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The digestive system in the domestic fowl is very simple but efficient when compared to many other species, such as cattle.
The digestive system consists of the alimentary canal along which the food passes after eating to where the residual wastes are eliminated from the body, together with the liver and the pancreas. The liver produces bile and is associated with the metabolism of nutrients together with a number of other functions.
The alimentary canal is a long tube-like organ that starts at the beak and ends with the vent or cloaca in the abdominal region.
Fowls don’t have lips and cheeks, they instead have a beak which is an area of dense and horny skin lying over the mandible and incisive bones that serve as the bony foundation. The wall of the oesophagus is composed of four layers of tissue, the innermost being mucous membrane.
The muscular stomach or gizzard is located immediately after the proventriculus, partly between the lobes and partly behind the left lobe of the liver. The entrance from the proventriculus and the exit to the duodenum are close together and dorsal in location.
The small intestine begins at the exit from the gizzard and ends at the junction of the small intestine, caeca and colon.
When a piece of the small intestine is immersed in water it takes on a very velvety appearance because of the presence of villi – long flattened, fingerlike projections that extend into the lumen (inside) of the intestine like flexible fingers. A lacteal (lymph vessels), capillaries, bundles of plain muscle fibres, nerves and other tissues and cells occupy the core of the villus. After the duodenum the small intestine forms a coil and is suspended from the dorsal wall of the abdominal wall by a thin membrane called the mesentery.
The jejunum and the ileum, together about 120 cm long, commence at the caudal end of the duodenum where the bile and the pancreatic duct papilla are located and terminates at the ileo-caecal-colic junction.
Meckel’s Diverticulum is a constant feature about half way along the small intestine and appears as a small projection on the outer surface of the small intestine.
The large intestine is very short and does not differ to any extent from the calibre of the small intestine.
The liver is a bi-lobed organ that lies ventrally (below) and posterior (in rear of) to the heart and is closely associated with the proventriculus and the spleen. The liver cells have a high rate of destruction and a good regenerative capacity (re-growth ability).
The liver consists of a series of tissue sheets that are two cells thick, with a sinusoid on either side of the sheet. This organ has three lobes that occupy the space between the two arms of the duodenal loop.
Produce the hormones insulin and glucogen that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrate. The pattern of food intake and its passage through the digestive system are the main factors that influence secretory and hence digestive activity. The food is delivered into the crop for storage after the first few boli have passed into the proventriculus. While there is a wide variation between the eating habits of different birds in the flock, fowls do tend to eat meals on about 15-minute intervals through the daylight hours and, to some extent, during darkness. Similar factors affect the rate of movement of the food through the digestive system with a meal of normal food taking approximately 4 hours to pass through in the case of young stock, 8 hours in the case of laying hens and 12 hours for broody hens. After ingestion, the food is mixed with saliva and mucous from the mouth and oesophagus and these secretions thoroughly moisten the food.
The secretions of the proventriculus, or glandular stomach as it is often called, include hydrochloric acid to lower the pH of the system and the food mixture, the enzyme pepsin that acts on protein, and the hormone gastrin that stimulates the production and release of gastric juice in the proventriculus and pancreatic juice from the pancreas.
The gizzard is a very powerful organ which physically breaks the food particles into smaller sizes to make the work of the enzymes easier. The small intestine also produces enzymes that playa part in the digestive process of reducing the complex food compounds eaten to the simple compounds or building blocks that can be absorbed across the intestinal wall for transport to the organ or location where either they will be further processed, stored or used.
The remainder of the material consists of waste and undigested food and are mixed with the urine in the cloaca and eliminated from the body as faeces. The utilisation of nutrients from the diet is a key element in the normal functioning of the animal. Neisham, MC, Austic, RE and Card, LE (1979) Poultry Production, 12th Edition, Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia, USA.
The sphincter of Oddi, or otherwise called the sphincter of the hepato-pancreatic ampulla, is located at the second part of the duodenum. The migrating motor complex, or the MMC for short, is smooth muscle contractions that are also termed myoelectrical motor complex. Another function of the sphincter of Oddi is to prevent entry of contents of the duodenum into the bile duct or pancreatic duct.
Although the sphincter of Oddi is just one part of the extra-hepatic biliary tree, its functions are very vital to maintain order inside the human body. During surgical removal of the gallbladder or even in gallstone removal, iatrogenic trauma may be caused to the sphincter of Oddi. The process of converting encoded information in a gene into a messenger RNA and then into a protein. Process in which genetic material is copied from one strand of DNA to a complementary strand of RNA. Is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA and RNA that gives instructions in how to synthesize a protein. The code consists of a sequence of triplets that are written one after another along the length of the DNA strand.
Each of the codes has a unique combination that will be interpreted as a single amino acid in a polypeptide chain. One of the code words is the start signal that starts all the sequences that code for amino acids.
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Comments and DiscussionHave Your Say: We welcome relevant discussions, advice, criticism and your unique insights. For some people when going gluten free it seems like their whole world has been shrunk and they are missing out on so many different types of food. The reason gluten and dairy go hand in hand is because of what happens inside your digestive system at a cellular level. The first place to get damaged in your gut is these hair-like villi where lactase is produced. So sometimes you have to take the plunge and if you are sick of feeling the way you feel, than maybe it is time to try the next step. Just imagine how great you could feel if you were actually eating foods that were right for YOU? In the online gym you will learn what foods are right for you, you will have the tools on how you can fine tune your diet and get results that last.
In the process of evolution, those avian species that developed simple but effective digestive systems were more able to fly and hence survive, as the simple digestive system would be lighter in weight. The digestive system is responsible for the ingestion of food, its breakdown into its constituent nutrients and their absorption into the blood stream, and the elimination of wastes from that process. The main function of the pancreas is the production of digestive enzymes and special compounds called hormones. Generally the alimentary canal has layers of muscle that run lengthwise and around it and is lined with mucous membranes. The salivary glands run the whole length of the hard palate, the groups of glands merging to form one mass of glandular tissue under the epithelium.
The mucous membrane is an important barrier to the entry of microbes and the mucous it produces is a lubricant that aids the passage of the food along the alimentary canal. Simple single glands group to form lobules each of which converges into a common cavity near the surface. It has a flattened, rounded shape somewhat like a convex lens, with one side slightly larger than the other. The gizzard consists of a number of layers of tissues, some of which contain straight tubular glands.
The villi have the function of providing a vastly increased surface area for the more efficient absorption of the nutrients. The lymphoid tissue collects the lymph and the lymph vessels transport fluid, other than blood, that is found in the spaces between cells and tissues until it passes into the blood system.

They extend along the line of the small intestine towards the liver and are closely attached to the small intestine along their length by the mesentery. The cloaca is a tubular cavity opening to the exterior of the body and is common to the digestive and urogenital tract. Two bile ducts emerge from the right lobe and one of these originates from the gall bladder and the second provides a direct connection from the liver to the small intestine. Notwithstanding this, in the normal animal, much of the organ is in reserve and can be removed or destroyed without causing undue stress. One originates from the coelic artery for normal maintenance of the liver as an organ and the second, called the hepatic portal system, transports the nutrients from the small intestine after absorption to the liver. Two or three ducts pass the secretions of this organ into the distal end of the duodenum via papillae common with the ducts from the gall bladder and the liver.
Probably because of the high metabolic rate of the fowl, a more or less continuous supply of food is required by the digestive system. The crop is quite distensable and will hold a large amount of undigested food that is then moved on as required by the proventriculus.
Intact, hard grains take longer to digest than the cracked grain and, quite often some whole grain will pass through unchanged. The enzyme amylase, which is produced by the salivary and oesophageal glands and found in the saliva and mucous, can now commence to breakdown the complex carbohydrates. At the same time, the enzymes previously released into the food with the saliva and by the proventriculus are thoroughly mixed into the food which improves their opportunity to carry out their work. Enzyme activity in this region is, in the main, a continuation of the breakdown of proteins started in the gizzard. The insulin is involved in the maintenance of blood sugar levels while the sodium bicarbonate, which is strongly alkaline, will increase the pH of the intestinal contents. Food materials that escape enzyme action along this tract are subjected to bacterial breakdown in the caeca which provides a system of at least partial recovery of some nutrients. The appearance of the faeces varies considerably, but typically is a rounded, brown to grey mass topped with a cap of white uric acid from the kidneys. These fresh droppings are approximately 75% water and will air dry under favourable conditions to approximately 30% water. The avian digestive system is a simple system and consequently the diet must be of good quality and consist of easily digested ingredients if the bird is to perform at the level required on the modern commercial poultry enterprise. As the name implies, it houses the ampulla of Vater, which in turn surrounds the bile duct and pancreatic duct.
Its tonic contraction creates a basal pressure higher compared to the pressure in the common bile duct and duodenum.
The substance cholecystokinin relaxes the sphincter of Oddi along with the stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion and contraction of the gallbladder. It is always important to go back to the anatomy of the sphincter in order to understand how it is able to perform all these functions at the same time.
If the sphincter of Oddi fails to perform even one of its functions, it would have devastating effects to digestion and to the quality of life of the person. This would cause inflammation to the sphincter which in its process of repair would eventually cause narrowing.
I do agree with this to a point, however what foods are you actually missing out on and are those foods doing anything for your health?
For the person with this mindset, to suddenly tell them they need to cut out dairy is just too much for them.
If you are eating foods that you are intolerant to, they cause damage to your digestive system over time. So your body is no longer able to break down the lactose in dairy, this is why if you have a gluten intolerance you more than likely have a dairy intolerance also. It is one of the quickest healing areas on our body, however you can’t improve it if you keep throwing damaging foods and chemicals at it. It is necessary that the diet provided to fowls be of high quality and easily digestible due to the simplicity in the structure and function of their digestive system.
Glands that produce important digestive juices are found in different locations of the canal.
The so called egg tooth found on the end of the beak of newly hatched chickens is an aid to their escape from the egg at hatching and disappears after a day or two. The common opening for the two eustachian tubes is located in the middle of its dorsal wall (roof). The crop is a large dilation of the oesophagus located just prior to where the oesophagus enters the thoracic cavity. The structure below the crop is similar to that above except there is less lymphoid tissue below the crop. The cavities converge to form a common duct that leads to the surface through the apex of a small papilla (see figure below).
Each surface is covered by a glistening layer of tendinous tissue which is thicker at the centre and becoming thinner towards the edges.
The innermost layer is a strong, flexible skin that is able to withstand the potentially damaging effects of the muscular action grinding the food often in the presence of stones or other insoluble material.
Of the three parts of the mammalian small intestine, the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, only the duodenum can be easily distinguished in the fowl. The efficiency of the absorption is influenced by the surface area available for the nutrients to move through i.e. The duodenum starts at the gizzard and forms an elongated loop that is approximately 20 centimetres long.
Bile ducts from the gall bladder that are attached to the liver and two to three pancreatic ducts enter the small intestine by a common papilla at the caudal end (closest to the rear) of the duodenum. Sometimes this section is referred to as the colon and the rectum (the rectum being the terminal section).
The structure of the cloaca is very similar to that of the intestine except that the muscularis mucosa disappears near the vent. The liver is dark brown or chocolate in colour except for the first 10-14 days when it may be quite pale due to the absorption of lipids (fats) from the yolk as an embryo. The hepatic portal system, the capillaries of the arterial blood supply and the hepatic veins are in close association with each other in these sinusoids.
The blood vessels, when they enter these sinusoids, become closely associated with them to provide for the easy transfer of material from one system to another.
The structure is similar to that of the pancreas of mammals and consists of special secreting tissue for pancreatic juice as well as other groups of cells called the “islets of langerhan”.
This is provided for by the crop that acts as a reservoir for the storage of food prior to its digestion and consequently permits the fowl to eat its food as periodic meals.
This function of the crop is less important when there is a plentiful supply of food available. However, the amount of enzyme action at this stage is minimal and the first major enzyme activity takes place in the proventriculus and in the gizzard.
This breaking and mixing function of the gizzard is enhanced by the presence of insoluble grit such as stones. Pancreatic juice and bile from the liver enters via ducts located at the distal end of the duodenum at about the junction of the duodenum and the jejunum if it were differentiated. The contents of the caeca are also discharged periodically as discrete masses of brown, glutinous material. A good working knowledge of the system and how it carries out its functions is necessary for the effective management of the poultry flock and, therefore, a study of the digestive system and the process of digestion and metabolism is an important facet in the study of poultry husbandry. The key in order to understand the function of the sphincter of Oddi is to discuss first how it looks like. It is produced by the mucosal cells that lines the upper small intestine once they detect presence of fats and amino acids. Studies on the physiology of the sphincter of Oddi show that the interplay between the small component sphincters and the longitudinal muscle fibers. Because the sphincter of Oddi relaxes after a meal when it is highly stimulated by cholecystokinin, pain from its dysfunction is mostly felt after eating and is called postprandial pain.
Other effects are also paradoxical response of the sphincter of Oddi to cholecystokinin resulting to dyskinesia or non-relaxation. It is also the process by which the body breaks down food into smaller components that can be absorbed by the blood stream.Mechanical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth where food is chewed, and mixed with saliva to break down starches.
This image here shows you the healthy microvilli in the brush border of your intestinal tract (you will see these hair-like substances on top).

This can show up in many ways but the most common is sinus issues, hay fever, allergies, colds and flus and skin problems.
You may think you are healthy when you are only at 60%, but you don’t know any better. This is especially important if the birds are to attain the productive performance expected of them. The nutrients from the food, after digestion, are absorbed through the wall of the alimentary canal into the circulatory system for transport to the liver or other parts of the body.
The hard palate that forms the roof of the mouth, presents a long, narrow median (median – along the middle) slit that communicates with the nasal cavity. The crop provides the capacity to hold food for some time before further digestion commences. The crop structure is similar to that of the oesophagus except there are no glands present in fowls.
These glands produce a number of juices or enzymes that are used in the digestion or breaking down of food into its constituent nutrients.
The glands of the gizzard produce a liquid which is a keratinised material that passes to the surface of the horny lining where it hardens to replace tissue worn away by the grinding action of the organ. There is no clear demarcation between the jejunum and ileum and the small intestine appears as one long tube. The pancreas lies between the arms of the loop and is attached to, and actually holds together, each arm of the duodenum. The pancreas is a very important organ in the process of digesting food and it is attached to each side of the duodenal loop and lies between the two arms. The bursa of fabricius is located immediately above the cloaca of young birds but disappears when the birds have reached approximately one year old. Minute canals called canaliculi that have the task of collecting and transporting the bile are associated with the cells in the tissue sheets. There is quite wide variability between birds in relation to eating behaviour, even between those in the same flock. Due to the crop’s ability to hold a supply of food, when applying a food control (restriction) program, it is necessary to compensate by providing a long period of food deprivation to achieve the required degree of control.
However, because of back flow of pancreatic juice and bile towards the gizzard, the actions of these secretions start earlier in the digestive process than would be expected by their entry point to the small intestine.
This is to ensure that contents of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct do not enter the duodenum.
It has three phases, the third phase of which migrates from the antrum of the stomach down to the ileum of the small intestine. In between contractions, the sphincter of Oddi allows flow of bile and digestive enzymes into the duodenum. Because of its function as a pump for bile and pancreatic secretions, its failure to do so frequently causes pancreatitis because the digestive enzymes of the pancreas are not secreted and are instead directed on the organ causing inflammation. The stomach continues to break food down mechanically and chemically through the churning of the stomach and mixing with enzymes. Why on earth would I tell you to cut out a food supply if it was providing valuable nutrition for your body?
This is where the enzymes lactase are produced that help you to breakdown the lactose in milk. However as we age, for some of us our digestive system goes through a lot of damage with our modern diet.
You need to provide your gut with healing foods, foods that are right for your metabolic type and your own body.
This page describes the structure and function of the various parts of the digestive system of the fowl and discusses the digestion of poultry food into its constituent nutrients. This capacity enables the bird to take its food as “meals” at time intervals but permits continuous digestion. The mucous membrane is raised into folds and between these folds are numerous simple tubular glands that produce hydrochloric acid as well as lymphoid tissue. Much of the digestion of the food and all of the absorption of the nutrients takes place in the small intestine and hence its structure is quite important.
Permanent folds in the mucous membrane called the “valves of kerkring” are located at the proximal end (closest to the front) of the duodenum. They also provide a means of concentrating the nutrients collection ability once they have moved through the intestine wall. The capsule, or glissosis, is the membrane that covers the liver and is thinner than that of mammals. These canals eventually join together to form the bile ducts with one going directly to the intestine and one to the gall bladder before it connects to the small intestine.
Some eat small amounts at short intervals while others eat larger amounts at wider intervals. There is no relationship between the length of time of food deprivation and the amount of food consumed.
One effect is an increase in the pH of the intestinal contents of the latter half of the duodenum from strongly to weakly acid.
Take note that the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes that may be destructive to the mucosa of the gut when uncontrolled by the sphincter of Oddi. The longitudinal fibers of the sphincter of Oddi previously mentioned function as promoters of the flow of bile and digestive enzymes into the duodenum. The sphincter of Oddi also responds to motilin, which controls the motility of the digestive tract.
This mechanism, which is termed as trans-sphincteric flow, shows that the sphincter performs its resistor and pump functions simultaneously. Furthermore, why on earth would YOU continue to eat a food source if it was the reason you get allergies, colds and flus every winter?
Whether it is from junk foods, medications, drugs, environment, chemicals, food intolerances… all sorts of things can cause damage to your digestive tract over time.
You need to learn to listen to your body and understand the symptoms it is throwing at you. Numerous ducts of the salivary glands pierce the hard palate to release their secretions into the mouth cavity. A transverse row of simple, large and horny papillae with their tips directed towards the rear of the mouth cavity are located on the posterior end. Inside the thoracic cavity, the oesophagus enters or becomes the proventriculus which is a very glandular part of the digestive tract (often called the glandular stomach).
In pigeons the surface cells of the crop slough off during brooding to form pigeon’s milk which is used to feed the baby pigeons in the nest. The gizzard almost always contains quantities of hard objects such as gravel or other grit that aids in the disintegration of food, which is the primary function of the gizzard. Longitudinal muscle fibers or fasciculi longitudinales are found in between the bile and pancreatic ducts. The sphincter’s contractions increase in frequency and amplitude shortly before and during the intense contractions of the duodenum. Trans-sphinteric flow is diminished by the action of motilin, with which the sphincter of Oddi also responds. When you repair your gut lining and you bring your digestive system back to full health, your body may be able to digest and break down lactose and enjoy good quality dairy again. For someone who has a gluten sensitivity and they have been consuming gluten their entire life, this is a big fight for your gut each and every day, each and every meal! Saliva is secreted in large amounts by three pairs of exocrine salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) in the oral cavity, and is mixed with the chewed food by the tongue.The Esophagus, a narrow, muscular tube about 30 centimeters (12 inches) long, starts at the pharynx, passes through the larynx and diaphragm, and ends at the cardiac orifice of the stomach.
Some believe that there are taste buds located on the tongue, but this belief is not universally held. In the stomach, food is further broken apart, and thoroughly mixed with a gastric acid and digestive enzymes that break down proteins. Here it is further mixed with three different liquids:a) bile, which emulsifies fats to allow absorption, neutralizes the chyme, and is used to excrete waste products such as bilin and bile acids (which has other uses as well). The colon itself has four parts: the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon.

Enzyme responsible for the digestion of carbohydrates
Yogurt with lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium animalis

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