The Ebola virus and it’s close relative the Marburg virus are members of the Filoviridae family. Since Ebola was first described in 1976, there have been several epidemics of this disease. In the 3D model presented in this study, Ebola-encoded structures are shown in maroon, and structures from human cells are shown in grey. The Ebola virion is rod-shaped or 6-shaped, is 80 nm in diameter and up to 1,400 nm in length [17]. Visual Sciencea€™s Ebola Poster represents a pinnacle in the history of visualization of the human body.
Ebola, or Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a disease caused by an infection from one of the Ebola virus strains. Ebola was discovered in 1976, following two different outbreaks, one in Sudan and the other in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Once it enters the human body, the virus can attack many different cells, including those of the immune system. It is thought that the Ebola virus was introduced to humans through close contact with the blood or other body fluids of infected animals, mostly mammals.
Symptoms of Ebola may appear anytime from 2 to 21 days (incubation period) after exposure to the virus, but the average is 8 to 10 days. When fatal, most people die of hypovolemic shock (decreased blood volume in the body) and multisystem organ failure.
To improve survival of a sick person, supportive care and rehydration are the only available interventions. When this article was published, there was no approved vaccine against Ebola, but 2 potential ones were undergoing safety testing. When there is an outbreak, dental professionals should not treat patients if they have signs and symptoms of Ebola, and in addition, if they had travelled to a place where the outbreak was occurring within the last 21 days. It is recommended to delay routine dental treatments on these patients until 21 days have elapsed.
19-20 Ebola is a filamentous virus with a single-stranded RNA genome (The Microbial World).
Having a beautiful and genuine smile can affect your surroundings and how people perceive you because it's a way to communicate something positive and peaceful.
Some facts on teeth are interesting to share, and they can surprise even people working in the dental field! It is important that personnel of all health fields become knowledgeable about this highly contagious virus. According to some estimates, regular preventive dental care can reduce overall treatment costs by as much as a factor of 10. There are lots of candy options for Halloween, but which ones cause less harm for children's teeth? Smoking not only makes gum disease worse, but it also makes gums very hard to heal after gum treatment is done.
Tooth extractions and dental implants are contraindicated when taking bisphosphonates intravenously. Clearing myths surrounding root canal treatments to help people know the real facts and what to expect if they ever need one.
What should you bring when you travel to make sure you keep your teeth and your gums clean. How someone with heart disease should be responsible for maintaining a healthy mouth by practicing good oral hygiene.
Smoking is not only liked to lung cancer and heart disease, but can also affet oral health. A physiological reason may be at cause of women?s higher rates of cavities, more than just a behavioural observation.
What to do to prevent tooth loss by understanding the consequences and the replacement options.
Why should a pregnant woman be concerned about her oral health and dental treatments that need to be done.
Photography is a type of art that is becoming very popular, and it's a major hobby of the founding dentist of Studio Dentaire, Dr.
Antiretroviral therapy can reduce the concentration of HIV in the bloodstream, but scientists are now turning their attention to prevention methods. The International Microbicide Conference 2012 looks at which methods work and the next steps in developing these.
Scientists met to discuss the current state of HIV prevention methods at the International Microbicide Conference 2012, held a few days ago in Sydney.


While treatments such as antiretroviral (ARV) medications have been revolutionary, scientists are aiming to prevent people from requiring these in the first place. There are still challenges ahead in making these medications available, such as measuring adherence (whether people remember to take or apply the products) and risk perception, dealing with cultural barriers on both sides and determining what motivates people to take the medications.
Dr Deborah Zewdie, Deputy Executive Director from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, also raised the issue of who will pay for the development of these methods and the lessons learnt from past trials. To achieve this, researchers need to prove that these treatments will be cost effective to the organisations and individuals who will be funding it.
The task force recommendations are used by Medicare and other insurance companies to determine what laboratory tests should be covered. The task force first indicated they were considering updating their recommendations on HIV testing in August. Although gains in HIV treatment still remain somewhat stratified by race and class, Obamacare does represent an important step forward for HIV-positive individuals. Below is a list of common viral infections and other common illness caused by viral infections.
Oils that have been studied to help control or get rid of viral infections are, Basil, Cassia, Cinnamon, Eucalyptus, Frankincense, Lemon, Lemongrass, Marjoram, Tea Tree, Myrrh. The molecular constituents found in essential oils that have been found to have antiviral activity include, but are not limited to; anethole, carvone, beta-caryophyllene, citral, eugenol, limonene, linalool, and linalyl acetate. Often times people may try to get rid of a sickness such as a cold or flu with an oil that is antibacterial. These viruses are the causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever, a disease with a fatality rate of up to 90% [12]. Hundreds of people have died because of Ebola infections, mainly in Zaire, Sudan, Congo and Uganda [14]. The Ebola model is based on X-ray analysis, NMR spectroscopy, and general virology data published in the last two decades.
D) 3D-modeller: Alex Kovalevsky Molecular modeller, researcher, consultant Anastasya Bakulina (Ph. That has awoken the media as the virus had by then become a danger to the western world, even thought there were already more than 3,000 victims in Western Africa from the same outbreak. The Ebola virus is therefore very dangerous because it makes its victims sick very quickly and the fatality rate is very high.
Since then there were about 30 different outbreaks, with the 2014 epidemic in West Africa being the largest and the most severe. When infected, those cells lead to programmed cell death, which triggers internal bleeding and weakens the immune system.
It is believed that fruit bats are natural hosts of the virus and they may have been the origin of the 2014 outbreak. But transmission from semen can occur up to 2 months after clinical recovery, therefore men are advised not to engage into sexual activity during that period. There are however some potential treatments that are being evaluated, such as immune therapies, drug therapies and blood products. Currently, the best prevention against the spread of the virus is the application of basic interventions.
They also examined the lessons learnt from previous trials and the challenges ahead for delivering prevention methods to those at risk of being exposed to HIV. Some of the possible tools are microbicides, which can reduce the effectiveness of bacteria and viruses such as HIV.
These could, for example, prevent both pregnancy and HIV, and assist with breaking down communication barriers, as some people are confused about the need to use condoms if they are already taking oral contraceptives. She said that people need to rally behind these products as the science involved creating them develops, in order for them to become a feasible option.
This emphasises the importance of determining which the right products to go forward from the phase one and two trials.
Preventative Task Force, a government-backed panel of scientists and medical professionals, are now recommending that every American between the ages of 15 and 65 be tested for HIV.
Other important task force recommendations included screening for breast and colon cancer, as well as high cholesterol. Some studies claim that some essential oils have the ability to attack viruses inside of the host cell and even stimulate the immune system. This may and can help with the symptoms of of a flu or cold however the root cause is a virus.
Some common antiviral oils such as oregano and cinnamon can be stronger and more sensitive to the skin. The Ebola virus infects mainly the capillary endothelium and several types of immune cells.


In addition, several fatalities have occurred because of accidents in laboratories working with the virus [15].
Some protein structures were predicted using computational biology techniques, such as molecular modeling.
In general, filoviruses are very large, and only mimiviruses and megaviruses are larger in size [20, 21]. His landscape photos are displayed in this sister site, and some are exposed at the clinic itself. They are commonly developed as gels and creams, but a recent influx of new technologies and drugs has led to the development of more application methods, including injectable products and vaginal rings that deliver products such as dapivirin, a potent antiretroviral medication which may be able to assist prevention. Since the Affordable Care Act requires insurers to cover the preventative services that are recommended by the task force, regular HIV testing will now be covered under Obamacare as a routine part of a check-up. But according to researchers, since 20 percent of HIV-positive Americans are currently unaware they have the virus, regular screening could help identify more people who could benefit from early treatment.
Thus it is important to consider the antiviral essential oils as a way to get rid of the root cause.
The symptoms of Ebola infection include maculopapular rash, petechiae, purpura, ecchymoses, dehydration and hematomas [13]. Currently, a number of scientists claim that terrorists may use Ebola as a biological weapon [14, 16]. Bacteria can be seen under many microscopes but viruses are submicroscopic which means it requires much more powerful microscopes to see them such as an electronic microscope. The viral particle also captures a number of human proteins (for example, components of the major histocompatibility complex or surface receptors) that, in some cases, may alter the infectivity of the virus [3,4]. Unfortunately, information on the Ebola virus is limited, and this virus has not been described as thoroughly as HIV or the influenza virus [22]. The main Ebola surface protein, encoded by the gp gene, mediates entry of the virus into the host cell [1]. The Ebola GP protein resembles the HIV GP protein and influenza hemagglutinin in terms of its structure and function. Ebola GP forms trimers, and each monomer contains a transmembrane and extracellular subunit [23,24,25]. The membrane interaction is mediated by the short C-terminal domain, and the relatively large N-terminal domain is responsible for binding VP40 proteins to each other [28]. VP40 proteins form dimers that subsequently oligomerize into circular structures containing different numbers of units [29]. The nucleocapsid of the Ebola virion is located in the very center of the particle and has a spiral structure. The nucleocapsid is formed mostly by the NP protein, which is responsible for the binding of viral RNA [30]. The diameter of the helix is approximately 50 nm and contains an inner channel that is approximately 20 nm wide [6]. The Ebola nucleocapsid shares a number of structural features with the nucleocapsid of the human respiratory syncytial virus [31,7]. The Ebola genome consists of single-stranded RNA, contains 7 genes and is slightly less than 19,000 nucleotides in length [32]. Although the function of VP24 is not entirely clear, data indicate that this protein plays not only a structural role, but it also functions as an interferon antagonist [35, 26, 27].
The Ebola virion also contains RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (L protein) and minor proteins VP30 and VP35.
Recent data indicate that these structures are likely to be located at one end of the filamentous particle [33]. VP30 is a transcription factor, and VP35 is an interferon antagonist and polymerase cofactor [8,9,10]. Enveloped viruses usually capture a number of host cell proteins from the cytoplasm during budding, and Ebola is no exception. In the Ebola virus, the amount of captured cytoplasm varies, and this may affect the distribution of human proteins in the virion and the particle shape [34]. Several important articles concerning filoviruses morphology were published after the Ebola model was complete. The published data shows that Ebola nucleocapsid contains 11 NP proteins per turn of the helix [38,39].



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