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Mouth: Food is ingested (the taking in of food or liquid into the body), chewed and swallowed. Studies estimate that it takes food 50 to 53 hours to travel from the mouth to out the other end as feces. In the mouth the action of teeth and saliva combine in the first stage of breakdown, chewing and partially digesting the food so that it will pass more easily along the esophagus.
Saliva (spit) is a liquid secreted by 3 pairs of salivary glands: the parotid gland (situated below the ear), the submandibular gland and the sublingual gland (both situated below the tongue). If we think about the food we eat, and the difference in size between it and the microscopic cells and tissues that it will feed in our body, it is easy to understand why a digestive system that breaks food down into different units is needed. Through the action of swallowing and through the portion of the gastrointestinal tract known as the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube which leads from the pharynx, at the back of the mouth, to the stomach, the first main organ of digestion.
The stomach is a J-shaped, elastic organ which expands and contracts depending on what is in it. At this stage proteins have been partially digested and, along with the carbohydrates such as starch which were partially digested in the mouth, they have to wait until the small intestine to complete digestion. The whole digestive process is a combination of different chemical reactions that act on the food we eat, reducing it to the building blocks of nutrients for absorption and use by the body.
It completes the chemical digestion of food and the subsequent absorption of nutrients takes place in the small intestine. Feces is the unwanted leftovers from food, combined with cellulose (roughage which is indigestible, found in foods like vegetables and bran), dead blood cells, bacteria (both living and dead), fatty acids and mucus used to help move the feces through the large intestine. There are several other organs involved in the digestive process: the tongue, teeth and salivary glands, liver, pancreas and gall bladder. Insulin is a hormone secreted by specialized cells in the pancreas known as the islets of Langerhans.
Also known as GERD, it is a condition where food in liquid form leaks backwards from the stomach into the esophagus. Bulimia is where someone regularly eats large amounts of food in a short period of time and then follows it up with self-induced vomiting and excessive use of laxatives. Constipation is the infrequent or uncomfortable bowel movements, causing hard feces to block the rectum.
Ulcerative colitis (image) is a serious form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and occurs just as often in men as women. Is a common bowel condition that is caused by intolerance to a protein in foods called gluten. An inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine) usually characterized by diarrhea.
An inflammation of the lining of the stomach which is characterized by nausea, loss of appetite and discomfort after eating. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition where food in liquid form leaks backwards from the stomach into the esophagus. Burning sensation in esophagus or throat, caused by back flow and regurgitation of acidic stomach contents.
A rupture, in which an organ pushes through the surface of the structures which normally hold it in. No exact cause is yet known for irritable bowel syndrome (sometimes referred to as IBS), though stress and low-fiber, high fat diets are said to contribute. Nausea is the sensation of discomfort and sickness in the stomach that makes us feel like we want to vomit. Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy. A chronic progressive anemia of older adults, thought to be caused by impaired absorption of vitamin B-12 due to the absence of intrinsic factor. Circulatory System: This system transports nutrients from the digestive system to every system of the body.
Lymphatic System: Lymphatic vessels are found in the villi in the small intestine and help with the absorption of fats. Muscular System: Sphincter muscles contract along the alimentary canal to push food along - known as peristalsis.
Please Note: Information provided on this site is no substitute for professional medical help. This lesson plan is designed to teach the importance of nutrition and fitness within the curriculum. Students will be aware of why healthy foods are a better choice, as well as how fitness is crucial to a healthy lifestyle. Description: In this activity, students learn about the five food groups and how to use the food pyramid as their guide. The goal of this experiment is to determine the amount of chemical energy stored in food by burning it and capturing the heat given off in a homemade calorimeter. In this project you will learn a method for measuring how much chemical energy is stored in different types of food.
The increase in the temperature (in °C) multiplied by the mass of the water (in grams) will give you the amount of energy captured by the calorimeter, in calories. For years, doctors have used height and weight measurements to assess a child's physical growth in relation to other kids the same age. Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike License unless otherwise noted. Endoscopy is a medical procedure that explores the inside of the body using a long, flexible tube with a camera and medical instruments at the tip. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight unless instructed to do otherwise by your physician. Please park on the first floor of the four-story parking garage in the designated Endoscopy Center parking.
Focused on the treatment of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract including the colon, esophagus and stomach. Summerlin Hospital Medical Center now offers Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy, an outpatient endoscopic treatment for Barrett’s Esophagus. Note:The information on this Web site is provided as general health guidelines and may not be applicable to your particular health condition. The information, content and artwork provided by this Web site is intended for non-commercial use by the reader.


Summerlin Hospital Medical Center offers a wide range of high quality medical services to residents of Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding region.
Whether you are getting ready for a procedure at Summerlin Hospital Medical Center or planning to visit a patient, get the information you'll need to make your trip more pleasant.
Stay up to date with the latest news and events at Summerlin Hospital Medical Center, including health fairs, classes and seminars. Read the current issue of the Valley Health System's Health News magazine online and visit other sites providing health information resources. The human body is designed with special receptor sites called enterons which line the digestive tract.
Due to this process these polymannans are absorbed in a totally different way which protects the links of the chains.  The chains are not broken or digested by the digestive enzymes found in our digestive tract. The very existence of this complimentary process, these “receptors in waiting,” is indicative of the critical importance of the ingestion of these essential long chain macromolecules. Once inside the cell, these long chain macromolecules which have been taken in by endocytosis including polysaccharides, proteins, and polynucleotides (DNA and RNA) can be used for their unique healing properties or broken down inside the cell for their nutritional value. Mitochondria are rod-shaped organelles that can be considered the power generators of the cell, converting oxygen and nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The number of mitochondria present in a cell depends upon the metabolic requirements of that cell, and may range from a single large mitochondrion to thousands of the organelles. The elaborate structure of a mitochondrion is very important to the functioning of the organelle (see Figure 1).
Mitochondria are generally oblong organelles, which range in size between 1 and 10 micrometers in length, and occur in numbers that directly correlate with the cell's level of metabolic activity. Presented in Figure 2 is a digital image of the mitochondrial network found in the ovarian tissue from a mountain goat relative, known as the Himalayan Tahr, as seen through a fluorescence optical microscope. The mitochondrion is different from most other organelles because it has its own circular DNA (similar to the DNA of prokaryotes) and reproduces independently of the cell in which it is found; an apparent case of endosymbiosis. Mitochondrial DNA is localized to the matrix, which also contains a host of enzymes, as well as ribosomes for protein synthesis.
Mitochondria are similar to plant chloroplasts in that both organelles are able to produce energy and metabolites that are required by the host cell. In most animal species, mitochondria appear to be primarily inherited through the maternal lineage, though some recent evidence suggests that in rare instances mitochondria may also be inherited via a paternal route. They work efficiently at body temperature (370 C) and at suitable pH.The main places where chemical digestion happens are the mouth, stomach and small intestine. Digestion is the process by which our body breaks down food into substances we can take in (absorb) and use.
Carbohydrates and fat are broken down and absorbed through the intestine walls into the blood. Starts digestion: the enzyme salivary amylase acts on cooked starch turning it into shorter polysaccharides. The tongue pushes the bolus to the back of the mouth, towards the pharynx, a muscular tube behind the mouth. Food enters it from the esophagus via the esophageal sphincter, a valve that stops back flow of the stomach's contents. It is seven 7 long and divided into 3 different parts: the duodenum, the jejunum and the ileum. Waves of muscular contractions called peristaltic movements mix food with intestinal and pancreatic juices as well as bile. Several hormones in the small intestine help digestion by stimulating the production of pancreatic or intestinal juices and regulating acidity levels. They are called lacteals because the fat passes into them in suspension, causing the lymph to look milky. It is the only section of the digestive system with a direct link to the protective lymphatic system. Whatever remains of the food, once it has been through the processes of mixing, conversion and absorption carried out in the stomach and small intestine, is passed into the large intestine.
Though they can cause disease they are usually harmless in the colon and may even be useful.
Whenever there is excess bile secreted by the liver which can't be used immediately for digestion, it passes along the bile ducts to the gall bladder where it will be stored until needed.
It produces enzymes to break down food, the hormone insulin which regulates the blood sugar level after eating by causing the conversion of glucose to glycogen for storage in the liver and muscles, and the hormone glucagon which converts glycogen back to glucose. Anorexia nervosa is a psychological condition which often affects teenage girls and young women.
Bulimia is a psychological condition which often affects teenage girls and young women, and increasingly young men.
Several types of cirrhosis exist but the most common is cirrhosis of the liver, which is frequently caused by excessive alcohol consumption. Crohn's disease is characterized by diarrhea, cramping and loss of appetite and weight, with local abscesses and scarring. It is caused by the infection or rupturing of the wall of the digestive tract, usually the colon. Anxiety and lack of relaxation cause overproduction of gastric juices and if they have nothing to work on they will start to attack the lining of the stomach or other structures.
Most cases are caused by eating and drinking something, occasionally it can be the side effect of a medication or infection. Ulcers can appear in the stomach (stomach ulcers), on the esophagus (esophageal ulcer), and the Duodenum - first section of the small intestines (duodenal ulcer).
In this lesson plan, the biochemical components of food will be introduced, the new food pyramid will be discussed and finally the importance of staying actively fit will be emphasized. After that week is complete, each student will analyze their nutrition intake and for the following week will adjust their intake to fit the new pyramid. Your digestive system and the cells in your body break down the food and gradually oxidize the resulting molecules to release energy that your cells can use and store. You'll use a homemade calorimeter to capture and measure the heat energy released by burning. The facility includes the latest equipment to provide comfort and convenience for physicians, staff and patients.
An endoscopy can often help your physician diagnose a health problem as well as possibly avoid the need for surgery.
You can expect to be at our facility for at least two hours, from the time you check in to the time you leave.


Proceed right to the Cancer Institute of Nevada and enter through glass doors on the right.
Your individual health status and any required medical treatments can only be properly addressed by a professional healthcare provider of your choice.
Miraculously, these special receptor sites are designed to take in or engulf, intact, these Aloe polymannans. These large chain macromolecules must be absorbed intact for their structure to retain their healing physiological functions.
The human body, with these special receptor sites is literally lying in wait for these polymannan molecules. We refer to this process as, “intracellular digestion.” It is the second form of digestion which occurs within the cells. When empty it is about 0.5L in size, but when it is full after a meal it can stretch to 4L in size. If the digestive system is a conveyor belt, enzymes are the machines and workers which slowly change whatever is on the belt to make it smaller and smaller so that, eventually, it can be carried around the body in blood.
Tiny projections known as papillae cover the top, increasing its surface area and producing a rough texture. It leaves the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine. These must be broken down into their relative chemical compounds in order for the body to use them i.e.
The walls have several layers, including a muscular layer, a layer containing blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves and an inner mucous membrane. If the reflex is ignored, more water will be absorbed from the feces which may cause constipation.
The role of the tongue, teeth and salivary glands has been mentioned earlier in the chapter. Its role is to regulate, convert, store and process countless substances that we eat, breathe in and absorb through the skin. The cells of the pancreas are divided into the islets of Langerhans (which produce insulin and glucagon) and a network of alveoli (small sac-like cavities).
The sufferers have a fear of gaining weight or being fat and refuse to eat very much or stop eating altogether.
The purpose is to find out what they think the correct portions are before the correct amount is given. The basic idea of a calorimeter is to capture the released heat energy with a reservoir of water, which has a high capacity for absorbing heat. BMI is a calculation that uses height and weight to estimate how much body fat someone has. The tools on the tip of the tube allow physicians to take cells or tissue samples, stop bleeding and perform other procedures. Remember: There is no adequate substitution for a personal consultation with your physician. They must not be broken down by the digestive enzymes within the digestive tract so as to retain their healing properties.
This form of digestion only occurs after these intact healing components have entered the interior of the cell where they are either utilized intact, for their unique and necessary healing properties, or they may be broken down and processed into their subcomponents for further use.
They are made of protein and act as catalysts - that is, they make chemical changes happen in other substances, while themselves remaining unchanged. The epiglottis, a small flap of cartilage which forms part of the larynx (the windpipe) moves upwards and forwards, blocking the entrance to the larynx.
The wall of the stomach is a combination of layers of muscle fiber with an inner mucous membrane. In order to be used by the body they must be broken down into their smaller components - amino acids.
Polysaccharides include starch and fiber in cereals, potatoes and other plant sources, and glycogen in meat. The inner wall is covered with villi, tiny finger-like projections which increase the surface area for absorption and contain a network of blood and lymph vessels. Read more about the dangers of stress or take our online stress quiz to see if you suffer from it. The temperature of the water reservoir is measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiment.
Doctors use it to determine how appropriate a child's weight is for a certain height and age. Therefore, this complimentary mechanism of endocytosis exists within the body to perform this essential task of absorption without destruction of these long chain structures. The following shows the main chemical reactions and breakdowns at different stages of digestion.
There are approximately 20 amino acids classified by whether they are essential (those the body cannot make, that must therefore be supplied in the diet) and non-essential (those the body can make).
Some polyunsaturated fats cannot be made by the body and are therefore also classified as essential fats and must be consumed in the diet.
All carbohydrates are broken down to monosaccharides for absorption and all eventually become glucose to supply the body with energy. Insulin helps cells absorb glucose and turns any excess glucose into glycogen, an insoluble sugar which is stored in the liver until the body needs it. When the stomach is full they stretch out, enabling expansion, then they contract when it empties. Type 1 diabetes is caused by auto-immune damage to the pancreas resulting in low or no insulin production.
Type 2 diabetes is strongly linked to obesity and although insulin may still be produced it is unable to work properly in the body (insulin resistance).
In either type, glucose cannot be properly absorbed into the body resulting in the following symptoms a€” a dangerously high level of blood sugar (hyperglycemia), the loss of glucose through excretion, thirstiness and excessive urine production.



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