Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
Agricultural productivity may be defined as the “ratio of index of local agricultural output to the index of total input used in farm production” [2] It is, therefore, a measure of efficiency with which inputs are utilized in production, if other things being equal. As a region's farms become more productive, its comparative advantage in agricultural products increases, which means that it can produce these products at a lower opportunity cost than can other regions. Increases in agricultural productivity lead also to agricultural growth and can help to alleviate poverty in poor and developing countries, where agriculture often employs the greatest portion of the population. However, it is not only the people employed in agriculture who benefit from increases in agricultural productivity. Agricultural productivity is becoming increasingly important as the world population continues to grow. Increase in agricultural productivity are often linked with questions about sustainability and sustainable development. Between 1950 and 2000, during the so called "second agricultural revolution of modern times", U.S.
For many farmers (especially in non-industrial countries) agricultural productivity may mean much more.[citation needed] A productive farm is one that provides most of the resources necessary for the farmer's family to live, such as food, fuel, fiber, healing plants, etc.
Diversity in agricultural production is one key to productivity, as it enables risk management and preserves potentials for adaptation and change.
The benefits of raising livestock, among others, are that it provides multiple goods, such as food, wool, hides, and transportation.
Agricultural soil science — is a branch of soil science that deals with the study of edaphic conditions as they relate to the production of food and fiber.
Agricultural science — Agronomist An agronomist measures and records corn growth and other processes. Agricultural subsidy — An agricultural subsidy is a governmental subsidy paid to farmers and agribusinesses to supplement their income, manage the supply of agricultural commodities, and influence the cost and supply of such commodities. Agricultural education — is instruction about crop production, livestock management, soil and water conservation, and various other aspects of agriculture. Agricultural research in Israel — started around 1921 in the Agricultural Experiment Station, which since then developed into a major agricultural research center the Agricultural Research Organization (ARO, also known as The Volcani Centre). Agricultural policy — describes a set of laws relating to domestic agriculture and imports of foreign agricultural products.


While individual products are usually measured by weight, their varying densities make measuring overall agricultural output difficult. Agriculturalists, agronomists, economists and geographers have interpreted it in different ways. Many scholars have criticized this suggestion pointing out that it considered only land as a factor of production, with no other factors of production[1].
Agricultural productivity here refers to the returns from arable land or cultivable land unit. Aside from providing more food, increasing the productivity of farms affects the region's prospects for growth and competitiveness on the agricultural market, income distribution and savings, and labour migration. Therefore, the region becomes more competitive on the world market, which means that it can attract more consumers since they are able to buy more of the products offered for the same amount of money. As farms become more productive, the wages earned by those who work in agriculture increase. Those employed in other sectors also enjoy lower food prices and a more stable food supply. India, one of the world's most populous countries, has taken steps in the past decades to increase its land productivity. It is a farm which ensures food security as well as a way to sustain the well-being of a community.
It also has an important value in term of social relationships (such as gifts in weddings).
Therefore, output is usually measured as the market value of final output, which excludes intermediate products such as corn feed used in the meat industry. Agricultural productivity is defined in agricultural geography as well as in economics as “output per unit of input” or “output per unit of land area”, and the improvement in agricultural productivity is generally considered to be the results of a more efficient use of the factors of production, viz. Therefore, other scholars have suggested that agricultural productivity should contain all the factors of production such as labor, farming experiences, fertilizers, availability and management of water and other biological factors.
Agricultural efficiency as productivity expressing the varying relationship between agricultural produce and one of the major inputs, like land, labor or capital, while other complementary factors remaining the same”. An increase in a region's agricultural productivity implies a more efficient distribution of scarce resources. Forty years ago, North India produced only wheat, but with the advent of the earlier maturing high-yielding wheats and rices, the wheat could be harvested in time to plant rice.


This means that as regions implement measures to increase the productivity of their farm land, they must also find ways to ensure that future generations will also have the resources they will need to live and thrive. This implies that a productive farm is also one which is able to ensure proper management of natural resources, such as biodiversity, soil, water, etc.
In a monocultural system a farmer may produce only crops, but no livestock, or only livestock and no crop. In case of famine, when crops are not sufficient to ensure food safety, livestock can be used as food. This output value may be compared to many different types of inputs such as labour and land (yield). As they widely accept that the average return per unit does not represent the real picture, the use of marginal return per agricultural unit was suggested. This expression reveals that the productivity is a physical component rather than a broad concept.
For most farmers, a productive farm would also produce more goods than required for the community in order to allow trade.
Livestock may also provide manure, which can be used to fertilize cultivated soils, which increases soil productivity. Saxon observed that productivity is a physical relationship between output and the input which gives rise to that output. On the other hand, in an agricultural system based only on raising livestock, food has to be bought to other farmers, and wastes produced cannot be easily disposed of. Agricultural productivity may also be measured by what is termed total factor productivity (TFP).
This method of calculating agricultural productivity compares an index of agricultural inputs to an index of outputs. This measure of agricultural productivity was established to remedy the shortcomings of the partial measures of productivity; notably that it is often hard to identify the factors cause them to change.



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