The remarkable story of gangster Whitey Bulger begins in the housing projects of South Boston and ends with his capture by the FBI in 2011 after his 16 years on the lam. On the legend and reality of Whitey Bulger Cullen: "He went out of his way to build this reputation, the idea that he was a benevolent gangster, that he was a good bad guy. Not exactly a warm welcome, but Polsky says he can understand their ambivalence about his tagging along on the digs.
Sentenced to 15 months in a minimum-security women's prison for a decade-old drug offense was the last thing Piper Kerman, a Smith College graduate and "nice blonde lady," ever expected. Catherine The Great: Empress of Russia Catherine II championed the ideas of the Enlightenment during her 34-year reign. How did a German princess from a minor noble family become the empress of Russia, and win the praise of Voltaire, Montesquieu, Diderot and other giants of The Enlightenment? Robert Massie is also the author of Peter the Great, Nicholas and Alexandra and The Romanovs. When Bryan Stevenson was in his 20s, he lived in Atlanta and practiced law at the Southern Prisoners Defense Committee. Bryan Stevenson is the founder and executive director of the Equal Justice Initiative, based in Alabama, and a professor at NYU Law School. They did coerce the witnesses to testify falsely against him and for some bizarre reason tape-recorded some of these sessions. You can't segregate and humiliate people decade after decade without creating long-lasting injuries.
I saw that create this early-onset dementia [in McMillian] that many of the doctors believed was trauma-induced, was a function of his experience of being nearly killed a€” and he witnessed eight executions when he was on death row.
Howard, standing in front, with his parents, June Dully and Rodney Dully (holding Howard's brother Brian), in Oakland, Calif., c. In 2004, for the first time since the operation, Rodney Dully, Howard Dully's father, agreed to discuss the lobotomy with his son.
Walter Freeman's son Frank tells Howard Dully about the origins of the transorbital lobotomy developed by Dr. Howard Dully meets Carol Noelle, who describes the results of a Freeman lobotomy on her mother.
By then, Bulger was wanted for 19 murders, extortion and loan sharking for leading a criminal enterprise in Boston from the 1970s until 1995.
And what we found from talking to some of his former associates is that one of the things he did was drive over to Brookline a€” to President John F.
In my case, the road not taken might have led to a career in paleontology a€” a life of hunting dinosaur bones, the skeletal remains of the largest creatures ever to roam the earth. In Catherine the Great: Portrait of a Woman, Robert Massie explains the story of Catherine II, who ruled Russia for 34 years.
17, 1946, a psychiatrist named Walter Freeman launched a radical new era in the treatment of mental illness in this country. As a staff physician at Ohio, Wolfhard Baumgartel observed Freeman perform a series of lobotomies.
Sure, he was a successful art dealer and author, but Polsky decided it was time to chase an old childhood dream: He wanted to hunt for dinosaurs. Instead, I became an art dealer, pursuing another form of big game a€” blue chip paintings by contemporary masters. NPR reserves the right to use the comments we receive, in whole or in part, and to use the commenter's name and location, in any medium. Then she culled her experiences into a best-selling memoir, Orange Is The New Black, which was adapted by Weeds' Jenji Kohan into a hit Netflix series of the same title.
The procedure cured Channels of her headaches, but it left her with the mind of a child, according to her daughter, Carol Noelle. Part of the motivation was Ted Kennedy at the time was a very outspoken proponent of the need to desegregate the schools. Yet after twenty-five years of stalking pictures at art galleries and auctions, the allure of fossils remained strong. Freeman believed that mental illness was related to overactive emotions, and that by cutting the brain he cut away these feelings.
In the movies, paleontologists stumble onto a bone, and after brushing off a little sand, reveal a beautiful, a perfectly in-tact dinosaur skeleton. Her nephew, who became Peter III, was raised in Germany, so Elizabeth reached out to his distant cousin a€” young, German Catherine a€” to be Peter's wife, Massie explains. The people he met and the prehistoric discoveries he made are all part of his new book, Boneheads: My Search for T.
As she told Ask Me Another host Ophira Eisenberg when she joined the show at the Fitzgerald Theater in St.
Stevenson says the officers suspected him of theft and threatened him a€” because he is black.
If someone was having a gathering at their home, she had no problem with going in to their house and taking a seat, too." Howard Dully's mother died of cancer when he was 5.
Before his death in 1972, he performed transorbital lobotomies on some 2,500 patients in 23 states.

So two years ago I set out on a journey to learn everything I could about my lobotomy." Neurologist Egas Moniz performed the first brain surgery to treat mental illness in Portugal in 1935.
If you look back and you go through the studies, there was just as much drug abuse and just as much drugs flowing around South Boston, if not more, than other neighborhoods. The title, Polsky tells NPR's David Greene, was inspired by a pair of eccentric dinosaur bone hunting twins, Stan and Steve Sacrison. The art world was on hold, a financially burdensome marriage was winding down, and my passion for dinosaurs had soared to a new peak.
The procedure, which Moniz called a "leucotomy," involved drilling holes in the patient's skull to get to the brain.
I never understood why, but it was clear she'd do anything to get rid of me." A search of Dully's records among Freeman's files archived at George Washington University turned up clues about why Freeman lobotomized him. McMillian's strong alibi, the first couple of judges said, "No, we're not going to grant relief." It took us six years to get a court to ultimately overturn the conviction. And they did put a report in the FBI national computer database listing her as a missing person, and then mysteriously, suddenly there's an update to that report that she's no longer missing. So the idea that Whitey kept drugs out of South Boston is a joke and a myth, and is just the opposite: He actually took millions and millions of dollars in tribute and extorted money from drug dealers in South Boston. I think it speaks to this resistance we have in this country to confronting our errors, to confronting our mistakes. Over the past two years, Howard Dully has embarked on a quest to discover the story behind the procedure he received as a 12-year-old boy. It's like winning the lottery." Polsky was there when one of his fossil hunting friends did win the lottery. Now I was in a position a€” financially and emotionally a€” to get out in the field and look for dinosaurs. They shave the hair off the person's body before they put them in the electric chair and we're standing there, [having a] very emotional conversation, holding hands, praying, talking. It goes back to Southie again, and he did things and said things that made me very uncomfortable. If you go to Monroeville, you'll see a community that's completely enchanted by that story. He just kept praising Whitey and telling me how wonderful he is, and then my cousins are telling me he's killing people and he's pushing drugs all over the town, so it really bothered me.
When I woke up this morning the guards came to me and said, 'What do you want for breakfast?' And at midday, 'What do you want for lunch?' In the evening they said, 'What do you want for dinner?' " All day long he said they kept saying, "What can we do to help you? Walter Freeman set out to create a new procedure, one that didn't require drilling holes in the head: the transorbital lobotomy.
Bob decided to name the fossil "Little Richard" a€” after his faithful assistant, Richard Polsky. And in that way, she developed a philosophy of rule." It was that "benevolent despotism" a€” as Voltaire called it a€” that she put into play when she became empress after Peter was assassinated in a coup d'etat in 1762. I wanted to see if this was the career I should have originally pursued before I became a fossil myself.
You can't go anywhere without encountering some aspect of that story made real in that community. Dully that the family should consider the possibility of changing Howard's personality by means of transorbital lobotomy. Where were they when you were a teenager and you were homeless and struggling with drug addiction? Freeman would then take a sharp ice pick-like instrument, insert it above the patient's eyeball through the orbit of the eye, into the frontal lobes of the brain, moving the instrument back and forth.
Dully said it was up to her husband, that I would have to talk with him and make it stick." Then on Dec. Where were they when you came back from war struggling with post-traumatic stress disorder?" And with those kinds of questions resonating in my mind, this man was pulled away and executed. Yet, when innocent people are released, we just act like they should be grateful that they didn't get executed and we don't compensate them many times, we don't help them, we question them, we still have doubts about them.
But that's our system and that's one of the reasons why getting people closer to that system is one of my new priorities a€” and one of the reasons why I wanted to write this book. But the real prize was a fragment of bone from the monster depicted in the promotional illustration a€” a piece of an actual Tyrannosaurus rex. He sits quietly, grinning most of the time and offering nothing." Dully says that when Lou Dully realized the operation didn't turn him "into a vegetable, she got me out of the house. Chill in your plastic washbucket filled with ice under your bed (or in a refrigerator if the part of the prison where you work has one you can slip it into), for at least 4 hours.
Through it all I've been haunted by questions: 'Did I do something to deserve this?, Can I ever be normal?', and most of all, 'Why did my dad let this happen?'" For more than 40 years, Howard Dully had never discussed the lobotomy with his father. So whatever he did, he did something right." Ellen Ionesco, now 88 years old, lives in a nursing home in Virginia.
He's a normal boy.' It was the stepmother problem." Why would a father let this happen to his son?
And if you think about that history in that way, you minimize the trauma, the damage, the divides that were created.

Elliot Valenstein, who wrote Great and Desperate Cures, a book about the history of lobotomies. He started to grow angry, "I told you to throw it in!" "It's a fossil a€” it's valuable.
I'm keeping it." "Then get off my property!" Calmly pocketing the petrified bit of ancient marine life, I went home secure in the knowledge I had done the right thing. After spending most of her life in mental institutions, Anita McGee now lives in a nursing home in Birmingham, Ala. Freeman was a showman and liked to shock his audience of doctors and nurses by performing two-handed lobotomies: hammering ice picks into both eyes at once.
That means we have enormous work to do to improve our commitment to [a] society that is not haunted and undermined and corrupted by our legacy of racial inequality. We've got a bigger population of poor people in this country than we've had in a generation, and we've got to take on the challenges of poverty. The story had it all: money laundering, fossil poaching, the Sioux nation up in arms, a nasty lawsuit, jail time for the T. Not long after he opened, interior designers turned to meteorites and amethyst geodes to add an exotictouch to Manhattan duplexes and hotel lobbies in Las Vegas. In fact, the growing demand for aesthetically pleasing specimens led to the formation of a new auction house category a€” Natural History a€” with Henry serving as a paid consultant to Sotheby's. Ever since my lobotomy I've felt like a freak, ashamed." But now, after meeting with Welch and her mother, Dully says his suffering is over. Henry was the personification of a rather hip scientist a€” longish well-groomed hair, designer glasses, and clothes that actually fit. At first glance, you had a hard time placing his ethnicity; he was of Cuban-Chinese heritage.
I am, at last, at peace." After 2,500 operations, Freeman performed his final ice-pick lobotomy on a housewife named Helen Mortenson in February 1967.
Yet once he began speaking, you realized he was just a regular guy who happened to be obsessed with fossils.
Freeman sold his home and spent the rest of his days traveling the country in a camper, visiting old patients, trying desperately to prove that his procedure had transformed thousands of lives for the better. His store on Columbus Avenue in Manhattan was prosperous; yet it was obvious that he wasn't in it for the money. Whenever I stopped by to make a small purchase, he insisted on offering me a whopping discount. He instinctively knew that I bought fossils for the sheer joy of living with them, something he could easily relate to. In the art world, it would have been the equivalent of a novice painter requesting to hang out with Jasper Johns. Was I foolish enough to think I could accomplish what fewer than three dozen hunters in the entire history of paleontology had been able to achieve?
I know of a superb cast with a complete skull and two a€” " "No, you don't understand," I said, cutting him off. And don't worry about paying me a€” just cover my expenses." Then he said, "Oh, there's one other thing. Don't expect to be embraced by the other dinosaur hunters." "What do you mean?" I asked. If you think you're going to get these guys to share their collecting sites with you, you're wrong." "Come on, Henry. You're asking people who don't know you to take you into their confidence a€” this is how they make their living.
With me, it's different a€” I know you." After a short pause, he said, "Why don't you do this a€” meet me in Tucson next month?" I knew he was referring to the Gem, Mineral and Fossil Showcase of Tucson, the unofficial convention of the fossil world. See what you can learn a€” whatever they're willing to tell you." Then, as an afterthought, he added, "There is one guy who might help you out .
But he's better known as the Fossil King." The annual February fair in Tucson boasted the largest number of fossil dealers in one city. By day, they carefully arrange their specimens on every available surface in their rooms: on beds, dressers, and chairs a€” even bathtubs.
By night, the dealers packed up their treasures and slept in the very beds that only hours earlier served as display cases. Once your eyes lock onto a desirable fossil, then the real fun begins a€” it's time to bargain. I'm sure you're aware that it's from Sylvania a€” you know, the Medusa shale quarry which happens to be permanently flooded.
You're not going to see any more trilobites crawl out of there!" Collector: "Yeah, but your trilobite is all curled up. The dealer down the hall has a Phacops that's almost a full two inches a€” perfectly flat a€” with a Paraspirifer bownockeri on the same slab.

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