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Probiotics in dentistry review of the current status live,whey protein probiotica pure,what is probiotics and how do they work meme,how to know a good probiotic yogurt - Test Out

Make the best use of Scientific Research and information from our 700+ peer reviewed, Open Access Journals that operates with the help of 50,000+ Editorial Board Members and esteemed reviewers and 1000+ Scientific associations in Medical, Clinical, Pharmaceutical, Engineering, Technology and Management Fields. The development of resistance to a range of antibiotics by some important pathogens has raised the possibility of a return of humans to the pre-antibiotic dark ages.
The human gut contains 10 times more bacteria than cells elsewhere in human body.
Probiotics can be defined as living microbes, or as food ingredients containing living microbes, that beneficially influence the health of the host when used in adequate numbers [6]. The idea of probiotics dates back to the first decade of 1900s when the Ukranian bacteriologist and Nobel Laureate Metchnikof (1908) studying the flora of the human intestine developed a theory that senility in humans is caused by poisioning of body by the products of some of thses bacteria. The general mechanisms of probiotics can be divided into three main categories: (a) normalization of intestinal microbiota, (b) modulation of immune response, and (c) metabolic effects [9]. Immunomodulation - Rather than directly inhibiting the growth or viability of the pathogen, probiotics may compete for an ecological niche or, otherwise, create conditions that are unfavorable for the pathogen to take hold in the intestinal tract.
The lactobacillus species help in production of enzymes to digest and metabolize proteins and carbohydrates.
Bifidobacterium species are strictly anaerobic and predominate the large intestines.
Streptococcus thermophillus and lactobacillus bulgaricus are primary cultures used in yogurt production.
Several studies suggest that consumption of products containing probiotic lactobacilli or bifidobacteria could reduce the number of mutans streptococci in saliva [19,20].
In addition to the classical probiotic strains, other oral residents or genetically modified strains have also been tested for their ability to inhibit cariogenic microbes. Riccia and colleagues in 2007 studied the anti inflammatory effects of Lactobaillus brevis in a group of patients with chronic periodontitis.
Another species, Streptococcus salivarius is detected most frequently among people without halitosis and is therefore considered a commensal bacterium of the oral cavity.
Fixed orthodontic appliances are considered to jeopardize dental health due to accumulation of microorganisms that may cause enamel demineralization, clinically visible as white spot lesions [27] Furthermore, the complex design of orthodontic bands and brackets may create an ecological environment that facilitates the establishment and growth of cariogenic mutans streptococci strains [28]. The anticancer effects of probiotics were long recognized but evidence in literature is minimal.
Only two studies have investigated the effects of probiotic bacteria on oral candida infection in humans [19,31]. In a shorter study with younger subjects, no significant difference was observed between effects of probiotic and those of control cheese on salivary candida counts [20].
Recently it has been postulated that the probiotic bacteria may slow down AIDS progression.
In summary, molecular, nano, biochemical, microbiological and engineering sciences hold the key to future advances in the clinical applications of probiotic and prebiotic products. Probiotics play an important role in combating issues with overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance. Manisha N, Ashar, Prajapathi JB (2001) Role of probiotic cultures and fermented milk in combating blood cholesterol. Parvez S, Malik KA, Ah Kang S, Kim HY (2006) Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health.
Caglar E, Cilder SK, Ergeneli S, Sandalli N, Twetman S (2006) Salivary mutans streptococci and lactobacilli levels after ingestion of probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 by straws or tablets. Hillman JD (2002) Genetically modified Streptococcus mutans for prevention of dental caries.
Kang MS, Kim BG, Chung J, Lee HC, Oh JS (2006) Inhibitory effect of Weissela cibaria isolates on the production of volatile sulphur compounds.
Burton JP, Chilcott CN, Moore CJ, Speiser G, Tagg JR (2006) A preliminary study of the effect of probiotic Streptococcus salivarius K12 on oral malodour parameters.
Mitchell L (1992) Decalcification during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance-an overview. Ahn SJ, Lim BS, Lee SJ (2007) Prevalence of cariogenic streptococci on incisor brackets detected by polymerase chain reaction. Derks A, Katsaros C, Frenken JE, Van't Hof MA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM (2004) Caries inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. Settings and Design: A total of 277 students of Rural Dental College at Gandhinagar district of Gujarat voluntarily participated in this exploratory study. Subjects and Methods: An instrument of thirteen questions was designed to assess knowledge and awareness about hepatitis B infection and transmission. Conclusions: Results indicate that specific education programs regarding occupational hazards and focus on hepatitis B creates a sensitization of the importance of this vaccination for the dental students.
Materials and Methods: Quantitative and descriptive approach designed by an Integrative Literature Review. Results: 76% of the evidences were developed by means of quantitative studies without application of a validate instrument (68%). Conclusion: This research considers that new evaluations are necessary in order to validate the information about the students' perception regarding dental course. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of myths regarding oral health, among out-patients attending a dental institute and suggest possible measures in conveying the facts. Materials and Methods: A pre-tested questionnaire on most common myths was given to 250 out-patients of which 135 (54%) were males and 115 (46%) were females. Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that various myths regarding dental treatments are highly prevalent among the general population and requires immediate addressing.
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Time has come to shift the paradigm of treatment from specific bacteria elimination to altering bacterial ecology by probiotics.

The enormous biomass consists of over 400 known bacterial species that generate intense metabolic activity and are of key importance for human health. To prevent the multiplication of these organisms he proposed a diet containing milk fermented by lactobacilli, which produce large amounts of lactic acid that could increase the life span of humans. The mechanisms of probiotic action in the oral cavity could be analogous to those described for the intestine. As there are bacterial species associated with oral diseases, there are also species that seem to be associated with oral health; however, it is questionable whether bacteria administered in food could influence relatively stable oral microbiota, in particular in adults [13]. There are many possible mechanisms for how pathogen exclusion may take place.
They aid in synthesis of Vit B and Vit K and facilitates breakdown of bile salts. Most noted benefits are to metabolize lactose, improve lactose intolerance and antimicrobial activity [16].
This multifactorial and complex disease process occurs along the interface between the dental biofilm and enamel surface. Using randomized controlled trials, Meurman and colleagues demonstrated that long term consumption of milk containing the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamuosus GG strain reduced initial caries in kindergarten children. S.salivarius is known to produce bacteriocins, which contribute in reducing the number of bacteria that produce Volatile sulphur compounds (VSC). White spot lesion formation can be seen as an imbalance as an imbalance between mineral loss and mineral gain and recent systematic reviews have examined methods to prevent this side effect of orthodontic treatment [29]. Evidence is cropping up that probiotics can interfere at various stages of cancer process, more so by interference with chromosomal and DNA damage.
Lin Tay and his colleagues screened hundreds of bacteria taken form saliva of volunteers.
These will include encapsulating probiotics, such that they rehydrate at specific sites, and encasing prebiotics in nano-aggregates that protect against stomach acid and deliver their payload when the pH reaches 7.4. Today’s new technological era would be the right time to change the way bacteria are treated.
In the 1990's, concept of teledentistry was introduced and Cook in 1997 defined this as the practice of using video-conferencing technologies to diagnose and advice about treatment over a distance.
An important component of ethics is the informed consent, which corresponds to the basic principle of patient autonomy and respect.
Average, probability of significant difference and Z test was utilized to draw conclusions. After the full program, which involved a vaccination using 0-1-6 regimen, a training session of HEP was held. Dental students' perceptions regarding their courses need to be the baseline to curricula evaluation. In order to assess knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of study subjects toward obesity, a questionnaire was adapted from a previous survey, which consisted of questions related to the student's perception of responsibilities toward obese patients, their knowledge and attitudes toward obese patients and each question had answers on a Likert scale. Less than half (45.6%) of the participants differed that they will need to make accommodations in equipment and office furniture. Many of the students in clinical years had negative attitudes toward obese patients than preclinical students. Understanding the myths and misconceptions about the disease is important in providing dental care. This ecosystem gets disrupted when exposed to toxics in the form of polluted water and food as well as injudicious use of antibiotics [1-3]. The concept of probiotics was thus born and a new field of bacteriology was opened [6]. Thus far oral colonization by probiotic bacteria has often been considered essential for them to exert oral effects; however, the possibility of systemic effects cannot be excluded, although the total sIgA levels in saliva seem unaffected by probiotic use [10,11]. First, several probiotics have been demonstrated to alter the ability of pathogens to adhere to or invade colonic epithelial cells in vitro. The benefits from these include metabolization of lactose, generate lactic acid and synthesize vitamins. However, more research is required to develop specific regulations on their consumption [3,16].
The results showed that some Lactobacillus strains had produced proteins capable of binding a particular type of sugar found on HIV envelope, called mannose. They play a beneficial role in preventing common oral health problems such as dental caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections (candida) and halitosis. Ancient Egyptians pierced their navels to signify royalty, Roman centurions wore nipple rings as a sign of virility and courage and Mayans pierced their tongues for spiritual purposes, The Eskimos and Aleuts pierced the lips of female infants as part of a purification ritual and the lower lip of the boys as part of passage into puberty. Like other health professionals, dentists have seen a lot of change over the years from extractions and dentures to digital technology that is taking dentistry to other level - creating practice possibilities hardly imaginable even 10 years ago. The knowledge assessment of the HBV disease was done prior to starting the hepatitis B education program (HEP) by noting the scores and it was again repeated 1 year later. Post-HEP adequate knowledge was demonstrated by 78% of the BDS students from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd year. This study aims to comprehend the perceptions regarding dental courses and describe how these perceptions are currently studied. More than half the subjects (60.6%) were interested in learning about obesity in dental school. They help in stimulating health promoting flora and also suppressing pathogens which cause and spread diseases. Antibiotic resistance, with the emergence of multiple resistant strains, is an increasingly important global problem [4]. Second, probiotics could sequester essential nutrients from invading pathogens and impair their colonization ability.

They also ferment indigestible carbohydrates and produce beneficial short chain fatty acids [16].
Shermanii JS for 16 weeks, the number of high oral yeast counts decreased but no changes were observed in mucosal lesions [19]. The binding of the sugar enables the bacteria to stick to the mucosal lining of the mouth and digestive tract, forming colonization.
It is that apparent that oral piercings are becoming much more prevalent in today's society.
In India, large number of population and school going children are lacking basic oral health education and services and subsequently affecting their health in various forms of disease and addiction toward the ill habits.
The process of informed consent is also helpful in improving the dentist-patient relationship thereby providing quality treatment.
Significantly greater number of clinical students agreed "they feel uncomfortable when examining an obese patient" and "it is difficult for them to feel empathy for the obese patient"; in addition, they believed that overweight people lack will-power and are lazier. The aim of this review is to understand the mechanism of action of probiotic bacteria in the oral cavity and summarize observed effects of probiotics as well as their varied applications in the field of dentistry. This causes destruction of beneficial bacteria leaving resistant ones, pathogenic. Mann and Spooering in 1974 discovered that the fermented yogurt reduced blood serum cholesterol. Third, probiotics may alter the gene expression program of pathogens in such a way as to inhibit the expression of virulence functions. Probiotic and molecular genetic techniques have been used to replace cariogenic organisms such as mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species with strains of bacteria that are not cariogenic [17]. Kang and colleagues reported that various strains of Weissella cibaria have the capacity to coaggregate with fusobacterium nucleatum and to adhere to epithelial cells and these bacteria produce hydrogen peroxide as well as a bacteriocin which inhibited the proliferation of F.
Lactis DN -173010 could reduce the salivary levels of mutans streptococci in orthodontic patients with fixed appliances. At the macromolecular level, it will soon be possible to coat capsules with biosensors that detect the optimal conditions for the release of probiotic contents [33]. Hence, systematic studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to find out the best probiotic strains and means of their administration in different oral health conditions.
Popular sites for body piercing include the ears, eyebrows, lips, nose, nipples, navel, penis, scrotum, labia, clitoris and tongue.
Implementation of a telehealth system can improve primary health-care services hence widen the reach of specialty care as well as can expand the chances for utilization of medical education and training by health care professionals and community members.
Informed consent in biomedical research is required to obtain the participants voluntary approval for being part of the study after understanding the various aspects of research and their role in it.
Of late it has been realized by health care professionals and prompted them to seek alternative therapeutic options. In 1984 Hull identified the first probiotic species, the lactobacillus acidophilus.
Lastly, probiotics may create an unfavorable environment for pathogen colonization by altering pH, the mucus layer, and other factors in the local surroundings. It also enhances vitamin production and reduces serum-cholestrol level and in anticarcinogenic activity [16].
Further studies are needed to clarify if this approach is an alternative strategy for prevention of demineralization and white spot formation during orthodontic treatment [30]. With fast evolving technology and integration of biophysics with molecular biology, designer probiotics poses huge opportunity to treat diseases in a natural and non invasive way. Oral body art, as it is referred to, usually involves piercing of the tongue, cheeks, lips or uvula. Utilization of these services and teledentistiry in India can set up a pivotal role in expanding and improving the oral health and other related ill habits such as smoking and tobacco chewing etc., in large extent. This article outlines the various aspects of informed consent such as the types, the process of obtaining consent in clinical practice and biomedical research. One such alternative is the use of beneficial bacteria, the probiotics, which stimulate health – promoting indigenous flora and reverting back the change [1,2,5]. It is important to note that although many of these possible effects have been demonstrated in vitro, the ability of probiotics to exclude pathogens in vivo remains to be proven [14].
Information regarding the regulations outlined by the governing bodies in India such as Dental Council of India, Indian Council of Medical Research and Indian penal code for informed consent is also provided in this article. WHO in 1994 described the probiotics as next most important in immune defense system following antibiotic resistance.
They enhance innate and acquired immunity as well as help in inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators [4,5]. Due to increase in oral piercing, it is important for dental and medical professionals to have knowledge about piercings to educate their patients concerning risk factors, complications and optimal homecare for piercings. These incidences paved way for a new concept of probiotics in medicine and dentistry [5,7,8].
This configuration would immobilize any immune cells harbouring HIV and prevent them from infecting other cells [32]. These extracellular polysaccharides (glucans) promote adhesion and colonization of cariogenic organisms and mediate protection against antimicrobial agents and resistance to toxic compounds.
Synthesis of these glucans is via glucosyltransferase B, glucosyltransferase C and glycosyltransferase D genes.

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