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I had the opportunity to listen to a talk given recently by Jon Vanderhoof, a pediatrician from the University of Nebraska. It was interesting to see how researchers are approaching the role of food allergens and their role in modern diseases, a damage which doesn’t involve the classically allergic mediated reactions and its diagnostic tools with such things as a prick test. Gluten also shows up in mother’s milk contributing thus to colics, failure to thrive, acid reflux, diarrhea, eczema, chronic diaper rash, vomiting, seizures and so forth. The classical allergic reaction is IgE mediated (a component of your defense system) and it could send you to the emergency room for a life saving adrenaline shot. Anyhow, the take home message is that Lactobacillus GG seems to be unique in its capacity to promote gut health and wellness in general, and that foods from the Agricultural revolution are at the root of mankind’s deteriorating health. Vanderhoof seemed to imply that Lactobacillus GG would increase the chance that a baby would tolerate a certain food allergen better. IgE-mediated allergic responses to foods are the most dramatic and perhaps the most easily diagnosed type of food allergy.
The gut contains a diverse bacterial flora that is acquired at birth and has a number of physiological functions. It is estimated that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) complicates the care of up to 30% of patients receiving mechanical ventilation.
I’m a heart surgeon graduated from the University of Milan who after learning all about the heart and repairs of same from a strictly mechanical point of view, had decided to embark on alternative health research. Item Not Found - 163072851 Note : The seller assumes all responsibility for listing this item. Compared with routine medical care, probiotics administered to critically ill patients in intensive care units showed no benefit in preventing the colonization of drug-resistant microbes in the intestinal tract, according to new research at Washington University School of Medicine in St. The probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (above) was no more effective than regular medical care in preventing the colonization of superbugs in the gastrointestinal tracts of critically ill patients, according to a pilot study by Washington University researchers. Probiotics — live microorganisms believed to help restore the balance of intestinal bacteria and increase resistance to harmful germs — were given to patients twice daily for up to two weeks. Patients were randomly assigned to receive probiotics and routine care or routine care alone. The data showed that the drug-resistant microbes colonized the intestinal tracts of 10 percent of patients in the probiotic group and 15 percent in the standard-care group — a difference that was not statistically significant. However, Kwon emphasized the study’s limitations: small patient sample size, brief length of patient follow-up, and use of a single type and dose of probiotic. To that end, Kwon is part of a Washington University research team evaluating probiotics in hospitalized patients who are not in ICUs.
Reduce the incidence of children with atopic conditions including allergic rhinitis and food allergy. OpticsCentral is able to Price Match some Australian retailers on telescopes and sports optics (we can NOT price match cameras and accessories).As a part of our Price Match policy, we hope to be able to provide the best price we can for our customers without undercutting ourselves.
It’s unfortunate, but sometimes products may have a manufacturing fault or get damaged in transit. Home Journals Books Conferences News About Us Jobs Advances in Microbiology Vol. He was talking about the wonders and peculiarities of Lactobacillus GG and its role in digestive health.
It also acts as the good guy which promotes the proliferation of other good bacteria in the neighborhood and it survives stomach acidity, making it likely to reach the intestinal walls where it’s needed the most. In fact, from a strictly mainstream medicine point of view, Vanderhoof explained that a host of inflammatory conditions along the digestive tube were increasingly associated with food intolerances. This is one of the reasons why a paleo or ketogenic diet can be very beneficial for a lot of folks with several different conditions or health problems. But if the body reacts to certain foods as it does, it is probably because the food per se is very harmful and was never part of mankind’s natural diet to begin with. Non-IgE-mediated food hypersensitivity is more chronic, less acute, less obvious in its clinical presentation, and often more difficult to diagnose.
Patients with VAP have increased morbidity, mortality, and hospital costs as well as prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay and increased costs […] Probiotic prophylaxis of VAP using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG appears safe and efficacious in a select population of patients who are at very high risk for contracting VAP. The researchers then monitored whether the microbes took up residence in the intestinal tract — a first step to developing a full-blown infection. Additionally, the researchers confined the study to gastrointestinal bacteria and did not assess the possible impact of probiotics on preventing the colonization of superbugs in the stomach or the upper airway. We try to provide competitive pricing when possible, but cannot always guarantee the best price. If you have any problems with your order within 30 days of purchase, we are happy to help you out with an Exchange or Refund. If you would like to return an item to us for an Exchange or Refund, we are happy to do so within 30 days of purchase as long as the item is in its original condition with all of the original packaging.
Vanderhoof was presenting his clinical experience with the use of Lactobacillus GG in children’s gut problems and he seemed to be very pleased with the results.
It usually presents in infants between one week and three months of age with vomiting and diarrhea, although irritability, poor feeding, and failure to thrive are not uncommon. Prebiotics are poorly digested oligosaccharides that promote the growth of desirable bacteria and may have other beneficial gastrointestinal and systemic effects. This therapy may also offer an opportunity to prevent related ICU complications, such as C. It is supposed to be more acid and bile stable, and it has more avidity for human intestinal cells. Researchers studied whether the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG could prevent the intestinal colonization of superbugs such as Clostridium difficile (C.
If you have any issues with your order, please contact our Customer Service team via the Contact Us page or call us on 1300 884 767 within 30 days of receiving your order and we will issue you with a Return Authority for your product. Most food allergens create great havoc through a non-dramatic but very harmful long-term effect. For more information see  Origins of Agriculture – Did Civilization Arise to Deliver a Fix? A thorough history and physical examination are often key in establishing a diagnosis of food protein hypersensitivity. Also find out any shipping costs which apply, and make sure the product is definitely in stock with the competitor.
Once assessed by our team and the item is found faulty or we have made a mistake, we are certainly happy to provide you with an Exchange or Refund.Return shipping for Faulty or Incorrect products is FREE, and we will send out the replacement at no additional cost to you. Probiotics produce beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of traveller’s diarrhoea, viral diarrhoea, and diarrhoea in day care centres. Ultimately, probiotics may fulfill a role in antimicrobial stewardship programs given the reductions in antibiotic consumption[Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Moreover, probiotics have been shown to reduce relapses associated with Clostridium difficile, and Lactobacilli are effective in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial.
He emphasized that he was seeing children constipated as the only reaction to a milk allergy.
If in doubt, contact our supplier and find out if they supply the competitor with that particular product. Other less fortunate little ones were having blood on their stools and vomiting (among other things) in response to their mother’s awful diet. Clinical studies of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease have proved disappointing, but beneficial effects in adults with irritable bowel syndrome have been reported with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624.
So of course, mothers are instructed to do an elimination diet when they are breastfeeding their babies.
Lactobacilli GG reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms and gut permeability in patients with atopic dermatitis, and administration of probiotics reduces the frequency and severity of atopic eczema when administered to pregnant women and then to newborn infants. However, so far most researches have used cell lines or animal models due to the difficulty of measuring the effects of products on the epithelial barrier function in vivo in humans.
Here a systematic literature search was performed to find articles addressing the effects of probiotics on the barrier function in human trials.


The Pubmed database was searched (January 2013) to identify human in vivo studies with probiotic products in which parameters for epithelial barrier function were measured. In total 29 studies were identified, but patients, bacterial characteristics and methods to measure intestinal barrier function caused large heterogeneity among these studies. About half of the studies showed positive results of probiotics on the epithelial barrier function, indicating a clear potential of probiotics in this field. In a case series of 14 patients using Ecologicâ825, a probiotic food supplement with known effect on epithelial barrier function, different markers of intestinal integrity improved significantly. Further studies in this field should consider strain(s), dose and duration of the probiotic supplementation as well as the markers used to measure epithelial barrier function. On the other hand they also form a barrier between the body and the bacteria, toxins and antigens present in the gut. The ability to control the invasion of harmful content from the lumen to the body is called the intestinal barrier function.
This defense mechanism consists of multiple elements, like the mucous layer, secretory IgA, antimicrobial peptides, and the apical junction complex. The tight junctions seal the paracellular pathway and are the rate-limiting step in the transport between adjacent epithelial cells [1]. This can lead to an increased permeability, allowing amongst others enhanced entrance of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) into the body.
LPS are parts of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and are strong endotoxic compounds. They can cause the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the body, leading to inflammation.
Increased permeability of the epithelial barrier has been associated with many gastrointestinal inflammatory disorders, like inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), food allergies and celiac disease [2]. In addition, increased permeability can also lead to systemic inflammatory diseases, like allergy, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, atherosclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, autism, migraine and rheumatoid arthritis [3]. Also a case series with Ecologic®825 is described, a potential probiotic product which has shown positive effects on epithelial barrier function in both a cell culture system (Saskia van Hemert, personal communication), as well as in a rat model of chronic water avoidance stress [24]. Literature Review The systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed up to 1 January 2013, using the following (truncated) keywords “probiotic*, lactobacill* or bifidobact* AND trial AND barrier or permeability”. A second search was performed with “probiotic*, lactobacill* or bifidobact* AND epithelial barrier, intestinal integrity or tight junctions”. By screening the titles and abstracts, studies performed in vitro, in animals and reviews were subsequently excluded. Additional papers were found by checking references of pertinent articles and by searching on “probiotic*” and different methods of measuring intestinal permeability. Analyses Zonulin, ?1-antitrypsin and calprotectin in stool samples were analyzed with commercially available ELISA kits (Immundiagnostik AG, Bensheim, Germany) as described earlier [25]. In the serum levels the following parameters were measured with standard procedures (Biovis Diagnostik): IgG4 antibodies against banana, egg, hazelnut, cow milk, soy beans and wheat, and high sensitive (hs)CRP.
Probiotic Regime One of the variables related to the used probiotics is the daily dose.
This ranged from 1 ? 109 colony forming units (CFU) [28] to 1 ? 1012 CFU [35] of the studies yielding positive effects and from 1 ? 109 CFU [39] to 9 ? 1011 CFU [27] of the studies with no clear benefit on barrier function. When looking at the mean daily dose, the positive studies administered on average 1 ? 1011 CFU, while the studies without positive effects used 8 ? 1010 CFU, a negligible difference on the log-scale used to determine the CFU. These results imply that a relatively high dose is not principally necessary to result in a positive effect nor does it give any guarantee of such. Moreover, different patient groups might benefit from different daily doses to elicit effects.
28 days for studies with a positive effect and no effect respectively, whereas the medians were 28 days for both groups of studies. Some authors suggested that the lack of a positive outcome was due to a too short intervention duration [31,43].
Finally, studies were also checked for a follow-up period, to speculate on the persistence of a beneficial effect of probiotics.
Only two studies specifically defined a follow-up test but neither of both tested the intestinal permeability at that time [45,46]. Although the clinical symptoms remained lower in the probiotics group, nothing can be said about the persistent effects on intestinal permeability. It has been suggested that multispecies probiotic products (products with multiple strains, preferentially of different genera) are in general more effective compared to monospecies products (containing a single strain) [48,49], but for the studies in this review the results were comparable for monostrain and multispecies products.
Monostrain products were used in 10 studies with a positive outcome and 8 studies without a beneficial effect on barrier function, whereas multispecies products were involved in 8 studies with a positive outcome and 7 studies without beneficial effect.
However, for the large majority of the studies it was not described how the used strains were selected or why these specific strains were used. Patient Groups Another point of interest is the variation of patient groups in the studies reviewed.
Different pathological mechanisms can lead to various problems with the epithelial barrier, perhaps requesting diverse probiotic approaches.
Measurement of Intestinal Permeability Besides heterogeneity in the bacterial strains and the patient group, the method of measuring the intestinal permeability was a third source of heterogeneity. While the majority of the studies used a sugar absorption test (19 out of 29), the used sugars were variable (lactulose, mannitol, cellobiolose, sucrose or rhamnose).
Measuring bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes can only be done in studies with operations.
This method does not seem to correlate with results of a sugar test [51] and it has been suggested that bacterial translocation after abdominal surgery may be part or normal antigen-sampling processes of the gut [18]. The two studies with HIV-infected individuals both used PCR on blood plasma to determine microbial translocation, whereas this method has not been used in any of the other studies with probiotics.
Whereas this method is relevant to measure intestinal barrier function remains to be determined, as liver function might also influence the levels of bacterial DNA in blood plasma.
A relatively novel marker of barrier function is zonulin, which was used in a recent study with probiotics [25].
Zonulin has been suggested as one of the most valid surrogate markers to estimate intestinal barrier function in humans [52]. Interestingly in one study effects of probiotic supplementation on plasma levels of LPS were observed, despite a lacking effect as measured with PEG [53].
Second, the quantity of sugars used varied from 250 mg to 10 g for lactulose and from 100 mg to 5 g for mannitol. Although the absolute quantities used might not be of major influence, as the eventual ratio is a relative value, the osmolarity of the test solution can have influenced the outcomes [54]. The average zonulin levels decreased significantly after the 8 weeks intervention period (p Figure 1(a)).
In the group of people started with elevated zonulin levels, the levels decreased in 8 of the 10 persons during the intervention period.
In the control group 2 of the 4 persons showed decreased zonulin levels after 8 weeks of intervention. These levels were decreased in 6 of the 7 people starting with elevated levels, and also in 6 of the 7 people starting with levels in the normal range ( Figure 1. Those levels were decreased in all five participants which had elevated levels before the start of the intervention, but not in the persons which started with normal values (Figure 1(c)). The IgG4 antibodies against food allergens (measured in 9 of the 14 people) did not show any differences before and after the intervention (results not shown). In our study elevated levels of three markers of intestinal permeability were found in the majority of the participants. In this cases series, zonulin levels were measured in faeces, as was also done in a study investigating the effects of probiotic supplementation in trained men [24]. Tissue levels of zonulin in the intestine were much higher in celiac patients compared to controls [21]. Wider Implications The primary aim of this narrative review was to provide an intensive overview of the current literature regarding the influence of probiotics on the human intestinal barrier function. This review is, to our knowledge, the first to overview the literature of probiotics and intestinal permeability in in vivo human studies.


Overall, there are several indications in vivo that probiotics can have positive effects on the barrier function, as a positive effect was found in 48% of the controlled studies. The heterogeneity of the studies makes it impossible to draw any conclusions on probiotic treatment specifications. It is plausible that different patient groups might benefit from different treatment plans, such as daily dose, strain and duration. Moreover, different disturbances of the gut barrier might also ask for different barrier measurements.
The case series indicated that zonulin, ?1-antitrypsin and hsCRP might be valuable markers to measure intestinal permeability in vivo.
For these investigations consensus is necessary on standardized methods to measure barrier function. Acknowledgements The authors like to thank the participants of the case series for their participation in the study. Keshavarzian, “Intestinal Barrier: An Interface between Health and Disease,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol. Turner, “Epithelial Barriers in Homeostasis and Disease,” Annual Review of Pathology-Mechanisms of Disease, Vol. Fasano, “Leaky Gut and Autoimmune Diseases,” Clinical Review of Allergy and Immunology, Vol. Nicoli, “Probiotics and Mucosal Barrier in Children,” Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, Vol. Bruewer, “Effect of Probiotics on Intestinal Barrier Function,” Annals of the New York Academy of Science, Vol. Bjarnason, “Assessing the Site of Increased Intestinal Permeability in Coeliac and Inflammatory Bowel Disease,” Gut, Vol. Miele, et al., “Increased Intestinal Permeability and Tight Junction Alterations in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease,” Hepatology, Vol. Bode, “Increased Intestinal Permeability to Macromolecules and Endotoxemia in Patients with Chronic Alcohol Abuse in Different Stages of Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease,” Journal of Hepatology, Vol.
Besselink, et al., “Intestinal Barrier Dysfunction in a Randomized Trial of a Specific Probiotic Composition in Acute Pancreatitis,” Annals of Surgery, Vol. Kanda, et al., “Intestinal Fatty Acid-Binding Protein Is a Useful Diagnostic Marker for Mesenteric Infarction in Humans,” Gastroenterology, Vol. Marks, “Human Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Report of an Assay with Studies in Normal Volunteers and Intestinal Ischemia,” Surgery, Vol. Fasano, et al., “Zonulin, a Newly Discovered Modulator of Intestinal Permeability, and Its Expression in Coeliac Disease,” Lancet, Vol. Fasano, “Human Zonulin, a Potential Modulator of Intestinal Tight Junctions,” Journal of Cell Science, Vol. Tripathi, et al., “Identification of Human Zonulin, a Physiological Modulator of Tight Junctions, as Prehaptoglobin-2,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. Garcia Vilela, et al., “Influence of Saccharomyces Boulardii on the Intestinal Permeability of Patients with Crohn’s Disease in Remission,” Scandanavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol.
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