In many cases, the swelling of the legs happens evenly, without one leg looking larger than the other.
When you have severe arthritis in the knee or the ankle, it can lead to serious swelling of the leg.
Many people believe that blood clots in any area of the body are going to hurt, but that might not be the case. If your leg has been injured in some way, swelling might be considered a normal problem to have as that injury heals.
Some other causes that lead to fluid buildup in the legs might include kidney problems, heart problems, and blood clots in the legs, hormone therapies, pregnancy, and prescription medications. Sometimes your leg might look a little more swollen than the other, but is it really swollen? In many cases, relieving left leg swelling can be as simple as a RICE treatment a€“ Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Keep taking all your medications, and if your leg swelling is causing pain, take some over the counter medications to help. Note: Since there is no way to be sure what is causing the leg swelling, a visit to the doctor is in order. A sharp pain in chest can be caused by a serious condition that could be life threatening so it's important to see a doctor as soon as possible to help determine the root of your discomfort and provide proper treatment. Hand edema, or “puffy hand syndrome,” is seen frequently in primary care practice, and given its broad differential diagnosis (Table A Table B), presents physicians a significant diagnostic challenge.
Figure 1 – A former heroin addict with hepatitis C virus infection has bilateral “puffy hands.” The hand edema begins as pitting edema, followed by thickening and fibrosis of the subcutaneous tissue. You may also have a general feeling of ill health, fatigue, or a fever, which is reason to call a doctor.
Boils can form anywhere on the body, but they're most common on the face, neck, armpits, shoulders, back, and buttocks.
Most boils are caused by staph bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus), which many healthy people carry on their skin or in their noses without a problem. Not exactly, but the germs that cause boils (staph) are easily spread through skin-to-skin contact and contaminated objects. Folliculitis is an inflammation or infection of the hair follicles that can develop into a boil. Cystic acne is a type of skin abscess that forms when oil and dead skin cells clog a hair follicle, creating a place where bacteria grow and thrive.
When lumps and pus-filled abscesses repeatedly develop in these areas of the body, it may be a chronic condition called hidradenitis suppurativa. When a boil forms in the skin just above the buttocks crease, it may be a pilonidal abscess. If the fluid inside a boil doesn't drain by itself, your doctor may prick the top of the sore with a sterile instrument to be sure it drains completely. Anti-inflammatory medicines such as ibuprofen or painkillers such as paracetamol may help relieve some of the joint pain. Your doctor will want to test your urine and blood pressure regularly for several months to check for kidney problems. If your child has been diagnosed with HSP, they will need to have their urine tested on a regular basis for six months. The dipstick test looks for microscopic amounts of blood or protein in your child’s urine.
You’ll need to collect the first urine your child does in the morning in a clean container. If required, your GP or a nurse will show you how to dip the urine with the dipsticks and read off the protein and blood levels. Typically, this test is done frequently in the first few weeks, then monthly, unless your doctor tells you to do it more often.
When blood is seen on the dipstick for the first time, you will need to inform the hospital.
Blood detected on the dipstick is not usually a cause for concern and often continues for several months in HSP.
If the urine looks red, rusty coloured or bloody to the naked eye, contact the hospital so doctors can check your child’s kidneys. Usually, HSP gets better on its own within about four weeks and needs urine testing for six months, but generally doesn’t cause any lasting problems. Kidney inflammation usually gets better without any complications or the need for treatment, but rarely it can lead to kidney failure or kidney damage. This patient had no measurable function in the median nerve when tested and did not remember how these lesions of the fingertips developed.
Pain, as a distinct sensation recognisably different to tingling and numbness, undoubtedly occurs in carpal tunnel syndrome and can be an early or late feature. A surprising number of patients use this word to describe a sensation experienced in the hand for which there seems to be no entirely satisfactory technical medical term. A common perception in CTS patients is that the fingers are stiff but when passively flexed by an examiner this is not usually the case. The hands may feel subjectively cold (or occasionally hot), but as with many of the symptoms described here measurement of the hand temperature usually does not reveal dramatic coldness. Even though there is usually not much demonstrable weakness of grip people with CTS do complain that they drop things a lot and CTS is responsible for a great deal of broken crockery. Visible thinning of the muscles at the base of the thumb is a late feature of CTS indicating severe disease. Chiggers rashes, also known as Trombiculosis, are inflammatory reactions on the skin caused by the bite of trombiculid mites or “chiggers”.
Common in areas which have thinned skin such as in the area of the groin or armpits; also common on the ankles and on the skin behind the knees.
Chiggers rashes are caused by the digestive enzymes the mites deposit under a person’s skin as they feed.
Treatment for chiggers rashes is especially important if scratching of the itchy skin has resulted in abrasions, making secondary infection possible.
An amoxicillin rash is a skin condition that arises as an unwanted side-effect from taking the antibiotic drug amoxicillin. Amoxicillin is used as an effective form of treatment for bacterial infections that affect the ears, throat, or urinary tract; but like any antibiotic medication, amoxicillin also produces unwanted side-effects.
In serious cases however, allergic amoxicillin reactions are treated through antihistamines and bronchodilators in order to deter the dangerous allergic reactions that can constrict the respiratory passageway. A strep throat rash is the characteristic rash that occurs along with a bacterial streptococcal infection. Strep throat rashes are caused by an underlying bacterial infection in the form of group A streptococcal bacteria.
A sun rash is the dermatologic condition that occurs due to an increased sensitivity to the sun’s rays.
A stress rash is a skin condition that appears as a response to undergoing mental or emotional stress. Dermatologic manifestations such as rashes can be linked to stress because of the signals the nervous system sends to the rest of the body when it feels that the normal balance is disturbed while a person is experiencing stress. A sweat rash is a fungal infection on the skin that results from the presence of trapped moisture in the sweat ducts. The sweat rash develops due to the reaction that occurs between candida – a naturally-occurring type of yeast on the skin – and the sweat the body produces. Sweat rashes are more common in children and infants because their sweat glands are still immature and thus rupture if too much perspiration is collected within them.
Most cases of sweat rashes simply disappear on their own, but resolution can be aided through a number of ways.
The lamictal rash is a skin condition that arises as a side-effect to the use of the anticonvulsant drug called Lamictal, a medication known generically as lamotrigine. In particular, if the rashes start to occur upon mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, or eyes, immediate medical treatment should be sought out as this can be indicative of serious and damaging conditions.
If a rash develops upon using Lamictal, any succeeding doses should be put on hold until a physician is seen. The lupus rash is a skin condition associated with the presence of the autoimmune disease called Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Lupus is an autoimmune inflammatory disease which means that a patient with the illness has antibodies that are faulty and attack the patient’s own tissue because they mistakenly identify these as foreign and unfamiliar. The lupus rashes are primarily treated through the topical application of skin creams such as corticosteroids and antimalarial drugs like hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine. SLE patients with rashes should always put on sunscreen with high SPF values before getting exposed to sunlight.
A viral rash is any type of skin rash brought about by the presence of an underlying viral infection. Viral rashes are also usually accompanied by other symptoms indicative of a viral infection, such as fever, headaches, and body pains.
Viral rashes are most effectively resolved once the viral infection itself is treated, but most viruses are self-limiting and are simply given time to heal and disappear on their own.
The cause of the PUPPP rashes is unknown but findings have suggested that the reaction may be brought about by the skin distension that occurs in pregnancy, which will also explain why this skin condition is usually only experienced by first-time mothers (primigravida) and mothers who are having multiple pregnancies such as by having twins or triplets. Antihistamines are also given to provide relief for itchiness but are not as effective as corticosteroids. It can be a scary thing to see, but that doesna€™t necessarily mean it is going to threaten your life.
Leg swelling typically refers to any swelling of any part of the legs, including the feet, ankles, thighs and calves. This can also be a very painful condition that can make it difficult to move or bend your leg, or even to put weight on the affected limb. When it affects just one leg, which might be concerned, so be sure to mention it to your doctor.
A fracture of your leg, a serious bruise from bumping something, or other types of injury can lead to swelling of the leg. Sometimes even ibuprofen a€“ a medication you might take to decrease inflammation a€“ can actually cause the swelling.
This means you should rest your leg, elevate it higher than your heart if possible, use compression stockings or other compression gear to ease the swelling, and apply ice to the area, especially if it is painful.


These include a low-salt diet, plenty of exercise to keep the blood flowing through your legs, and wearing support stockings underneath your clothes. If you are dealing with a swollen leg and you experience other symptoms, ita€™s time to go to the emergency room. It begins as a red lump, then fills with pus as white blood cells rush in to fight the infection. Hairy, sweaty areas are typical sites, as well as areas of friction, such as the inner thighs. When a scrape, cut, or splinter breaks the skin, the bacteria can enter a hair follicle and start an infection.
But MRSA infections are caused by one particular type of staph that is resistant to many antibiotics.
Tiny pimples with whiteheads appear around individual hairs, sometimes surrounded by red skin. Hair is believed to play a role, and irritation, pressure, and prolonged sitting may also contribute to the development of a cyst here. In addition to standard treatment, your doctor may try to eliminate or reduce staph bacteria throughout the body.
It is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances.
This inflammation can cause the small surface blood vessels to bleed into the skin, which results in the rash commonly seen in Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP). It occurs most often in the spring, usually after an upper respiratory infection such as a sore throat, cough or cold.
It might be triggered by a bacterial or viral infection, a medicine, an insect bite, or exposure to chemicals. The rash, joint pains and tummy pain usually get better over days or weeks without needing any treatment.
This is either performed by yourself or by a nurse (either at the hospital or one who visits your home).
If it is still ++ or more of protein, phone the hospital so doctors can check your child’s kidneys.
It is important to monitor any early signs of kidney problems with the regular urine tests, as instructed by your doctor.
It is rare for a digit to become completely numb in CTS such that no touch, pinprick, pain, burn etc can be felt at all but a perception of loss of sensitivity of the fingertips is common and when persistent suggests more severe nerve impairment. It is also the most variable symptom in distribution, sometimes affecting not only the hand and fingers but the arm all the way up to the shoulder.
It is a sudden, unpleasant, shock-like sensation in the palm and or fingers, or occasionally spreading into the forearm, usually precipitated by some movement of the hand. Objective examination of the hand and fingers usually fails to reveal any measurable enlargement of either hand or digits and in most cases this feeling of swelling is probably a misinterpretation of the sensations of numbness and clumsiness. True rigidity of the fingers, like swelling, is usually an indicator of other diseases, either rheumatological (rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis), or neurological (dystonia, stiff person syndrome, spasticity of any cause). The mechanism for this is unclear and perhaps reflects a complex disturbance of motor control resulting from impaired proprioceptive input from the hand, modification of central control mechanisms in response to abnormal sensory inputs and subtle disturbance of function of the thenar muscles resulting from phenomena like frequency dependent conduction block. Sometimes however, osteoarthritic degeneration of the underlying joints can lead to an appearance of wasting of these muscles when they are in fact normal in bulk and strength.
The enzyme is injected into the skin through the feeding tube the mite uses to penetrate soft surface of the skin. Anti-itch creams and medications include calamine lotion and corticosteroid creams to reduce and eventually eliminate itching. Amoxicillin is one of the most common antibiotics prescribed by doctors for typical bacterial infections. The development of a severely itchy rash can indicate a dangerous allergic reaction that needs immediate care.
Rashes can occur as an idiopathic side-effect of the drug, but can also indicate an allergic reaction. The disease can be contracted upon coming into direct contact with infected fluids such as saliva or nasal secretions.
This is achieved through a full course of antibiotics, usually observed over a period of at least 1 to 2 weeks.
An abnormally heightened inflammatory response to being exposed to direct sunlight can be brought about by a number of causes, including medications, exposure to certain chemicals, and a natural sensitivity to sunlight during sudden changes in climate.
Some people have a condition called photosensitivity which makes them react more aggressively to sun exposure.
For instance, some perfumes contain chemicals that cause the sensitivity while in the case of medications, drugs like sulfonamides and tetracycline increase the tendency for inflammatory responses to occur upon exposing the skin to sunlight. The relationship between the skin and the nervous stress people experience is at first puzzling, but biologically, the rash occurs in reaction to the various stimuli sent out by the nervous system when a person is subjected to a certain level of psychological stress. Under stress, a chemical reaction on the skin is triggered, thus the skin tends to become sensitized.
The skin condition is more prevalent during hot climates such as in the summer season, and is more common in tropical countries that experience extreme heat and humidity. This combination leads to the clogging up of the pores and sweat ducts, barring the perspiration continually produced by the sweat glands from reaching the surface of the skin.
The patient should cool and dry the skin through avoiding too much exposure to heat and sunlight and by applying cool compresses over affected areas. The drug is effectively used to treat seizures experienced by patients with epilepsy and acts as a mood stabilizer for patients with bipolar disorder but poses the risk of various side effects, including triggering the appearance of rashes.
The rash has a greater tendency to occur or worsen if Lamictal is taken along with valproic acid or sodium valproate. After medical observation, the Lamictal dose can then be adjusted or discontinued, depending on the physician’s orders. As an autoimmune disease, SLE does not usually present itself with a predictable set of symptoms in each of the patients suffering from it, but its distinctive rash remains as a consistent sign in most SLE patients. The reactions that the antibodies make start up an inflammatory response, causing swelling and tissue damage to organs as well as to the skin. In most cases, the root source of a rash can be determined according to the nature of the symptoms that are present, but in cases wherein the doctor is unable to identify the type of virus causing the condition, the rash is simply considered to be non-specific and is treated as a generic type of skin rash.
The rashes can however be helped through topical remedies such as anti-itch creams and antihistamines in order to control the redness and itching.
PUPPS is an acronym that stands for Pruritic Urticarial Papules and Plaques indicating the rashes that appear upon onset of the skin condition. The stretching of the skin during pregnancy can damage connective tissues in the skin and thus activate an inflammatory response. There are many reasons for leg swelling, but ultimately, the reason stems from fluid buildup or inflammation from your joints or tissues. Common causes are water retention or inflammation, arthritis, some sort of injury that affects only one leg, or issues with a blood clot. Arthritis can be a very serious condition that requires medical attention to prevent further damage to the leg, joint or surrounding areas. Other signs might include a lack of feeling in the leg, or pain in the affected area, or even a tingling, numbing sensation. Water retention can be caused by something as simple as standing up all day, but it can also be the result of serious problems, such as kidney failure or heart disease. Unfortunately, this kind of swelling can increase the pain of the injury, so it helps to speak to a doctor about what you can do to relieve the swelling. Many injuries can lead to inflammation of the area, and that naturally leads to swelling as well.
Lose weight if you need to do so, and make sure your doctor is aware of all medications are you on.
These include if the swelling occurs for no apparent reason, comes on very suddenly, or is the result of an accident or injury.
In addition, the history can be instrumental in ruling out the more common rheumatologic causes, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), gout, and pseudogout.
The latter resulted in repeated exposure to HCV infection (and subsequent development of chronic liver disease).
Hepatitis C virus prevalence and outcomes among injecting drug users on opioid replacement therapy. Upper-extremity deep vein thrombosis after central vein catheterization via the axillary vein.
The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphedema: consensus document of the International Society of Lymphology.
Our mission is to save precious time by offering the best and latest on rheumatology in an easy-to-read format, always hyperlinked for more in-depth reading later. What's inside? Others boils, such as those associated with acne, develop from clogged pores that become infected. If a skin infection spreads or doesn't improve after 2-3 days of antibiotics, your doctor may suspect MRSA.
To avoid spreading staph, don't share towels, bedding, clothes, or sports gear while you have a boil. It can be itchy, tender, and uncomfortable, but is typically not as painful or deep as a boil. A stye is sometimes confused with a chalazion, which is also a lump on the eyelid, but a chalazion is usually painless and is caused by a blocked oil gland, not an infection. After it starts draining, keep it clean, and continue using warm compresses -- a clean one every time. This can include washing up with a special antiseptic soap, using an antibiotic ointment inside the nose, or 1-2 months of antibiotics by mouth, or all three. Rarely, the staph bacteria from a boil or carbuncle can get into the bloodstream, which can then affect the heart and other internal organs. It is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment and should not be relied on to make decisions about your health. You will probably be asked to collect one or more early morning urine samples to be sent to the lab, and blood tests may be necessary. In carpal tunnel syndrome the distinction between tingling and pain can sometimes become blurred, the tingling of CTS sometimes possessing a peculiarly unpleasant character. As with tingling, this symptom should theoretically occur only in the anatomical territory of the median nerve but some patients do seem to experience more widespread numbness.


The mechanism by which CTS causes pain is poorly understood and patients attending the Canterbury clinic may notice that we ask a lot of questions about it while we try to understand the differences between patients in this respect. The analogy which patients seem to be making is that of plucking a tight string or suddenly releasing a rubber band. As with trigger finger, there may be an association between Raynaud's and carpal tunnel syndrome (Hartmann 2011).
Their bites are most commonly received when staying in grassy areas such as forests, fields, or parks which are the main habitat of these tiny organisms because they dwell on grass tips, feeding on vegetation. The feeding tube called the sylostome allows entry of the enzyme into underlying layers causing irritation and setting off an allergic and inflammatory response that leads to the development of rashes. Antihistamines taken orally such as Benadryl can also effectively get rid of itching and inflammation.
As is common for most antibiotics, amoxicillin causes side-effects in some people, including the emergence of skin rashes. Allergies to medications occur when the proteins contained in the drugs are mistakenly identified by antibodies as threats and are treated as invaders; thus producing the allergic reaction. Strep throat is otherwise known as “Scarlet Fever”, earning its name for the distinctive rashes that occur over the body of the patient; hence the rashes are also called “scarlatina”. The streptococcal bacteria are transported via the air once an infected person sneezes or coughs without covering the mouth or nose. However, if the rashes are proving to be relatively bothersome, simple home remedies such as cool compresses and calamine lotions are usually enough to relieve itching and inflammation.
Sun rashes are self-limiting and are not a serious condition, however, infections are a potential complication that should be avoided especially if the patient persistently scratches and could injure the affected skin.
The rashes occur as the body responds to the proteins and compounds found in ultraviolet rays, but over time, the body gradually adapts to the sunlight and adjusts itself to the new environment, reducing the reactions produced. The rashes emerge as red and elevated areas on the skin, and can tend to aggravate and persist when the person fails to recover from or pacify the stress he is going through. The nervous system senses the stress the body is undergoing and causes an increased production of cortisol along with other hormones.
Essentially, treating stress rashes is centered around resolving the stressor, thus consequentially getting rid of the symptoms as well.
Toddlers and young children are more susceptible to the condition because of their underdeveloped sweat glands.
Topical applications of calamine lotion as well as anti-fungal creams that contain hydrocortisone will treat the inflammation and itchiness. A Lamictal rash can be nothing more than a bothersome irritation on the skin at times, but can also indicate a possibly serious reaction that can further progress and lead to more dangerous conditions. A patient is more susceptible to developing the rash if he takes more than the initial dose recommended by the physician or if the patient increases the dosage much too quickly after beginning the treatment on Lamictal. The lupus rash appears on areas of the skin which receives the most exposure to sunlight, such as on the face. The rash in SLE patients is a result of the inflammatory process in combination with an abnormally increased sensitivity to the heat of the sun.
Usually, viral rashes are not serious or life-threatening, although they can be frustrating and itchy. It is the most common type of pregnancy-related rashes and although unattractive and bothersome, does not pose any danger to both the mother and the unborn child. In severe cases, doctors prescribe the use of topical as well as oral corticosteroids, but the possible effects of oral potent corticosteroids may pose an unknown danger to the pregnancy. These are often brought on by an injury, prolonged sitting or standing, or a more serious disorder, such as a blood clot or issues with circulation. Also, keep your leg elevated, dona€™t stand for long periods of time, and move around often instead of sitting. Now this is an essential diagnosis to consider in such patients who have unilateral or bilateral puffy hands. News summaries based on studies published in leading medical journals and specialty medical journals, conference coverage, case-based quizzes and more. A doctor's care is needed when a boil resists treatment or develops in certain vulnerable areas of the body. The pain often worsens as pus collects under the skin, then eases as fluids begin to drain.
The right treatment given promptly is important to heal a MRSA infection and prevent a deeper, more dangerous infection.
Shaving or friction from tight clothing can let staph bacteria slip under the skin -- the most common cause of both folliculitis and boils. Never ignore professional medical advice in seeking treatment because of something you have read on the WebMD Site. The anatomical distribution of the median nerve suggests that this abnormal sensation should be felt only in the thumb, index and middle fingers and the adjacent side of the ring finger but in some patients it appears to spread outside this area.
Occasionally loss of sensation can become so severe that the patient does begin to suffer injuries to the fingertips without noticing - burns being the most common.
This symptom is described both by untreated and treated patients but seems to be especially noticeable after carpal tunnel surgery. Amoxicillin rashes can be harmless and are called non-allergic rashes, but in some cases, the occurrence of rashes after ingesting amoxicillin can also indicate a more serious and potentially fatal allergic reaction.
The rash does not always appear in all patients dealing with the scarlet fever disease, but it is treated as a cardinal sign of the presence of the illness. Once infection occurs, the bacteria release a toxin that causes the inflammatory response, resulting in the development of rashes on the skin.
These stimulate the sebaceous glands to release more oil, causing rashes due to the irritation of the skin.
It is also known as a “butterfly rash” for the shape it assumes as it is spread horizontally across the patient’s cheeks and nose.
Certain viral illnesses such as chickenpox and measles include the presence of these rashes as a symptom but most viral rashes non-specific. The illness usually occurs in the third trimester of first-time pregnancies and lasts for about 6 weeks before resolving on its own in 1 to 2 weeks’ time following the delivery of the baby. When you travel, avoid tight clothing, such as garters around your thighs, and be sure to get up and move around often a€“ dona€™t just sit through an entire plane ride!
If you experience chest pain, fainting or dizziness, confusion, or difficulty breathing, call for an ambulance, as these could be signs of a very serious situation. In this article, we discuss the history taking and physical examination for patients who present with puffy hands. We also publish case studies and practice-related articles by rheumatologists and other specialists.
Other swellings which are visible to an observer along with all forms of deformity of the hand joints are usually indicators of other disease processes (some of which may cause secondary CTS).
In addition, stress prompts the increased production of histamine, causing dilation of blood vessels and inflammatory responses. Most viral rashes can have a sudden onset and are accompanied by other symptoms such as fever and pains, but then resolve on their own after some time. You can also conduct a a€?Pit testa€? a€“ simply press your finger against your leg, making an indentation.
Significant IV drug use resulting in chronically puffy hands strongly supports a diagnosis of HCV infection. In addition to RA, gout, and pseudogout, the history may help rule out anasarca resulting from cardiac, renal, or liver disease. A history of infection or trauma would suggest an infectious cause or fracture; a history of autoimmune disease (eg, scleroderma or Sjgren syndrome) often is associated with hand edema.
PHYSICAL EXAMINATION The physical examination should start with evaluation of the patient’s general appearance; the presence of scleral icterus, jaundice, and anasarca should be noted. On abdominal examination, tender hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, or lymphadenopathy may be elicited. Patients may have purpura resulting from coagulopathy or encephalopathy resulting from chronic hepatic disease. Patients also should be examined for cardiac murmurs or scars suggesting previous cardiac surgery.
Renal disease may be suggested as the cause of edema by oliguria, hypertension, foamy urine, or hematuria.
Patients’ hands may suggest an association with RA with the appearance of symmetrical inflammation of the metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints and finger deformities, such as ulnar deviation.
Evaluating whether upper extremity edema is unilateral or bilateral and whether the edema involves the whole arm or is isolated to the hand helps delineate the cause of the puffy hands.
Many of the possible diagnoses are the ones that are most often involved (eg, congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, and liver disease). Portal hypertension ensues with liver failure, often resulting in encephalopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and formation of varices because of collateral blood flow.5 Another common clinical feature of HVC infection is bilateral puffy hands.
When first described by Abeles6 in 1965, this variation of hand edema was attributed to poor venous return because of thrombosis of antecubital veins after years of injected drug use. Recurrent infections at the injection site also were thought to contribute.6 Schneiderman1 suggested that the cause is lymphedema associated with the sclerosing properties of the drugs. Neviaser and colleagues7 and Foldi8 suggested that lymphatic obstruction persists after injected drug use stops, along with scarring resulting from chronic inflammation.
In addition, heroin often is diluted with quinine, which is notable for destroying lymphatics.7 The hand edema begins as pitting edema, followed by thickening and fibrosis of the subcutaneous skin (see Figure 1).
Primary thrombosis, known as Paget-Schroetter syndrome, occurs in healthy, young adults with strenuous exercise.
Fibrocytes are then activated and, with time, connective tissue overgrowth occurs as fibrosis ensues (Figure 3).15 Figure 3 – Right-arm lymphedema occurred in this patient after axillary lymph node dissection. Primary conditions are differentiated by age and are hereditary or spontaneous disorders of lymphatic architecture.15-18 Secondary causes are responsible for most lymphedema.



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