transport of stone, ultimately destined perhaps for a royal tomb in the Valley of the Kings.
The geographical content depicts three roads leading from unidentified Egyptian gold mines to the Red Sea.
The colors pink, brown, black and white were used to illustrate mountains and other features; however, the geologists James Harrell and Max Brown believe that these colors were not used for aesthetics, but that they a€?correspond with the actual appearance of the rocks making up the mountainsa€?.
The map came from a private tomb in the ancient village of Deir el-Medina, near the modern-day city of Luxor (ancient Thebes) in Egypt (Figure 1).
A new arrangement of the map fragments has been proposed and this is shown in Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Map of Egypt showing the locations of Reir el-Medina,a€? the Valley of Kings and Wadi Hammamat. An unknown amount of the papyrus has been lost at its right edge and so fragments K and N-P cannot be correctly placed.
The arrangement of the papyrus map fragments as currently displayed in the Egyptian Museum in Turin, Italy. Although there are a few older topographic maps from outside Egypt, they are all quite crude and rather abstract in comparison to the relatively modern-looking map drawn on the Turin papyrus. Bekhen-stone (geologically, metagraywacke sandstone and siltstone) is a beautiful grayish-green ornamental stone that was highly prized by the ancient Egyptians. The brown patch of ground opposite the settlement may represent an area where either mine tailings were dumped or farming was practiced. The tree on fragment H (Figure 9), which is drawn upside-down, is just opposite the bekhen-stone quarry (the green oval at the base of the brownish black hill) and at the center of the sharp bend in the valley. Text 18 on fragment F is especially important for understanding the purpose of the map because it refers to a bekhen-stone quarrying expedition and the destination of the quarried blocks. Detail of the papyrus map (fragment H) showing an upside down tree in the wadi directly opposite from the bekhen-stone quarry, which is shown as a greenish oval embedded within the brownish black hillside. Additionally notable are the representation of iron-stained, gold-bearing quartz veins with three radiating bands on the pink hill above the gold-mining settlement on fragment A (beneath text 5), and text 11 on fragment A, which reads very much like a legend on modern geologic maps by explaining what the pink coloring represents. Texts 17 and 18 are written in a script that is bold, calligraphic and near-hieroglyphic in style. They met with Ramessenkhte and turned over the requested copper to the Scribe Khonsmose, who received it for the Treasury of Amun. Map of Egypt showing the locations of Reir el-Medina, the Valley of Kings and Wadi Hammamat.
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Exo 20:4 Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any likeness of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. It was prepared for one of the quarrying expeditions sent to Wadi Hammamat by King Ramesses IV (1156-1150 BC) of the New Kingdoma€™s 20th Dynasty.
First, the text on the map side is in Amennakhtea€™s distinctive handwriting, which is well known to Egyptologists who have studied his many other writings. It depicts two broad roads, running parallel to each other through pinkish-red mountainous regions. The draftsman has distributed distinctive features in accordance with the reality of a particular area, adding clarity by the use of legends and contrasting colors. In descriptions of property in the later period, the points of the compass are given in the order South, North, East, West, suggesting that Egyptians oriented themselves facing South, with North behind them, the West to their right and the East to their left.
A more recent comparison of the features shown on the map with the ground matches the various features specifically mentioned in the gold map with the central area of Wadi al-Hammamat and with the upper part of the papyrus constituting the North. The only indication of its purpose seems to be given in the series of hieratic notations written on those areas left blank above and below the route and the black areas depicted on the fragments of the second section. Some of these notes seem to give measurements of blocks; one seems to provide measurements of actual distances separating points on the map.
A prominent feature of the plan is what seems to be a winding wadi, or ravine, about the same width as the roads, in the mountains of Egypta€™s eastern desert between Qift on the Nile, down from Thebes, and Quseir on the Red Sea.
One regiona€™s sedimentary rocks, which range from purplish to dark gray and dark green, are mapped in black. This village housed the workers responsible for excavating and decorating the royal tombs of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1539-1075 BC) in the nearby Valley of Kings and Valley of Queens. The principal changes are the transposition of map fragments H-J and E, the placement of L at the bottom of E, and the narrowing of gaps between many of the fragments (which shortens the map to about 210 cm). The map is not truncated here, but drawings of an unknown number of stone blocks and the accompanying texts are missing. This map shows a 15 km stretch of Wadi Hammamat (a€?Valley of Many Bathsa€™) in the central part of Egypta€™s Eastern Desert (Figure 1). The only quarry was in Wadi Hammamat, and this was worked sporadically from the Early Dynastic period through Roman times (about 3000 BC to 400 AD). On the ancient map, this is the only major bend in Wadi Hammamat prior to its confluence with Wadi Atalla. The Turin papyrus is the oldest known geologic map in the world and it is all the more remarkable considering that it would be another 2900 years before the next geologic map was made and this was in France during the mid-1700a€™s. Note that a€?a€¦a€? indicates missing text, untranslated ancient Egyptian words are italicized, and comments are given within brackets. Turin 1879, verso II),a€? Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 31 (1994): 91-97.
Volume 1: Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient, and Medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, pp. The purpose of these expeditions was to obtain blocks of bekhen-stone that would be carved into statues of the gods, king and other notables. And second, the first and earliest text on the backside of the papyrus was written and signed by Amennakhte. Because papyrus paper was an expensive commodity in ancient Egypt, it was common practice among scribes to use the originally blank backsides once whatever was written or drawn on the front side was no longer needed.
They are drawn horizontally across the papyrus, the lower with indications of a rocky bed or sparse vegetation, characteristic of the larger dried-up watercourses or wadia€™s that form the natural routes across the eastern desert from the Nile to the Red Sea.
A little below and to the right of the design is another, more oblong in shape, colored green with the zigzag lines by which the ancient Egyptians conventionally represented water.
In contrast with the gold-mine section, the area on each side of the road is colored black, and the legend indicates that in this area the stone known to the ancient Egyptians as bekhen is to be found. The texts indicate that the area depicted must be along the natural route from Coptos (Qift) on the Nile through the eastern desert via Wadi al-Hammamat to the port of Quseir on the Red Sea. If this placement were correct and the fragments of the second portion were to be placed to the right, it would require the ym to which the road now leads westward, that is, back to the Nile, to be taken in some sense other than the Red Sea. In contrast with the hieratic texts on the gold map identifying geographical features, these texts refer to the transport of a statute. Soon after it was found, the map was sold to king Charles Felix, ruler of the northern Italian Kingdom of Sardenia and Piedmont. The Egyptian Museum has many small map fragments that it left out of its reconstruction (and are also missing from Figures 3-8) and eventually these a€?pieces of the puzzlea€™ will be added to create a more complete map.
The top is oriented toward the south and the source of the Nile River with west on the right side and east to the left. The gold mine at Bir Umm Fawakhir was active during the New Kingdom and again in the Ptolemaic through Early Byzantine periods (about 1500 BC to 600 AD).
As seen in Figure 9, however, Wadi Hammamat actually has many sharp bends as well as wide meanderings.
There is no reason to think, however, that the ancient author intentionally set out to make a geologic map. Gardiner, a€?The tomb of Ramesses IV and the Turin plan of a royal tomb,a€? Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 4 (1917): 130-158. Harmony, balance, cohesiveness, dissonance, resolve, movement, intensity, repose and every other conceivable principle of composition are inherent in creation. A now famous rock-cut inscription or stela (officially designated CM 12) was left on the quarry wall by this king to commemorate his final and largest expedition during the third year of his six-year reign. In other words, the papyrus map became scrap paper after the quarrying expedition it recorded lost its importance, perhaps following Ramesses IVa€™s death a few years after the map was made. Legends written in hieratic, the cursive hieroglyphic everyday hand of the time, explain where these routes to the left are leading. Within the design there are traces of a hieratic group, apparently to be read as a€?cisterna€?, a€?water-place,a€? or the like. This black or dark green stone, generally called schist by Egyptian archaeologists, is more properly identified as graywacke. This route was used in ancient times in the course of expeditions to the Red Sea for trading voyages south to the land known to the Egyptians as Punt [Somaliland]. Such a view seems to be supported by the legend designating the upper route of the gold map leading off to the left as a€?the road that leads to the ym,a€? that is, to the Red Sea, taking ym in its most common meaning.
It would likewise place the area of bekhen stone to the east of the location of the main quarry inscriptions in Wadi al-Hammamat. A text of five lines, of which the first four lack their beginnings, seems to reflect a situation in which a king sent an expedition to the Wadi al-Hammamat to bring a statue back to Thebes.
To judge from instructions contained in a model letter copied by a pupil as part of his scribal training (instructions that seem to refer to the same general area as the Turin Map), calculations of distance are the kind of work a scribe might be expected to do. It is believed that this map also displays the gold-bearing basin to the east of Coptos (shown in pink on the original map) in the mountainous region of Nubia [part of modern Sudan] located at Bir Umm Fawakhir in the Wadi Hammamat. According to these geologists, this is probably one of the oldest surviving geological maps and the earliest evidence of geological thought.
In 1824, this king established the Egyptian Museum in Turin, the kingdoma€™s capital, and here the map has resided ever since. Figures 3, 5, 6, 7 and 8 are computer-generated photo-mosaics derived from digital scans of photographs taken of the papyrus.


There is no constant scale used on the map, but by comparison with the actual distances in Wadi Hammamat it is evident that the scale varies between 50 and 100 m for each 1 cm on the map. Because the ancient map was drawn on a papyrus scroll, which would have resembled a modern roll of paper towels, the author did not have the freedom to show the true wandering course of Wadi Hammamat and so included only the most important bend, the one near the bekhen-stone quarry. From the colors used for the hills and wadi gravel, it is evident that he merely drew what he literally saw in the desert a€“ the real hills and surface gravels have the same general colors as those on the map (Table 2).
Brown, a€?The oldest surviving topographical map from ancient Egypt (Turin Papyri 1879, 1899 and 1969),a€? Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt 29 (1992): 81-105.
Leviticus 5:1 plainly states that a€?If a person sins because he does not speak up when he hears a public charge to testify regarding something he has seen or learned about, he will be held responsible.a€? Ouch! According to the inscription, this included 8,362 men, which makes it the largest recorded quarrying expedition to Wadi Hammamat after one about 800 years earlier during the Middle Kingdoma€™s 12th Dynasty. As one of the two a€?Scribes of the Tomba€™ during Ramesses IVa€™s reign (along with Hori, son of Khons, who also wrote some of the later texts on the back), Amennakhte was an important administrative official in the Theban region and this is where the map (text 18) says the blocks of bekhen-stone were taken. The enormous expenditures of the Pharaohs and the priesthood were met principally by taxes on the land, payable usually in the form of grain crops. A broad, winding crossway wadi connects the two routes, from which an alternative route is indicated and labeled, also leading to the left.
In the same central section of the map a round-topped stela is also indicated in white, with a legend dating it to the reign of Sethos I of the 19th Dynasty. The surviving fragments give no indication of precise locations comparable to those found on the section depicting the gold mining region and its settlements.
The central area, between Bir Al-Hammamat and Bir Umm Fawakhir, was visited as a source of ornamental stone and gold, and it is rich in rock tables, recording quarrying expeditions and in archaeological evidence of ancient gold mining.
It was, we are informed, deposited in a workshop beside the mortuary temple of Ramesses II (Ramesseum) on the west bank of the Nile of Thebes and subsequently taken, half-worked, to the Valley of the Kings in a regal year six. The scroll notes the locations of the mine and quarry, the gold and silver content of surrounding mountains and the destination of the roadways. According to the geologist Harrell, a€?In order for it to be a geological map, it must show distribution of different rock types.
The many map fragments were originally considered parts of three separate papyri that were designated as Papyrus or P. It is almost certainly for Ramesses IVa€™s big expedition that the map was made, but what purpose it served is unclear. He is well known from his many other surviving works to be an individual with an unusual combination of scribal, cartographic and artistic skills as well as a a€?sense of geologya€™. For purposes of such taxation, the land was carefully measured and registered, and the boundaries marked. Running vertically from the upper route is yet another road with hieratic text that gives its destination. The feature is presumably to be identified with one of the rock-cut stelae executed by that king, depicting Amun or another deity, preserved on the mountain face flanking the wadi. Such a docket must have been written at Thebes, the papyrus obviously having been at some time in the possession of one of the scribes attached to the work gang responsible for constructing and decorating the royal tombs in the Valley of the Kings. Surveying rarely resulted in graphic maps, and in this respect ancient Egypt is very similar to medieval Europe until well into the 14th and 15th centuries.
The mapmaker has tried to show how the two main east-west roads lie in valleys that are linked by a road that curves through a mountain pass.
Secondarily, it should indicate the location of geological features like mountains and valleys. Exo 20:12 Honor thy father and thy mother, that thy days may be long in the land which Jehovah thy God giveth thee.
It could not have been a road map showing the way to the quarry because it only covers a small area with the 75 km between Wadi Hammamat and the Nile Valley excluded. These attributes are especially well displayed on another of his papyri in Turina€™s Egyptian Museum. Jottings on the back of the papyrus include a reference to the statute of Ramesses IV of the 20th Dynasty, suggesting that year six should refer to the reign of that king.
In both regards the scroll qualifies and reminds us of modern geological mapping.a€? The English surveyor William Smith is credited with initiating modern geologic mapmaking in 1815.
Most of these fragments were eventually recombined to form a single map about 280 cm long by 41 cm wide (Figure 2). Most likely, it was drawn as a visual record of the expedition to be viewed by either Ramesses IV or Ramessenakhte, the High Priest of Amun in Thebes, who organized the expedition for the king. Centuries later, the Greek scientist Eratosthenes (#112) made use of these early Egyptian measurements in his treatises. On either side of the main roads the map outlines saw-tooth mountain ranges in an early attempt at rendering topographical detail. The nature of the country, the houses, buildings and entrances to galleries are also illustrated.
It has Amennakhtea€™s distinctive handwriting labeling the parts of the tomb and giving their dimensions, and on the back is his last will and testament. The plan also includes elements of geology, such as a drawing of the kinga€™s sarcophagus in the central burial chamber painted to resemble the pink granite of Aswan from which it was carved, and the location of the tomb under a mountain of well-layered, inclined strata, which is an accurate depiction of the situation in the Valley of Kings. Exo 20:17 Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house, thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his ass, nor anything that is thy neighbor's.
Exo 20:21 And the people stood afar off, and Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was. Exo 20:22 And Jehovah said unto Moses, Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel, Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. Exo 20:26 Neither shalt thou go up by steps unto mine altar, that thy nakedness be not uncovered thereon. Mat 5:11 Blessed are ye when men shall reproach you, and persecute you, and say all manner of evil against you falsely, for my sake. Mat 5:13 Ye are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost its savor, wherewith shall it be salted?
Mat 5:18 For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass away from the law, till all things be accomplished. Mat 5:20 For I say unto you, that except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees, ye shall in no wise enter into the kingdom of heaven. Mat 5:26 Verily I say unto thee, thou shalt by no means come out thence, till thou have paid the last farthing. Mat 5:36 Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, for thou canst not make one hair white or black. Mat 5:40 And if any man would go to law with thee, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloak also. Mat 5:42 Give to him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.



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