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The gastro-intestinal tract's healthy function relies on the presence of beneficial bacteria, in a relationship called symbiosis.
Whilst we are emptying our bowels of stool once or more a day (hopefully) and expelling this stool together with the bacteria, good and bad therein, we are continually introducing new food from the mouth and stomach into the digestive tract. Probiotics are good or supportive bacteria which help to consume available food sources in the intestine and thus deprive bad bacteria (and also yeasts and parasites to an extent) of their normal food sources, and hence help to starve the bad bacteria.
Bidfidobacteria (collectively known as Lactobacillus bifidus) outnumber other Lactobacilli species by approximately 1000 to 1, and is in many sense the dominant healthy bacteria, although Lactobacillus is more hardy and resilient.
Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria help to inhibit potential pathogenic bacteria, such as E.coli or Clostridium perfringens. When intestinal flora is in a healthy and balanced state, the beneficial bacteria (probiotic) make up a significant proportion of the body's total microflora. Dr Sarah Myhill has a useful page regarding fementation in the GI tract and different bacterial strains. Intestinal bloating, gas, fatigue, lack of appetite and poor mood are some of the many symptoms of dysbiosis.
Good or probiotic bacteria act as competition for imbalance or pathogenic flora, and help to starve them of their usual food sources, feeding on and absorbing any remaining viable food sources in the stool that the body is not able to utilise, thus keeping the less desirable competitor's numbers down. General Practitioners tend to prescribe antibiotics for any suspected bacterial infection, whether local or systematic.
Our good, supportive bacteria (as well as many bad bacteria) are virtually completely killed off with the use of antibiotics, which many GPs tend to give out like sweets to patients who come with any kind of bacterial or viral illess. This is exaccerbated by poor modern, western diets high in sugar and simple carbohydrates, which help to feed bad bacteria, and consumption of tap water over decades, which contains chlorine, which helps to inhibit good bacteria to some degree.
There are three categories of nasty organism that thrive in the low oxygen (anaerobic) environment and neutral pH of the intestines: bad bacteria, candida and parasites. All three classes of organism thrive and grow in number on account of modern, western eating habits, mainly a high sugar intake, a high pasturised dairy intake (many vegetarians), a high wheat (bread) intake and high alcohol intake.
Sporty types who think they can eat whatever they like, including sugary sweets, high fat snacks and foods, and burn off the calories are unfortunately missing the point. Excessive sugar, honey or artificial sweetner consumption tends to encourage harmful organism overgrowth.
Of course, bacteria can enter the body in other ways besides dietary sources, from water or orally from touching objects and then touching the mouth.
Clearly viruses may contribute to CFS or related conditions, or at least be a trigger for these conditions to occur. Articles examining the foundation of modern medicine and the theory behind treatment of infectious diseases and antibiotics usage (i.e. In general terms, if certain strains or levels of imbalanced flora appear in one's stool, the main treatment recommendation is to simply supplement with more probiotic bacteria (i.e probiotic supplements) and ensure a more appropriate diet and intake of sufficient dietary fibre. Lactic bacteria, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacteria, Streptococcus and Enterococcus bacteria, ferment carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen to produce lactic acid.
In humans, the two LDH enzymes act on L-Lactate to convert it into Pyruvate (and vice versa). Lactate production in the GI tract helps to suppress the growth of yeasts and harmful bacteria.
The body then has two main methods available to eliminate D-Lactate are renal excretion (i.e. Individuals with CFS and related conditions may already be producing energy anaerobically in their mitochondria excessively and thus producing more lactic acid than normal, and if there is severe dysbiosis, commensal bacteria may also add to this acidity by producing the type of lactate that is harder for the body to break down. D-Lactic Acidosis is rare in general terms and usually only occurs in the case of short bowel syndrome in humans (malabsorption disorder caused by surgical removal of the small intestine) and children with gastroenteritis. It is possible that a disproportionately large amount of probiotic lactic acid producing species such as Strepococcus and Enterococcus can be responsible for D-Lactic acidemia. Below is a list of D-Lactate producing Lactobacillus bacteria (Source: Breakspear Medical Group Newsletter Issue 26). These are the ideal probiotic Lactobacillus species to supplement for those with Lactobacillus deficiencies and elevated D-Lactate levels. Breakspear Medical Group's general suggestion from the newsletter is that CFS patients in general should avoid bacteria that produce solely D-Lactate, and if they have myalgia (e.g. In any case, killing off the bad and excessive commensal bacterial species, and repopulating the GI tract with a variety of good bacterial strains (i.e. Ammonia - Ammonia is a product of normal protein catabolism, and ammonia is removed from the blood by the liver.
Phenols - has adverse effects on the nervous system and heart, causing cardiac dysrhythmia). Secondary bile acids - may cause inflammation or damage to the brush border of the small intestine. Some larger pathogenic organisms, such as tape worms, also carry with them secondary infections, such as a variety of protozoan parasites, which can leap frog their way into the body via the larger parasite.
Each of the three main categories of pathogenic organism are examined on this page, including a variety of treatment protocols. Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) is an endogenous toxin produced in the body by the action of bad bacteria (such as Prevotella) and fungi (such as Candida Albicans) fermenting sugar in the gastrointestinal tract.
Please see the Effects of Toxicity and the Inefficient Liver Function pages for more information on H2S build up and its effects. Because of a reliance on anti-biotics by General Practioners for all manner of ailments, the delicate balance of beneficial bacteria in the GI tract in many people is utterly destroyed on a periodic basis and bad bacteria and yeasts are allowed to flourish unchecked (above is a picture of an E.coli bacterium). And because the modern diet contains high levels of simple carbohydrates and refined sugar, and does not include many true fermented foods that contain beneficial bacteria (such as natural yoghurt, live kefir (see the recipes page), sauerkraut, kombucha, miso etc. There are a large number of different species and strains of pathogenic bacteria that can reach dysbiotic levels in the GI tract and indeed spread throughout the body if the gut lining is particularly impaired.
Certain strains of bad bacteria are found to cause a variety of extremely harmful diseases and conditions, for example Lyme Disease. Borrelia infections via a tick bite are frequently accompanied by other Lyme Disease Co-Infections, including Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Babesia, Bartonella, Rickettsia, Coxiella, Toxoplasma, Mycoplasma and others. Borrelia is an intracellular bacterium and chiefly affects the cells of the nervous system and may result in severe CNS inflammation, vision problems, joint inflammation etc.
Natural antimicrobials that may help to deal with Lyme Disease and its potential Co-Infections include Artemisinin, Samento, Banderol, Cumanda and Quina. The mycoplasma fermentans genome is found in approximately a third of CFS patients, is a co-factor in immune system deficiency. Mycoplasma is postulated to contribute to elevated levels of the oxidant Peroxynitrite (resulting in a vicious circle of oxidative damage to the body's cells). Some information on Mycoplasma Fermentans can be found at the ImmunoSciences Lab and Shasta CFS web sites below.
A video of Trevor Marshall PhD's Keynote Presentation at the 2008 World Gene Congress is shown at the link below. He states that 'In Homo sapiens, the VDR Nuclear Receptor transcribes genes for the Cathelicidin and beta-Defensin anti-microbial peptides, essential to intra-phagocytic innate immune defenses.
In the Keynote Presentation above, he also states that 'The microbiota changes expression of over 903 genes, including MTSS1 ('Metastasis Suppressor 1').
The VDR is the Vitamin D Receptor which plays a role in the immune system as a well as other functions.
Some posts on the Marshall Protocol (which I do not personally endorse) forum on the subject, including from Trevor Marshall himself, can be found at the link below. Environmental strains of Enterobacter cloacae are capable of growth in foods stored at refrigeration temperatures.
Gram negative bacterial species, such as Enterobacter cloacae, are unaffected by Penicillin-based antibiotics, which only suppress gram positive bacteria. Chlamydophila pneumoniae (formerly known as Chlamydia pneumoniae) is a species of Chlamydophila bacteria. It infects humans and is one of the major causes of atypical Pneumonia, along with Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Cpn contains two endotoxins that (when released after killing the bacteria) can result in tissue damage, inflammation, chronic immune system activation and an increase in toxicity in the body. Chlamydia pneumoniae is not to be confused with the sexually transmitted disease 'Chlamydia' which is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, that is generally symptomless and can damage a woman's reproductive organs if left untreated.
Chlamydia pneuomoniae Elementary Bodies (EBs) can be identified using dark field microscopy on Red Blood Cells (see above picture), amongst other methodologies. Standard treatments including single courses of antibiotics (of a 2 week duration), can only kill Cpn in one of its three life cycle phases, leaving live forms of Cpn bacteria in the body which can continue the infection thereafter in other phases of their life cycle. According to the CPN Help web site, a combination of approaches can be employed, to attack all 3 forms of the bacterium. D-Penicillamine (a chelating agent) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) break the disulphide bonds in the cysteine-rich proteins of the outer coating of the Elementary Bodies (EMs). Whilst the above drugs are varying in their levels of toxicity, NAC of course is a good source of Cysteine and a Glutathione precursor, and can help to support liver function, detoxification and the immune system in general (if taken to supplement a deficiency in Cysteine or Glutathione). Natural antimicrobials that may help to deal with Cpn include Nutramedix Samento, Banderol and Quina.
Various species of Clostridia (gram positive) bacteria have been shown in vitro to produce DHPPA. Pseudomonas are gram-negative rod bacteria, and are responsible for most hospital based infections. Both DHPPA and citramalate levels can be identified in a urine test such as the Optimal Nutrition Evaluation (ONE) by Genova Diagnostics. Beta-alanine is often elevated when the dietary peptides anserine and carnosine are elevated because they contain beta-alanine.
There are approximately 400+ varieties of bacteria in the digestive tract and take many years to build up through a healthy diet. A healthy GI tract's composition of beneficial flora is not just a case of quantity but also diversity or quality. Sources of probiotics include true fermented products, for example, fermented cabbage juice, live kefir or (bio-)live natural yoghurt and also probiotics supplements. Good probiotics supplements may come in enterically coated format also to ensure deeper penetration into the GI tract, as under normal circumstances most bacteria entering the GI tract are destroyed by the stomach acid in the stomach.
The vast majority of active probiotic bacterial cells are destroyed by the stomach before they reach the small and large intestine.
In my experience, probiotics work very well, unless there is a significant state of dysbiosis or commensal bacterial overgrowth, in which case many types of probiotics may work well up to a certain point, then achieve very little until the unwanted bacteria are killed off with antimicrobial treatments, afterwhich point the prebiotics can work more effectively again to boost probiotic bacterial numbers. The most common genus found in probiotics supplements tend to be Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species. Bifidobacterium infantis is found in mother's breast milk and is one of the first few colonisers of a newly born infant's GI tract (hence the name deriving from 'infant'). Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 is marketed under the trademark 'Bifantis' by Procter and Gamble.
Lactobacillus reuteri is not found in all GI tracts but is a highly effective probiotic bacterial strain, also found in mother's breast milk in small quantities. L.reuteri is only currently found in one probiotic supplement, Nature's Way's Primadophilus Reuteri, which also contain Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium longum.
Examples of good generic Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium probiotics supplements are listd below (number of cells quoted per capsule or sachet). Archturus' Pro-Bifidus powder (containing 1 billion cells per gram - using Nebraska 3 Bifido strains - B. A number of soil-based bacteria formulas are available, and which are not listed above, with the exception of Primal Defense. One of my practitioners has found that only three commercial probiotic products that he's tried seem to work best with his patients - Garden of Life's Primal Defense (Standard or Ultra), Securil and Allergy Research's Culturelle Lactobacillus GG. Dr Ohhira's Probiotics 12 Plus (Original or Professional) - contain a smaller number of Enterococcus faecalis TH10 per capsule. Quantum Nutrition Labs (PR Labs) HM Nano Detox, Melatonin Nano-Plex, Nano-DHLA and others (stated on ingredients) - these are not primarily probiotic supplements although they do contain probiotics.
Dr Ohhira's product is fermented over 5 years using fruits, vegetables, mushrooms and seaweeds, containing 12 probiotic species (no SBOs) and various organic acids (including citric, lactic, formic and acetic acids). My practitioner muscle tested this product on me and it tested negatively (allergic reaction). Mutaflor is the brand name for the probiotic species of Escherichia coli (E.coli), known as strain Nissle 1917 or Mutaflor for short, which is manufactured by German firm Ardeypharm. Beneficial E.coli produce folic acid, Co-Enzyme Q10, vitamin K2 and the amino acids Tyrosine, Phenylalanine and Tryptophan. Mutaflor is also available in suspension form, in 1ml or 5ml vials, presumably at the same strength as the capsules described above.
Mutaflor capsules can be purchased in the US and Canada directly from the respective Mutaflor web sites. A German reseller of Mutaflor is Berlinda Versand Apotheke, who sell both capsules and suspension. Another alternative suggested by Ardeypharm is Metropolitan Pharmacy, who are based at an airport and who guarantee 2 day deliveries for all international shipping (if I am not mistaken). Propionibacteria freudenreichii is a type of gram-positive, non-motile (not free swimming) bacterium that is used in the production of certain types of cheeses, for example, Emmental and to a lesser extent Leerdammer. During cheese production, Propionibacterium freudenreichii ferments lactate to form acetate, propionate and carbon dioxide. I’ve been hearing a lot about these things called probiotics, but I’m really not sure exactly what they are or why they’re important. Well F, last time we looked at some basics of probiotics and bacterial balance in the body to get a feel for what they do in the body. Diets high in sugar, processed food, and refined carbohydrates –these foods feed bad bacteria and yeasts.
Birth via C-section—babies born via C-section are not exposed to the bacteria that line their mothers’ vaginal canal and so can have an altered intestinal microflora that may need to be addressed via diet and supplementation.
We have also looked at some of the common symptoms and illnesses that may have gut dysbiosis as an underlying or contributing cause.
Now that we’re caught up on some of the causes and symptoms of gut dysbiosis, let’s take a look at some specific imbalances and the proper probiotic strains to help alleviate those imbalances and symptoms. The most common strains of probiotic bacteria found in supplements are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria bifidum. There are of course numerous other bacteria and yeasts that live in our digestive tracts that are still being studied for their specific effects in the body and so are not included in supplements at the time being. There are so many different brands of probiotics on the market and all of them claim to have the best delivery systems and the best strains.


AKA washing soda or soda ash is a chemical commonly found in household and industrial cleaning products so you probably don’t want to take a probiotic that contains it.
A thickening agent that comes from the guar bean (aka the Indian cluster bean), it can cause digestive irritation in those with Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO), so it seems rather counterintuitive to take a probiotic that contains this ingredient. This acronym stands for Colony Forming Units, which means the strains of bacteria have been proven to bunk down in your digestive tract and start reproducing.
A lot of brands will have proprietary blends of probiotic strains where you will see the general name, such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, followed by a combination of numbers and letters, such as HA-122. This number means that it the specific strain has been identified and its effects in the body studied. While not necessary, a lot of probiotics contain FOS (fructooligosaccharides), a type of prebiotic fibre, as a food source for the bacteria as they make the incredible journey from mouth to digestive tract. There are some brands of probiotics that are shelf stable thanks to the specific coating used to encase the bacteria, but for the most part you’ll want to look for a probiotic that is refrigerated as this action will typically help the bacteria live longer. As a complete counterpoint to the previous statement, my favourite brand is totally shelf-stable.
Stay tuned for part 3 when I finally get to some specific strains to help with things such as candida overgrowth, C.
Caitlin Iles is a Holistic & Culinary Nutritionist and Yoga teacher who focuses on healing the body through gentleness, self-compassion, the latest nutrition research, and time-tested, evolution-based dietary concepts. Caitlin Iles is a Holistic & Culinary Nutritionist and Yoga teacher who focuses on healing the body through gentleness, self-compassion, the latest nutrition research, and time-tested, evolution-based dietary concepts. Beneficial bacteria aid in digestion, correct pH balance, break down of foods and prevent the build up of harmful bacteria. Approximately 70% of the body's immune system capability derives from the beneficial bacteria in the GI tract. The probiotic bacteria have many health-protecting functions in the GI tract including the fermentation of soluble fibre into Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs), vitamin production, protein and disaccharide lactose digestion, and stimulating an increase in the number of immune system cells (with associated anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor action).
This may well kill off a bacterial infection, but will also kill off a large part of the body's immune system (beneficial bacteria), rending the body susceptible to bad bacterial or candida overgrowth.
Penicillin-based antibiotics are only effective against gram positive bacteria, and so leave many species of gram negative pathogenic bacteria unaffected - but whilst killing off one's probiotic bacteria in the process. In addition, there is considerable evidence to suggest that eating antibiotics fed animal meat can kill off good bacteria in the GI tract and therefore encourage harmful micro-organism overgrowth.
The media focusses very much on the calorific impact of such foods, which is secondary to the impact they have on one's intestinal health. If you have a particularly sweet tooth, you can use a powerful, natural sweetner such as 'stevia'. Germ theory and the application of penicillin and antibiotics was based on the concept that killing bacteria would help to stop the spread of disease, and in the short term it was correct, but as a long term strategy, indiscriminate killing of bacteria if non-selective is highly flawed and not without its downsides as we can see above. Imbalanced flora are those bacteria that are not pathogenic in nature, but rather commensal.
However, if excessive conmensal Streptococcus and Enterococcus fermentation in the GI tract occurs, then D-Lactate levels tend to rise in th body, and acidosis (a drop in blood pH) occurs - known as D-Lactic Acidosis.
It can of course occur in patients who have markedly poor digestion with a large proportion of undigested carbohydrate in the GI tract. There are many different species, some are probiotic, some are commensal and some are pathogenic. All yoghurt contains Streptococcus thermophilus which creates the creamy taste, and usually Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria. In addition, the constant strain on the immune system renders it slightly incapacitated, and it is likely to be further impaired in any case for toxicological and nutritional deficiency reasons. Elevated ammonia levels may occur where bad bacteria are also producing significant amounts of additional ammonia. The brush border is the name for the microvilli-covered epithelium surface of the small intestine, the site of terminal carbohydrate digestion. Whilst it is not possible to examine each relevant species and strain, a small selection of some of the more noteworthy examples are listed in the following sections.
Lyme Disease is an infectious disease caused by at least 3 species of Borrelia bacteria (and perhaps up to 12 species of the 36 Borrelia bacterial species).
As Borrelia is a biolfim loving organism, it will likely be necessary to take a number of biofilm-busting supplements.
L-form bacteria), a group of simple, single cell bacteria which have no outer membrane or cell wall (and are thus resistant to antibiotics).
Mycoplasma fermentans tends to concentrate in the mucosal tissues, although it is shown also to infect other cells, such as white blood cells. The theory goes that mycoplasma infections 'induce excessive production of inflammatory Cytokines that induce, in turn, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Low vitamin D levels are not infrequently recorded in CFS and ME cases, and may often coincide with mycoplasma infections and impaired immune systems. C.pneumoniae (or Cpn for short) must infect another cell in order to reproduce and is therefore classified as an obligate intracellular pathogen.
As Cpn is a biolfim loving organism, it will likely be necessary to take a number of biofilm-busting supplements. However, by examining the amino acid levels, for example, Threonine, a very hard amino acid to absorb in relative terms, one could rule out the latter explanation. There are of course more direct methods of identifying bad bacteria, for example, stool analysis or live blood microscopy, but if one is evaluating amino acids and organic acids, then the results can provide some useful markers for bad bacteria and Candida.
Most probiotic supplements focus on Lactobacillus acidophilus as it is probably one of the toughest probiotic strains and is relatively acid resistant. I have not seen any actual test results yet to confirm the effectiveness of enterically coated probiotics. Therefore the exact number taken could in some ways be considered irrelevant or not so critical. Probiotics in general seem to struggle to suppress excessive commensal bacterial numbers if already present without antimicrobial intervention. You perhaps could moisten your finger, moisten the capsule, and push it as far up your anus as comfortably possible. It also helps to ferment soluble fibre into Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFAs) and inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth. Alfred Nissle, in 1917 during WWI from the faeces of an NCO in Dobrudsha in the Balkans, an area highly contaminated with enteropathogens at the time. They have been designed primarily for use with infants and toddlers in mind, who cannot easy swallow capsules. The capsules should be refrigerated at all times, but are ok to be kept out of a refrigerator during shipping for up to 72 hours (but no more) according to Ardeypharm. Myhill has full instructions for ordering from this site in English (at the Growing Mutaflor link above) for those who cannot read German or use Babelfish.
Please note that some may not ship outside of Germany, so it is best to enquire before placing an order. Other bacterial species present in Emmental include Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus.
A couple of weeks ago I wrote a post answering a reader question about probiotics: what they are, why they’re important, and where you can find them in your diet. Today we’ll take a look at common symptoms of gut dysbiosis and some great strains of probiotics to help rebalance your intestinal microflora. New moms can put a bit of probiotic powder on their nipples when breastfeeding to ensure adequate intake. These bacteria typically colonize the small and large intestines respectively and have been studied quite intensively for their immune and digestive supporting functions.
For now, however, this list is a good place to start as it contains a good chunk of the most common strains found in supplements. What I will see is you will likely have to experiment with a couple of different brands before you find one that works for you. Why take the risk when there are so many great natural products out there that don’t contain this kind of garbage? I just wanted to point out what they were in case you saw them on the label and thought they may be something harmful to avoid.
This post turned into quite the beast and I still didn’t get to my information on the specific strains for specific conditions. Her mission is to help her clients change their relationships with food, so they can create their healthiest bodies and their most fulfilling lives.
However, this ‘gut flora’, can be upset through several ways, which can lead to negative health outcomes. They are an extension of our immune system; and probably make up the majority of our body's immune system.
This means that bacteria is continuously breeding and multiplying and spreading itself to the new food or chyme and moving up the digestive chain, and thus staying in the same place in the body, wherever conditions are most suited to the particular strain in question.
The average adult body contains approximately 2.5 kg of bacteria (100 trillion bacteria), both good and bad types. A deficiency in this form of probiotic bacteria can result in reduced production of folic acid, the amino acids Tyrosine, Phenylalanine and Tryptophan, SCFAs and also Co-Enzyme Q10. It is during birth and shortly thereafter that bacteria from the mother and the environment start to colonise the infant's GI tract.
In addition, it can be a result of inflamed gut lining - in this case the walls of the intestine relax and lose their natural shape and structure and tend to fill up with gas produced by bad bacteria more readily, which causes the bloated abdomen look, either in the centre of the belly (lower part of the small intestine) or the sides (colon). There are alternatives to antibiotics, including Olive Leaf Extract, Grapefruit Seed Extract, Lemon Balm, Garlic and Coconut Oil (or coconut oil extracts, e.g. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against both types and kill off most good and bad bacterial species (e.g. Diets high in such foods tend to provide an ideal environment for harmful organisms in the intestinal tract, which multiply in alarming numbers. However, the stomach acid also acts as a barrier to kill off foreign organisms before they can reach the unprotected environment of the intestine.
A life time of ill health is more of a debility that the final slap in the face of heart disease! Commensalism is the ecological relationship where two organisms share a food source or resources, but where there is no victim, and the second organism does not survive at the other organism's expense (which would be parasitism). Doctor's Data has observed benecial E.coli mutate in alkaline conditions, rendering them less 'beneficial'. Humans (and mammals in general) only produce L-lactate as part of anaerobic respiration and only possess the enzymes Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) for metabolising L-Lactate in any significant quantity. Recent studies however have claimed to show that humans do actually possess the D-Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme on the inner mitochondrial membrane. A large percentage of yoghurt products also contain Lactobacillus delbrueckii species (specifically bulgaricus), which produce only D-Lactate, which are listed below. A constant immune system response also uses up a great deal of cellular energy and can result in excessive fatigue. Please see the Mitochondrial and Toxicity pages for more information regarding H2S effects and treatment. The microvilli lining is the interface where the absorption from the gut takes place, and absorptive efficiency may be considerably reduced by inflammation or damage to the Brush Border or the presence of mucoid plaque. This enzyme, in turn, synthesizes excessive amounts of nitric oxide which reacts with another compound (superoxide) to produce the potent oxidant peroxynitrite.
Chlamydophila pneumoniae is also associated with atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Interstitial Cystitis, Prostatitis, IBS, Arthritis, Asthma, Fibromyalgia, Chronic Refractory Sinusitis, Macular Degeneration and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. The 'NAC Test' may be taken, which involves taking a high dosage of NAC (building up to 4 x 600mg of NAC per day over a number of days) and observing if any significantly adverse toxicity symptoms are experienced.
The above regime is a short term treatment plan, to kill off the entirety of a Cpn infection and is not intended to become a long term and harmful antibiotics programme. Catabolism (breakdown) of damaged or diseased bodily tissue, tumors and malignancy feature increased production and urinary disposal of beta-alanine.
This is why eradicating all of one's probiotic bacteria by taking anti-biotics (or to a lesser extent colonic hydrotherapy) and simply taking a probiotic supplement afterwards (containing perhaps 2 or 3 strains of probiotic bacteria) is not really going to build up that same level of diversity of good bacteria as would occur naturally with a good diet rich in vegetables (especially those containing prebiotic sugars which are the optimal food for probiotic bacteria). As discussed above, a deficiency in any one particular species may render the GI tract suspectible to certain strains of pathogenic species more than others. Many people consider at least 1 billion active cells as a minimum, and 4-5 billion being fairly good.
Probiotics supplements are normally stored in the fridge unless stated otherwise on the label. Of these, the most common species found in probiotic supplements are Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum.
It has undergone extensive trails and has the most evidence for effectiveness against IBS and other bowel conditions. Kefir contains 7 strains of Enterococcus faecalis and 2 strains of Enterococcus faecium, and is arguably a superior source of Enterococcus sp. Of course, one could break open a capsule and sprinkle the contents into food etc., but this may not be so easy and of course would negate the benefit of the enteric coating. Propionic acid is an organic, carboxylic acid, and is strongly anti-fungal, and supplementation with P. Remember, if you feel like bacterial imbalance may be an underlying cause of your health issues, contact me or another practitioner to get a specific protocol for your needs. Next time we’ll take a look at a couple of these strains in more detail to see what kinds of conditions they would be most helpful in alleviating, but for now I want to give you some more information on how to choose a probiotic supplement that will be right for you. And DO NOT buy probiotics that list a bunch of ingredients on the label that you cannot pronounce or that you intuitively know you should not be ingesting. Ohira’s Probiotics are fermented for three years from 92 different fruits, vegetables, mushrooms, and seaweeds. However, if you’re just looking to improve digestion and eliminate some gassiness or bloating a standard Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacteria bifido combination should help out quite a bit. Creating space for healing, growth, and nourishment at wellness retreats, cooking classes, and live talks is her passion. Creating space for healing at wellness retreats, cooking classes, and live talks is her passion.
One of the main ways in which people lose their beneficial microflora is through antibiotic treatment, especially wide spectrum antibiotics, which are increasingly being used given the incidence of resistant bacteria. A different cross section of beneficial bacteria types exists in different parts of the small and large intestine. It is estimated that the large intestine (colon) alone should contain approximately 1.5kg of probiotic (good) bacteria.


They provide antimicrobial activity against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureas (MRSA) bacteria and also inhibit the growth of food-borne pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms.
It is estimated that an infant takes 1 month for their intestinal microflora to become established.
Inflammation of the gut lining may be caused by numerous factors including the presence of sufficient numbers of pathogenic microbes such as bacteria, moulds and parasites - or it could be due to improper immunity and excessive cytokine activity against certain protein types, e.g. Antibiotics has also other damaging effects on the body, for example, a prolonged influence on folic acid metabolism it the body, making methylation (adding carbon atoms to carbon chains) and DNA synthesis more difficult. All of the foreign organism problems have a major impact on your digestive system and overall health.
If this protective barrier is impaired, then harmful organisms can reach the intestines and multiply, particularly affecting the small intestine which immediately follows the stomach.
Please see the links page for information about where to buy this from, or better still, perhaps you can locate a supplier closer to you. Keeping the skin clean, frequent washing of one's hands and clean toilet and food preparation areas is a useway way to reduce the chance of unnecessary localised bacterial infections, which can spead into the blood stream if the immune system is weak in certain circumstances. Now imagine there is a stale mate, with neither side capable of totally defeating the other, but with some casualties on each side.
Their contribution to immune system overload is described in the Immune System Deficiencies page.
Imbalanced flora reside in the host organism's GI tract and neither injure nor benefit the host organism (i.e. Studies from the 1920s showed that D-Lactate was poorly metabolised compared with L-Lactate, whereas studies from the 1980-90s found that D-Lactate was actually readily metabolised, although most academic and medical sources still quote the 1920s results as fact. Long term damage to the intestinal microvilli may potentially result in a variety of problems such as Leaky Gut Syndrome, allergies, IBS, autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis), headaches and food sensitivies etc. Because of this, it is hard for the body to fight them, and certain strains may penetrate and infect individual cells, contributing to various diseases. Peroxynitrite acts via six known biochemical mechanisms to increase the levels of both nitric oxide and superoxide which react to produce more peroxynitrite. Whilst low levels are commonly found in fresh stool in healthy persons, elevated levels of these pathogenic bacteria can be extremely detrimental to one's health.
CFS cases are not uncommonly implicated with Cpn infections, and these may not be noticeable as pneumonia symptoms but may be simply mild lung irritation and a dry cough. This is a specialist protocol and does not fit in with the more generic anti-bacterial treatments described elsewhere on this page. Besides elevated anserine or carnosine and accelerated catabolism of unwanted bodily tissue, the next most likely source of beta-alanine in urine is imbalanced gut flora.
To maintain optimum flora balance and digestive health, it is recommended to ascertain what probiotic species are represented in one's stool and which are deficient. There is some debate as to how many viable cells of bacteria are necessary to be effective - some supplement boast about the number of viable cells they contain at the time of manufacture.
Probiotics should be taken at least 2 hours away from any anti-microbial supplements (see below regarding candida and parasites treatment).
This is not currently for sale in Europe although it can be purchased from US vendors, e.g. There are two versions of Dr Ohhira's Probiotics 12 Plus, Original Formula and Professional Line. E.coli tends to reside in the Ileum, the final part of the small intestine, just before the bowel. The product is available in 'mite' capsule form, where the strength is only 20% of the regular capsules, for use in severe cases where the patient cannot tolerate the stronger capsules at first.
Specify that you want it delivered with DHL's Weltpacket Premium which is a 2-3 working day delivery, and that it must be posted on a Monday only to avoid being stuck over the weekend (as happened with my delivery).
Today we’re going to get a little more technical by looking at some specific strains of healthy bacteria and how to shop for a probiotic supplement. She has written for publications such as Mind Body Green, The Hearty Soul, and ALOHA Way Magazine. Antibiotics don’t discriminate between pathogenic and beneficial bacteria, and destroy both types. They act to consume much of the simple carbohydrate food sources available in the intestinal tract so that bad bacteria and organisms are deprived of food and cannot reproduce as fast. They help in digestion in general, by altering the pH (by producing lactic acid) and improving the uptake of minerals, especially calcium. Infants born by caesarean section may take 6 months (on account of additional exposure to harmful bacteria). For local infections, such as an ear infection, depending on the severity, it could for example be treated with the application of garlic oil or olive oil.
Repeated use of antibiotics can virtually eradicate our good bacteria, which have to build up from scratch again each time a course of antibiotics is taken, allowing bad bacteria and yeast to take a foot hold in our GI tract and multiply at high rates. Synthetic (sulphur-based) antibiotics may also stick to one's mitochondrial membranes and inhibit proper metabolic functioning (energy production). They put a constant strain on your immune system, and excrete a variety of toxins straight into your blood and digestive system (including Hydrogen Sulphide), often spread throughout the entire body, and may well contribute to early aging.
Another alternative sweetner is xylitol, a sugar alcohol (not a sugar but tastes sweet), which also has anti-fungal properties - this may however cause Food Intolerance and IBS symptoms if consumed in excess.
Of course, once in the body, numbers of bad bacteria in the body are hopefully kept in check, but if the immune system is weakened and we are feeding the bacteria and other harmful microbes with the wrong types of foods (high in simple carbohydrates) and toxins or other immune impairing practices (e.g. As stated above, a lack of probiotic bacteria in the digestive tract can result in a number of problems, one example of these being a biotin (vitamin B7) deficiency. Mammals do not possess the D-Lactate Dehyrogenase enzyme in any significant quantity, and this is generally only found in plants and bacteria. Mammals including humans however can metabolise D-Lactate using the D-alpha-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase enzyme found in the mitochondria (at 20% of the rate of a proper D-Lactate Dehydrogenase enzyme as found in plants).
Some recommendations do include abstaining from taking additional D-lactic acid producing probiotic bacteria (including those found in many yoghurt types and also kombucha and kefir), and only consuming non-d-lactate producing bacteria and also bacteria that consume D-Lactate. Ammonia interferes with neurological function and the synthesis of both GABA and Glutamine, as well as causing neurotoxicity, resulting in confusion, drowsiness, tremors, vomiting, and in extreme cases can case cerebral adema, coma and death. Pathogenic bacteria can also produce acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, diarrhea and a fever (in cases of food poisoning). Enterobacter cloacae are opportunistic pathogens, often associated with diarrhea in children and can be involved in extraintestinal infections, especially the urinary tract. It may also worsen Porphyria (genetic Heme production enzymes deficiency) - known as Secondary Porphyria.
The normal gut flora produce some beta-alanine, which they make pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) from.
It is sensible to then take this data and target those probiotic species and strains that are deficient. There is no upper limit as such to probiotic supplements and the frequency of their consumption during the day, per se. If you are taking anti-microbial supplements, then it is doubly important to be taking probiotics as well during the course of each day. The suspension form is much more expensive than the capsule form and has a shorter shelf life of 2-3 months vs 9 months for the capsules. According to Ardeypharm the Mutaflor should be still completely in tact after 4 days out of refrigeration (the cold pack and insulated box should keep it cool for 2-3 days). In part 3 we’ll look at some strain-specific uses for probiotics for helping alleviate symptoms such as chronic diarrhea, yeast infections, or C. They are a little on the expensive side, but once you’re back in balance you can wean off them and maintain via probiotic foods. Dys-symbiosis, or dysbiosis occurs when the balance of flora and organisms in the GI tract becomes upset. The production of SCFAs in the colon helps to keep the pH of the colon slightly lower (more acidic), to discourage the proliferation of microbial pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria or yeasts etc.
Bifido-growth factors in mother's breast milk (GOS) - prebiotics - may assist in the domination of bifido bacteria in the infant's gut. Poor digestion also leads to poor nutrient uptake and vitamin and mineral deficiencies, that over years can really build up and massively impact the bio-chemical balance of your body and the efficiency of the basic processes therein, such as your neurotransmitters, hormones and energy production. If you decide to call in an air strike to bomb the entire village and surrounding area, killing all the enemy soldiers, but also killing your entire unit and yourself, that wouldn't be very sensible would it?
It is also one of the main causative organisms in infections such as nosocomial septicemia (blood poisoning that can lead to sepsis or whole body swelling and inflammation) and surgical wound infections. It is possible that some of the antibiotic drugs cited above can be substituted with certain herbs. However, elevated levels of staphylococcus or streptococcus, use of antibiotics, and the breakdown of yeast or fungi in the body can cause an increase in urinary beta-alanine levels.
The difference is in the amount of organic acids (Professional containing more) and lactic bacteria blend (Professional containing slightly less).
Of these 400+ variants that have been identified to be able to survive in the GI tract, the majority of the GI tract's bacteria is comprised of 30-40 of these species, the other species being present in very small numbers.
They are also involved in the production of vitamins, for example, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B12, A, D and K, and also essential fatty acids. The bacterial profile of formula fed infants is more diverse with both good and bad bacteria, but after months of solid food, both types of reared babies tend to have a similar gut profile. Otherwise, a good natural anti-microbial herb can be taken instead, such as Olive Leaf Extract, amongst others.
The three above categories of harmful organisms are known to contribute to conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Irritable Bowel Disease (Ulcerative Colitis or Crohn's Disease). If you kill off most of your troops, you leave yourself wide open to another attack by another unit of enemy troops or enemy troops that can regroup quicker than your own slow reinforcements.
They are also common causes of intraabdominal , respiratory tract infections, and also bloodstream infections in organ transplant patients.
Continuously elevated beta-alanine can be detrimental by impairing renal conservation of taurine.
Certain probiotic strains may not seed properly, or so effectively, in the presence of large concentrations of dysbiotic or pathogenic species, and so probiotic supplementation may require the taking of antimicrobial herbs to fight off such pathogenic microorganisms.
The main purpose of taking probiotics is to provide viable cells of good bacteria which can seed or multiply in the small and large intestine. Probiotics 12 Plus Professional Line is also marketed in some countries as OM-X 100 or OM-X 12.
Now, typically if I have a client who is suffering from gut dysbiosis (an imbalance between good and bad bacteria in the digestive tract), I will put them on a course of high dose probiotics for a certain length of time until things are back on track before transitioning them into maintenance mode with probiotic and prebiotic foods.
His theory of ‘intestinal auto-intoxication’ suggested that aging is caused by proteolytic bacteria in the intestines, which produce toxins such as phenols, indols, and ammonia. The levels of bifidobacteria levels tend to decline with age and reduced levels have been linked to declining health. They are particularly important in the production of Biotin (B7), which is the body's main source of Biotin (dietary sources containing a minimal amount). A mother may of course pass pathogenic bacteria, parasites or fungi onto her foetus in the womb through the umbilical cord, if they are present in the bloodstream. These conditions are likely to be partly the result of inflammation on account of overgrowth of harmful organisms and presence of large amounts of toxins in the GI tract. Refined sugar has many other detrimental effects on one's health, including endocrine system disruption, tooth decay and may even contribute to the spread of cancer.
Upon arrival in the lungs of another victim, the EB is taken up into the endosome (membrane bound compartment) of Eukaryotic cells by phagocytosis. It is not really to physically populate the colon with good bacteria from literally just the probiotic bacteria (from supplements) that survive and reach the colon. There are currently (as of June 2008) 2904 studies on IBS listed on PubMed, and it is indeed curious that so few doctors and GPs have any knowledge in this area.
It is not destroyed in this process like most phagocytosed material but instead is transformed into a Reticulate Body (RB) and starts to replicate within the endosome.
This would be a mammoth task given the small number that actually reach the colon and the several kilos of good bacteria actually required there. Alternatively one could take a piece of cotton wool, soak it in organic bio-live yoghurt, empty a capsule or two of a probiotic supplement onto it, and insert it into the anus, leaving it in overnight and removing it in the morning.
Providing a regular supply of seeding bacteria to the colon, and also ensuring optimal conditions (and food) for the good bacteria and adverse conditions (and a lack of food) for the bad bacteria, is the main goal to achieving and maintaining a healthy floral gut balance. They produce natural antibiotics and antifungals such as hydrogen peroxide (not in the ridiculously high quantities that are available with H2O2 supplementation or other oxygenating products).
The RBs then convert back into EBs and are released back into the lung, often resulting in the death of the host cell.
Lactobacillus acidophilus secretes the antifungal and antimicrobial agents including lactocidin, lactobacillin, acidolin and as mentioned above, hydrogen peroxide. If an RB is under sufficient attack then it may transform into a Cryptic Body (CB), a third form - and not a usual part of the life cycle. Acidophilus also produces lactic acid, which helps keep down the pH in the intestinal tract. MRSA are resistant to multiple antibiotics, and hospital-based infections have dramatically increased.
This is a particularly resistant form, of 'hibernation', where it exists in an anaerobic state of starvation.
Too alkaline a pH in the colon favours bad bacteria and yeasts, whereas more acidic conditions help to prevent their excessive growth. The Pharma industry is concerned that it may not be able to keep up with new strains of MRSA, and so maintaining a healthy level of Enterococcus sp. It will later change back into an RB and carry on with its normal life cycle, as it can only exist in this state for so long or else it dies. In 1988, the US surgeon general's report noted that 'Normal microbial flora provide a passive mechanism to prevent infection.' They may increase the number of immune system cells in the body. They may even help to protect the body from environmental toxins and reduce waste at the cellular level.
Probiotics play a useful role in prevention and treating antibiotic associated diarrhea, preventing diarrhea and inhibiting the spreading and overgrowth of Candida albicans.
They also help to maintain healthy cholesterol levels and triglyceride levels, and break down and rebuild our body's hormones.



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Category: How To Take Probiotics



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