A new study on Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis entitled “Macrophage Activation in Acute Exacerbation of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis” was published in PLOS One by Jonas Christian Schupp, part of Dr. Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a disease of the lung characterized by a progressive scarring, fibrosis, of the lung tissue that leads to a decrease of functional lung volume and oxygen uptake.
The research team analyzed the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and BAL differential cell counts of 71 patients with or without acute exacerbation and compared with 20 healthy individuals.
The researchers found that among AE patients the percentage of neutrophils existent in BAL was considerably higher than in patients without AE. The findings of these study show that during acute exacerbation, cells from BAL express more pro-inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory (M2) cytokines.
Ana holds her PhD in Biochemistry from the Faculty of Science and Technology from Lisbon (UNL).
You have probably heard of ibuprofen, a common drug-store medication to help with headaches or sprained ankles.
Just like people, animals can get severe allergic reactions to anything they come into contact with. The only way to prevent an anaphylactic reaction is to know what triggers this type of allergy in your pet and avoid the trigger. 1.Sub-pulmonary stenosis (stenosis just below the pulmonary valve), indicated by the thin orange probe. 2.Hypertrophy of the right ventricle, a consequence of the obstruction to the pulmonary outflow. 4.Overriding aorta (the aorta lies over the ventricular septal defect and connects to both left and right ventricles),shown by the large orange probe which passes from the right ventricle into the aorta. In Fallot's tetralogy blood enters the aorta from both left and right ventricle, so a mix of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood is sent to the body, and the infant usually presents with cyanosis soon after birth*.
Today, corrective cardiac surgery can be done early in life; optimally at around 12 months. A self portrait by the Dutch artist Dick Ket (1902 - 1940) who is believed to have had Fallot's tetralogy with dextrocardia.
Antje Prasse’s group at Department of Pneumology at the University Medical Centre in Freiburg, Germany.
The origin of IPF is not known; many people live only for 3 to 5 years after diagnosis and the disease has no cure. Patients with other diseases like collagen vascular disease, occupational diseases of usual interstitial pneumonitis were excluded from the study.
In BAL cells, the levels of pro-inflammatory (Th1) cytokines CXCL1 and IL-8 together with M2 cytokines were increased. Notably, these results suggest that the occurrence of AE in IPF is a consequence of various cellular mechanisms as well as activation of type M2 macrophages. She has worked in the T-cell differentiation and Tumor targeting Lab at Instituto de Medicina Molecular, headed by Prof.
Severe allergic reactions can cause swelling of the throat, airways, and lungs, and fluid build-up inside the lungs.


Animals with a “mild” anaphylactic reaction may only show swelling or puffiness in their nose or face.
You should call us (or your regular veterinarian) as soon as you notice signs of swelling or respiratory distress. If it is insect bites, using a monthly flea and tick preventative medication may help to limit your pet’s exposure to biting insects. Because of the obstruction to the pulmonary outflow tract, which worsens with age, there is also preferential flow into the aorta, known as right to left shunt. In older children there will be dyspnoea on exertion, clubbing of fingers and toes and polycythaemia. Cyanosed and hypoxic babies awaiting surgery are treated with prostaglandins to keep the ductus arteriosus open, which allows additional mixing of unoxygenated and oxygenated blood.
In this study, the research team characterized the type of activation of the alveolar macrophages from IPF patients with acute exacerbation. Among all the IPF patients, 12 were diagnosed with AE while 16 patients developed AE after 24 months. In BAL-cells, they assessed the levels of IL-1ra, CCL2, CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, TNF-?, IL-1?, CXCL1 and IL-8 by ELISA. During AE, there was an increase in the levels of CCL18 and higher numbers of neutrophils in BAL cells. Bruno Silva-Santos, and has served as a scientific reviewer for the peer-reviewed journal Infection & Immunity. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If an insect bite caused the reaction, the swelling might be only around the area of the bite. The yellow arrows show where fluid has built-up inside the lungs, making it difficult for this dog to breathe.
A mild reaction (swelling in the face) may be able to be treated at home with an antihistamine (an anti-allergy medication). The four components of tetralogy of Fallot vary from patient to patient, and so the severity of the condition varies. Survival and long-term outcome depend on the particular anatomical defects of the individual patient, and on the surgical expertise available. Acute exacerbations are episodes where an accelerated progression of respiratory symptoms and deterioration of pulmonary function occurs. Importantly, higher control levels of CCL18 were a prognostic factor for the development of acute exacerbations.
Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. More severe anaphylactic reactions may not show any swelling of the face, but all the swelling may be inside – in the throat and lungs, along with fluid build-up in the lungs (pulmonary edema).
However, mild reactions can progress to severe reactions, and severe reactions will always need to be seen by a veterinarian. A typical behaviour in children with TOF is squatting, which increases peripheral vascular resistance and so improves pulmonary blood flow.


The acute exacerbation of IPF (AE-IPF) has an extremely poor prognosis and is believed to occur per year in 5-10% of patients with IPF.
Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website. In people these types of reactions are often associated with foods like peanuts or shellfish, or with insect bites or bee stings. Animals with this type of reaction may breathe with an open mouth (different from panting in a dog), look uncomfortable and continue to change positions to try to find one where they can breathe more easily, stand or lay down with their head and neck stretched out, or stand with their elbows held away from their sides. Severe anaphylactic reactions (with difficulty breathing) can be fatal, even with quick treatment.
If this is the case and the vaccine is an optional one, it is best to avoid the vaccine if possible. Without treatment the mortality is high in the first year of life and few patients will survive to adulthood (approximately 20% alive at age 10 years, 10% alive at age 20 years and 3% at 40 years). On X-ray the TOF heart is classically boot or clog shaped, and the full anatomical picture is obtained by echocardiography. IPF as well as other fibrotic lung diseases have been associated with alternative activation of macrophage (M2), which is induced by anti-inflammatory (Th2) cytokines that play a crucial role in cancer progression and wound healing. In animals, we don’t often see anaphylaxis associated with foods, but animals can have a severe reaction like this to insect bites or bee stings, occasionally to a vaccination, and rarely to some types of medications. Depending on what triggered the anaphylactic reaction, signs like these can be seen anywhere from a few minutes to a few hours after exposure.
Treatment by your veterinarian should include steroids to decrease the allergic reaction, a medication to help decrease the fluid build-up in the lungs, and oxygen therapy to help your pet breathe. If the vaccine is not optional (like the rabies vaccine), your veterinarian can pre-treat your pet with an antihistamine before giving the vaccine, and closely monitor your pet for a reaction after the vaccine is given. In humans with IPF and animal models of this disease it was shown a profibrotic role of alveolar alternative activated macrophages (M2). These treatments often need to be continued for long periods of time (hours), and still may not be successful, depending on what caused the reaction and how severe it is. If an anaphylactic reaction can be caught and treated early, there is a much better chance of a full recovery. If your veterinarian is successful at treating an anaphylactic reaction, your pet should be back to normal in a few days. If you can identify the cause of your pet’s anaphylactic reaction, make sure that your veterinarian notes it in your pet’s record. Feel free to remind us (or your regular veterinarian) every time you come in for an appointment.



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