Step 1For swelling caused by an injury, rest, ice, compression and elevation are the most effective remedies. Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease.  Heart failure may lead to acute kidney injury and vice versa.
The case below illustrates a common clinical problem in patients with both acute and chronic cardiac diseases, namely the development of renal dysfunction.
A 68-year-old man with ischemic heart disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia had been admitted with a ST segment elevation myocardial infarction three months previously. The term cardiorenal syndrome is an umbrella term for a worse outcome when these two organs fail simultaneously.
The development of acute kidney injury as a primary event leading to cardiac dysfunction (CRS type 3) occurs frequently in critically ill patients but has not been systematically studied as much as CRS type 1.
CRS type 4 recognizes the extreme burden of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with chronic kidney disease. Human neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), Renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem(RAAS), Sympathetic nervous system(SNS), Myocardial depressant substance (MDS), Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro hormone of brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) , Interleukin-18(IL-18), creatine kinase –MB (CK-MB), Myeloperoxidase (MPO), Pulmonary vasoconstriction (Pulmonary VC), glomerular filtration rate(GFR).
CRS type 1 is the most frequent disorder involving the heart and the kidney and is more frequent in patients with acute decompensated heart failure.
Prevention of CRS is important since once the syndrome has started it is difficult to treat, is not completely reversible in some cases, and is associated with poor outcomes. For CRS type 2 angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists significantly reduce mortality and morbidity in congestive heart failure.41,42 In patients unable to tolerate these agents, hydralazine and nitrates can be used. The development of dysfunction in a second organ (renal) as a consequence of the primary disorder (cardiac) increases morbidity and mortality.
The cardiorenal syndrome classification may help clinicians organize their thinking about pathogenesis and patient management.
Fonarow GC, Abraham WT, Albert NM, Gattis Stough W, Gheorghiade M, Greenberg BH, O’Connor CM, Pieper K, Sun JL, Yancy CW, Young JB. Zannad F, Mebazaa A, Juilliere Y, Cohen-Solal A, Guize L, Alla F,Rouge P, Blin P, Barlet MH, Paolozzi L, Vincent C, Desnos M, Samii K. Owan TE, Chen HH, Frantz RP, Karon BL, Miller WL, Rodeheffer RJ, Hodge DO, Burnett JC Jr, Redfield MM.
Condition is characterized by massive proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and generalised Oedema, with hyperlipidaemia.
Nephrotic syndrome is usually caused by damage to the clusters of small blood vessels in kidneys that filter waste and excess water from blood. A clinical phase II study with sorafenib in patients with progressive hormone-refractory prostate cancer: a study of the CESAR Central European Society for Anticancer Drug Research-EWIV. Designing equivalent treatment regimens for prostate radiotherapy based on equivalent uniform dose.
Immunization with a recombinant GnRH vaccine conjugated to heat shock protein 65 inhibits tumor growth in orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model. Feasibility of adequate dose coverage in permanent prostate brachytherapy using divergent needle insertion methods. The Relationship between Prostate Inflammation and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Examination of Baseline Data from the REDUCE Trial. With the advent of better and more effective cancer treatments, the survival rate for all cancers has risen dramatically. Many cancer survivors , having overcome cancer, find themselves with sudden and often unexplained swelling, usually of the arms or of the legs. Due to either the removal of lymph nodes or damage to the lymph system, your body is no longer able to rid itself of excess fluids. In the situation of any permanent leg swelling whether the cause is known or unknown, the diagnoses of lymphedema must be consideredThere are several groups of people who experience leg swelling from known causes, but it doesn't go away or unknown causes where the swelling can actually get worse as time goes by.
This group includes those who have had the injuries, infections, insect bites, trauma to the leg, surgeries or reaction to a medication.
Another extremely large group that experiences permanent leg swelling are cancer patients, people who are morbidly obese, or those with the condition called lepedema. The swelling may start at birth, it may begin at puberty, or may begin in the 3rd, 4th or even 5th decade of life or sometimes later. This is an extremely serious medical condition that must be diagnosed early, and treated quickly so as to avoid painful, debilitating and even life threatening complications. Lymphedema is defined simply as an accumulation of excessive protein rich fluid in the tissues of the leg.
A conservative estimate is that there may be 1-2 million people in the United States with some form of primary lymphedema and two to three million with secondary lymphedema.
If you are an at risk person for leg lymphedema there are early warning signs you should be aware of. It is a form of massage therapy where the leg is very gently massaged to actually move the fluid out of the leg and into an area where the lymph system still functions normally. In the last 5 years, significant strides have been made by the medical community to recognize the side effects that people experience when diagnosed with cancer. It is uncertain why some people develop lymphedema, but there are a few factors that can affect your individual risk.
Exercise is another essential component to assist a patient with recovery from prostate cancer. Flying in an airplane, long rides in the car or excessive sitting can aggravate the circulation in your legs.
Lymphedema is a complicated swelling to treat, because medications are usually not helpful with this condition. If you have any questions regarding lymphedema, you can call 404-501-5140 for more information. Lymphedema is a swelling of a part of the body, usually an arm or leg, that is caused by the buildup of lymph fluid.
Cancer of the female or male reproductive organs–if you were treated with surgery to remove lymph nodes or had radiation therapy. The prostate, found only in men, is a walnut-sized gland located in front of the rectum and underneath the urinary bladder. For patients who already have problems in these areas, therapies that could worsen their symptoms are usually not recommended. To investigate the frequency of treatment mismatches, the research team enrolled patients treated for early prostate cancer at four Boston centers over a six-year period.
Of the almost 440 patients who completed the entire study, 389 or 89 percent reported having some level of urinary, bowel or sexual problem before beginning treatment.
The study results showed similar levels of treatment mismatches in all groups – 34 percent in Group 1, 37 percent in Group 2, and 40 percent in Group 3.
First author of the Cancer study is Ronald Chen, MD, of the MGH Cancer Center; the other co-authors are Jack Clark, MD, Boston University School of Public Health, and Judith Manola, MS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute.
Like his favorite car, a guy's body needs regular checkups — one that includes a screening for prostate cancer, otherwise known as a PSA test. The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is the best way to detect prostate cancer in its early stages. Family history: Having a father or brother with prostate cancer more than doubles your risk, according to the American Cancer Society. Ethnicity: African-American men have 60% higher rate of prostate cancer, compared to white American men — so they should also begin screening at age 40. Sedentary lifestyle: Getting regular exercise — and keeping weight under control — seems to reduce risk for prostate cancer, and especially for aggressive cancer. If you are a man with lymphedema; a man with a loved one with lymphedema who you are trying to help and understand come join us and discover what it is to be the master instead of the sufferer of lymphedema.
Intake of parsley tea 3 times on a daily basis can also treat the problem of water retention.
Regular use of ginkgo biloba helps in reducing the problem of water retention by improving the circulation of blood throughout the body.
To provide even greater transparency and choice, we are working on a number of other cookie-related enhancements. Sports injuries, poor circulation, arthritic conditions, insect bites and allergic reactions are some of the most common causes.
Pineapples contain a high amount of bromelain, which aids in blocking the compounds that cause fluids to pool and swell in the body. A compound named bradykininase is found in the aloe plant and helps to reduce swelling and bruising.
Chronic kidney disease may affect the clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disorders. This clinical presentation has been called a cardiorenal syndrome; this construct should lead to a better understanding of the interactions between cardiac and renal disorders and the effect of this interaction on management and outcomes. At this follow up visit he presented with gradually increasing shortness of breath, generalized swelling, and some abdominal distension. Since the current literature provides more information on CRS type 1, our discussion emphasizes this syndrome. Although CRS is less frequent in acute coronary syndrome patients, it is associated with longer hospital stays and with higher in-hospital mortality in these patients. Vasodilators and loop diuretics are frequently used in cases of acute decompensated heart failure with CRS type 1.36 However, loop diuretics predispose patients to electrolyte imbalance and hypovolemia leading to neurohumoral activation, reduced renal glomerular flow, and higher serum urea and creatinine levels.
The Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP) trial included 3,023 end stage renal disease patients and 6,247 chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis, and preliminary results showed a significant benefit with the combination of simvastatin and ezetimibe.46 In another study, 245 patients were randomized to three times weekly (conventional) or six times weekly (frequent) hemodialysis and followed up for 12 months. Associated cardiac and renal complications warrant appropriate therapy as indicated on an individual basis.
Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure. The complexity and cost of drug regimens of older patients hospitalized with heart failure in the United States, 1998–2001. Characteristics and outcome of patients hospitalized for heart failure in the United States: rationale, design, and preliminary observations from the first 100,000 cases in the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE).
Role of diminished renal function in cardiovascular mortality: marker or pathogenetic factor? Congestion in chronic systolic heart failure is related to renal dysfunction and increased mortality. Incidence, predicators at admission and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure.
Urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), a marker of tubular damage, is increased in patients with chronic heart failure.
Tubular damage in chronic systolic heart failure is associated with reduced survival independent of glomerular filtration rate. Relationship between pulmonary hemodynamics and arterial pH and carbon dioxide tension in critically ill patients. Cardiac failure in transgenic mice with myocardial expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.


Association of single measurements of dipstick proteinuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and hematocrit with 25-year incidence of end-stage renal disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial. Comparative impact of multiple biomarkers and N-Terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide in the context of conventional risk factors for the prediction of recurrent cardiovascular events in the Heart Outcomes prevention  Evaluation (HOPE) Study. Correlation and prognostic utility of B-type natriuretic peptide and its aminoterminal fragment in patients with chronic kidney disease.
Long term risk of mortality and end-stage renal disease among the elderly after small increases in serum creatinine level during hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction. Prevalence and impact of worsening renal function in patients hospitalized with decompensated heart failure: results of the prospective outcomes study in heart failure (POSH). The prognostic importance of different definitions of worsening renal function in congestive heart failure. Long term outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries with worsening renal function during hospitalization for heart failure. The relationship between transient and persistent worsening renal function and mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Ultrafiltration versus intravenous diuretics for patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure.
Loop diuretics can cause clinical natriuretic failure: a prescription for volume expansion. Effect of enalapril on survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fractions and congestive heart failure. Clinical profile, contemporary manag- ement and one-year mortality in patients with severe acute heart failure syndromes: The EFICA study.
The effects of lowering LDL with simivastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic renal disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomized placebo-controlled trial.
Nephrotic syndrome is a kidney disorder that causes your body to excrete too much protein in your urine. Nephrotic syndrome causes swelling (edema), particularly in feet and ankles, and increases the risk of other health problems.
Certain diseases and conditions increase your risk of developing nephrotic syndrome, such as diabetes, lupus, amyloidosis, minimal change disease and other kidney diseases. Examples of medications that can cause nephrotic syndrome include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and drugs used to fight infections. Examples of infections that increase the risk of nephrotic syndrome include HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and malaria. When this swelling does not go away, and becomes permanent it is called secondary lymphedema. The forms of therapy are complete decongestive therapy (CDT) or manual decongestive therapy (MDT), there are variances, but most involve these two type of treatment.
Draining wounds that leak lymphorrea which is very caustic to surrounding skin tissue and acts as a port of entry for infections. Increased pain as a result of the compression of nerves usually caused by the development of fibrosis and increased build up of fluids. Depression - Psychological coping as a result of the disfigurement and debilitating effect of lymphedema. Deep venous thrombosis again as a result of the pressure of the swelling and fibrosis against the vascular system. Pleural effusions may result if the lymphatics in the abdomen or chest are to overwhelmed to clear the lung cavity of fluids. Skin complications such as splitting, plaques, susceptibility to fungus and bacterial infections. Fatigue and pain are two of the most common complaints reported by individuals undergoing cancer treatment.
Skin care, exercise and compression are three components that you can control to reduce your chances of developing this condition. If the lymph nodes have been removed by surgery or treated with radiation therapy, that filtering mechanism has been altered. Keeping muscles flexible helps reduce swelling, joint pain and stiffness that some patients experience after treatment. Occupational or physical therapy is the standard treatment that is shown to effectively manage this condition. Physicians are now more aware that this condition can also occur with patients who have had prostate cancer.
Your risk is even higher if you had radiation in the underarm area after your lymph nodes were removed. It contains gland cells that produce some of the seminal fluid, which protects and nourishes sperm cells in semen. 27, 2007) — More than a third of men with early prostate cancer who participated in a study analyzing treatment choice received therapies that might not be appropriate, based on pre-existing problems with urinary, bowel or sexual function. These approaches have similar levels of effectiveness, but each presents a different risk of side effects – external radiation can lead to bowel dysfunction, brachytherapy may cause urinary problems, and surgery can damage nerves involved in sexual function. In addition, approaches designed to preserve normal functions, such as nerve-sparing prostate-removal surgery, would not be appropriate for patients for whom those functions have already been lost. Study participants completed a questionnaire before beginning treatment and subsequent questionnaires at intervals of 3, 12, 24 and 36 months after they entered the study.
Among Group 4 patients – those with dysfunction in all three areas – only 5 percent chose watchful waiting, a strategy in which they receive no treatment but are followed closely by their medical team. It's typically done along with a rectal exam, because most malignant prostate tumors start nearest the rectum. Men who have multiple family members affected have even higher risk — so screening should start at age 40. Switching to a diet high in the antioxidant lycopene may lower your risk — so get plenty of tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and watermelon, which contain high levels of lycopene.
One survey of nearly 70,000 American men found that those who lost at least 11 pounds over a 10-year period were about 40% less likely to develop aggressive prostate cancers, compared to guys who had little weight change.
The problem of water retention can result from factors such as excessive consumption of salty food, chronic dehydration, pregnancy, burns, heart failure, kidney failure and so on. Regular intake of green tea can help an individual in dealing with the symptoms of water retention.
Parsley tea can be prepared by boiling fresh parsley leaves (2 teaspoons) in a cup of water. Fresh cranberry juice can be consumed on a daily basis for obtaining relief from the swelling caused by water retention. This herb helps in improving the blood circulation and reducing the swelling associated with water retention.
Immune cells attack the body’s own healthy tissues, leading to inflammation and tissue damage.
It is intended for general information purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. Renal impairment with any degree of albuminuria has been increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events and heart failure hospitalizations, while chronic heart failure may cause chronic kidney disease. We have reviewed this topic by discussing the definitions, prevalence, pathophysiology, and treatment of cardiorenal syndromes. Both acute heart failure leading to acute kidney injury and chronic heart failure leading to progressive renal insufficiency and chronic kidney disease represent conditions that may seem interchangeable. Depending upon pre-existing comorbidity and the underlying etiology, left ventricular assist devices can be used as a bridge to transplantation or cardiac surgery. The core management of CRS type 3 is intravascular and extravascular volume control with either use of diuretics and various forms of renal replacement therapy or extracorporeal therapy and solute removal. For example, removal of the source of infection, antibiotic therapy, and other supportive measures in early goal directed therapy are indicated in patients with septic CRS type 5. Cardiac resynchronization therapy with biventricular pacing improves renal function in heart failure patients with reduced glomerular filtration rate.
This is due not only to the large accumulation of fluid, but it is well documented that lymphodemous limbs are localized immuno-deficient. Another side effect that can occur as a result of cancer is a condition known as lymphedema. Making minor changes to your lifestyle can lesson your likelihood of developing lymphedema. Keeping your skin clean and well hydrated helps create a good defense barrier to prevent lymphedema. A walking program is an excellent aerobic way to improve your overall health and reduce pain, fatigue and swelling. Wearing compression stockings during these activities can promote good circulation and lessen your risk of swelling. Treatment involves a light massage known as manual lymphatic drainage, compression techniques, skin care, and exercises specifically designed to reduce the swelling.
It is important for those who have had prostate cancer to watch carefully and report any swelling to their physician. Just behind the prostate gland are the seminal vesicles that produce most of the fluid for semen. The prevalence of these treatment “mismatches” could reflect patient' unwillingness to discuss such problems with their physicians. They also gave the researchers – who were not involved in their clinical care – permission to review their medical records. Group 1 was patients with serious symptoms in a single area, for whom decisions would be expected to be the most straightforward.
Since patients take many considerations into account when choosing therapies, the surveys asked about several factors that might affect those decisions, none of which could account for the mismatched choices. The problem of water retention can be cured with the use of various inexpensive herbal remedies.
Dandelion tea prepared with the use of dried dandelion leaves and water can be consumed to cure water retention.
Cranberry juice works as a natural diuretic and may help in the treatment of kidney problems resulting in accumulation of fluid in the body. Further, ginkgo biloba should not be used if an individual is taking certain types of antidepressants. Horse chestnut should not be used without obtaining professional advice from a health consultant. Symptoms may be limited to the skin, but more often lupus also causes internal problems such as joint pain. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health.
Fortunately, there are several home remedies that are effective in treating this condition. The bidirectional nature of these disorders contributes to the complexity and the composite definitions of cardiorenal syndromes.


In some cases it difficult to distinguish between the two entities without the necessary time based information in the clinical history of the patient.
Aronson et al reported that persistent worsening renal function after admission for acute decompensated heart failure was more likely in those with worse baseline kidney function. In a randomized trial involving patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure, worsening renal function, and persistent congestion, Bradley found that a stepped pharmacologic-therapy algorithm was superior to ultrafiltration for the preservation of renal function. In the setting of acute kidney, prevention of left ventricular volume overload is critical to maintain adequate cardiac output and systemic perfusion and also to protect against the vicious cycle that will worsen both cardiac and renal function. Important improvements in serum phosphate, control of hypertension, and avoidance of intradialytic hypotension were also noted in the frequent dialysis group.
Lymphedema is a high protein swelling that may develop when cancer cells invade lymph nodes or cancer treatment is focused in these areas. Daily use of a hypoallergenic moisturizer on your legs will keep your skin soft and prevent cracked, dry skin. The effects of exercise are well researched and have consistently shown to reduce symptoms associated with cancer. It is important that your stockings are properly fit, because garments that are too tight can be harmful to your circulation. The prostate surrounds the first part of the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder and semen out of the body through the penis. The questionnaires were designed to assess urinary incontinence and other urinary problems, along with bowel and sexual dysfunction. As expected, patients reporting pre-existing conditions were more likely to have problems after treatment if they had received a mismatched treatment. To obtain quick results, an individual is required to consume dandelion tea multiple times on a daily basis. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the BootsWebMD Site. Ginger works as a blood thinner and will help reduce the pooling of blood in a swollen region. However, the most important clinical trials in heart failure tend to exclude patients with significant renal dysfunction. The pathophysiology of CRS type 1, renal dysfunction in patients with decompensated heart failure, is complex. Untreated uremia affects myocardial contractility through the accumulation of myocardial depressant factors and can cause pericarditis.17 Partially corrected or uncorrected acidemia produces pulmonary vasoconstriction, which in some patients contributes to right-sided heart failure. He investigated this outcome in a cohort of 467 patients admitted with acute decompensated heart failure. Weight loss at 96 hours was similar with the two approaches, but ultrafiltration was associated with higher rates of adverse events.38 An earlier ultrafiltration vs. This type of swelling can occur in one or both legs, the abdomen or genital region after prostate cancer. Dry skin can allow small amounts of bacteria to enter the body, which over time can overwhelm your lymphatic system. Be cautious not to exercise in the extreme heat of the day as some patients report developing swelling after being outside for many hours. Participants were also asked to assess their level of distress with any symptoms they experienced. Consumption of juice containing parsley, apple, carrot, cucumber and celery 3 to 4 times on a daily basis can also help in the treatment of water retention.
Leave the ice packs on for 30 minutes, then remove the packs and wrap again with a bandage to compress the swelling. People on prescription blood thinners should contact a physician before taking a ginger supplement.
Optimization of fluid, avoidance of nephrotoxic agents, and correction of underlying disorders are the basic principles. It can develop immediately after diagnosis or many months after the course of treatment is finished.
Over the counter or even customized stockings can be ordered from vendors affiliated with most insurance companies.
Group 4 included those patients with significant dysfunction in all three areas, for whom none of the treatment options would be recommended.
The hypovolemia leads to sympathetic activity, increased renin-angiotensin-aldosterone pathway, and arginine-vasopressin release.
This pain tends to occur on both sides of the body at the same time, particularly in the joints of the wrists, hands, elbows, knees or ankles. These mechanisms cause fluid and sodium retention, peripheral vasoconstriction, and volume overload.
These markers reflect activation of hormonal, immunologic, inflammatory, and oxidative processes and are associated with an increased risk deterioration in renal function.15,16 These biomarkers have the potential to identify cardiorenal syndromes and predict outcomes and need more study. This trial showed that ultrafiltration produces greater weight and fluid loss than intravenous diuretics and reduces 90-day heart failure rehospitalizations and emergency department visits in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Make sure to discuss any new exercise programs with your doctor to ensure a safe progression into an active lifestyle. The prostate continues to grow as a man reaches adulthood and is maintained after it reaches normal size as long as male hormones are produced. The joints may look inflamed and feel warm to the touch, but unlike rheumatoid arthritis, lupus usually does not cause permanent joint damage.
Therapy to improve renal dysfunction, reduce neurohormonal activation and ameliorate renal blood flow could lead to a reduction in mortality and hospitalization in patients with cardiorenal syndrome. Patients with chronic heart failure can develop chronic renal failure (CRS type2) through a similar pathophysiology.
These results support the hypothesis that removal of isotonic fluid by ultrafiltration rather than hypotonic urine by intravenous diuretics may explain the improved clinical benefits of ultrafiltration.40 However, ultrafiltration increases the complexity of care.
Lupus symptom: Butterfly rashA tell-tale sign of lupus is a butterfly-shaped rash across the cheeks and bridge of the nose.
Other common skin problems include sensitivity to the sun with flaky, red spots or a scaly, purple rash on various parts of the body, including the face, neck and arms. Lupus symptom: Hair lossThe symptoms of lupus tend to come and go and this includes hair loss.
Patients may go through periods where their hair falls out in patches or becomes thinner all across the scalp. Lupus symptom: Raynaud'sSome people with lupus develop a condition called Raynaud’s phenomenon. Their fingers and toes become painful, numb and tingly in response to cold temperatures or emotional stress.
Lupus or something else?When lupus begins, it can look a lot like rheumatoid arthritis, which causes joint pain and swelling, or fibromyalgia, which causes fatigue and pain. One aspect that sets lupus apart is the combination of skin rashes with joint pain and fatigue.
The disease can mimic other conditions, and it often takes a different course in different people.
Although there is no single test for lupus, certain proteins usually show up in a patient’s blood. Discoid lupus erythematosus is limited to the skin and doesn't cause the organ damage that sometimes occurs with SLE. Drug-induced systemic lupus causes temporary lupus symptoms in people who take certain medications.
These include corticosteroid creams for rashes and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for joint pain and fever. These problems may not cause symptoms, though some people notice swelling in their legs or ankles. Most patients only learn about their kidney trouble when a urine test reveals blood or abnormal protein levels.
Lupus and heart problemsThe most common heart problem linked to lupus is an inflammation of the sac around the heart. Lupus and lung problemsThe tissue surrounding the lungs becomes inflamed in about a third of people with lupus. Lupus and digestive problemsDigestive problems are not common with lupus, but some people may experience stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing or inflammation of the liver or pancreas.
Lupus and anaemiaLupus and the medicines used to treat it can contribute to anaemia in some patients. This means the body has too few red blood cells, because it is not making enough, or red blood cells are being destroyed more quickly than they can be replaced. Lupus and the nervous systemLupus can trigger a wide range of problems with the nervous system, most commonly headaches.
Some people with lupus have a greater risk of a stroke and in rare cases the disease can lead to seizures. This may be the result of the condition’s effect on the nervous system combined with the emotional strain of coping with a chronic illness.
Lupus and pregnancyMost women with lupus can get pregnant, though the condition increases the risk of complications during pregnancy. Because lupus symptoms come and go, the best time to get pregnant is when symptoms are at a minimum. Women who conceive when symptoms are in remission are less likely to have flare-ups or complications.
Your medication may be modified and you may undergo extra monitoring to help ensure a successful pregnancy.
Neonatal lupusMost babies born to women with lupus are entirely healthy, but in rare cases, the newborn of a mum with lupus may have neonatal lupus.
However, some babies with neonatal lupus are born with a serious heart defect called congenital heart block. Living with lupusThe fatigue and joint pain associated with lupus can make it more difficult to do your job or care for your children.
You may have to cut back on activities or ask for help when symptoms flare up, but most people with lupus are able to continue with their usual activities. Outlook for lupusThanks to improvements in treatments for lupus, people with the condition are living significantly longer. The outlook for any given individual depends on how severe the disease is, and whether any vital organs are affected.



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