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Human Digestive System Diagram is made up of the digestive tract—a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus—and other organs. When view at this Photo of Human Digestive System Diagram, you can download and take by right click on the right click to get the large version.
If you like this Human Digestive System Diagram, you might be interested to see or browse another picture about Anatomy. Restriction enzymes are DNA-cutting enzymes found in bacteria (and harvested from them for use).
In order to be able to sequence DNA, it is first necessary to cut it into smaller fragments. Mixed together, these molecules can join with each other by the base pairing between their sticky ends.
The ability to produce recombinant DNA molecules has not only revolutionized the study of genetics, but has laid the foundation for much of the biotechnology industry.
In addition to the many natural restriction enzymes isolated from bacteria and archaea, it is now possible to synthesize artificial restriction enzymes that cut DNA at any desired sequence.
Everybody knows that the food we eat is broken down into small usable molecules for the body to absorb from the intestine.
For a chemical reaction to occur, the molecule should possess a certain amount of energy called activation energy. The word ‘Enzyme’ was coined by Kuhne after studying the fermentation of sugars to alcohol by the enzyme Zymase.
Enzymes are huge protein molecules and are usually many times larger than the substrate itself.
This chain is then folded due to chemical attraction between different amino acids in the chain creating a 3 dimensional structure. Sometimes, a number of these folded polypeptides come together and form multimeric enzyme complexes. Digestion would be impossible without the help of enzymes, which break down the complex molecules that are eaten, to the nutrients that the body requires. The next step is in the small intestine or ileum, where the pancreas pours in a cocktail of enzymes, to continue the process of digestion. Later in the ileum or small intestine, a number of other enzymes are secreted to extract the maximum nutrition from the food. Sometimes, disease or injury to the pancreas may affect their ability to secrete important enzymes for digestion, leading to malabsorption and malnutrition. The final step in digestion is the elimination of undigested food content and waste products.
Diarrhea and constipation are some of the most common health concerns that affect digestion. Similar to humans but unlike some other phylum, Chordates eat through ingestion rather than absorption. The pancreas besides producing insulin and glucagons produces a number of substances that aid in our digestion of food.
1) Producing proteolytic (protein splitting) enzymes; these include trypsin, chymotrypsin and carboxypolypeptidase which break down whole and partially digested proteins, and ribonuclease and deoxyribonuclease to split RNA and DNA. The digestive enzymes are secreted by the acini of the pancreas glands, while it is the epithelial cells that secrete water and bicarbonate. The chime entering the small intestine is very acidic due to the HCl and pepsin from the stomach. 1) Too many refined foods, too many combinations at a meal, eating between meals, can all overwork the pancreas and eventually exhaust it. 2) Over production of HCl and pepsin (see stomach chapter) will make the pancreas overwork and eventually exhaust it. 3) Nerve pressure in mid thoracic spine or cranial dysfunction irritating the vagus nerve can cause dysfunction (see Appendix A). 4) A vitamin B deficiency from bad diet or from eating refined products such as white sugar, and white flour (they use up vitamin B in their digestion), vitamin B is necessary for pancreatic enzyme production. 6) Deficiency in the diet or malassimilation of zinc (it is needed to form bicarbonate) can lead to not enough bicarbonate formation. 7) Taking sodium bicarbonate or other antacids can neutralize stomach contents and as in #5 lead to decreased pancreatic output as a secondary condition. 4) Eat foods high in B vitamins and zinc, whole grains, seeds, nuts, green vegetables, seaweed.
7) Rub a reflex point on your left side between the 7th and 8th ribs where they meet the cartilage (see Appendix B) for 1 minute, 3 times a week for 2 weeks. One of the challenges in human nutrition is maintaining a balance between food intake, storage, and energy expenditure.
Both physical and chemical digestion begin in the mouth or oral cavity, which is the point of entry of food into the digestive system. The chemical process of digestion begins during chewing as food mixes with saliva, produced by the salivary glands ([link]).
The stomach lining is unaffected by pepsin and the acidity because pepsin is released in an inactive form and the stomach has a thick mucus lining that protects the underlying tissue. The large intestine reabsorbs the water from indigestible food material and processes the waste material ([link]).
The organs discussed above are the organs of the digestive tract through which food passes. The liver is the largest internal organ in humans and it plays an important role in digestion of fats and detoxifying blood. The pancreas secretes bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidic chyme and a variety of enzymes for the digestion of protein and carbohydrates. The human diet should be well balanced to provide nutrients required for bodily function and the minerals and vitamins required for maintaining structure and regulation necessary for good health and reproductive capability ([link]). Explore this interactive United States Department of Agriculture website to learn more about each food group and the recommended daily amounts. The organic molecules required for building cellular material and tissues must come from food. Proteins in food are broken down during digestion and the resulting amino acids are absorbed. While the animal body can synthesize many of the molecules required for function from precursors, there are some nutrients that must be obtained from food. The fatty acids omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid and omega-6 linoleic acid are essential fatty acids needed to make some membrane phospholipids. Obesity With obesity at high rates in the United States, there is a public health focus on reducing obesity and associated health risks, which include diabetes, colon and breast cancer, and cardiovascular disease.
Fatty foods are calorie-dense, meaning that they have more calories per unit mass than carbohydrates or proteins. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the body, while others need to be obtained from diet. Accessory organs play an important role in producing and delivering digestive juices to the intestine during digestion and absorption.
Minerals—such as potassium, sodium, and calcium—are required for the functioning of many cellular processes. The mouth and teeth break food down into manageable pieces and mixes these with saliva, which starts the digestive process.
The stomach secretes acid and peptic enzymes which further dilute and break up the food, softening connective tissue and hard skins and husks, digesting proteins, killing off the majority bacteria in the food and delivering the resulting slurry into the small intestine in a regulated manner commensurate with the rate of digestion. The pancreas is a digestive gland that secretes an alkaline juice, containing powerful enzymes that break down protein, fat and carbohydrates. The liver receives blood from the gut, filters it, removes toxins, metabolises drugs, stores nutrients and synthesises proteins for various purposes including blood clotting. The gall bladder stores and concentrates bile, and after a meal squeezes it into the small intestine, where it helps to digest fat. Many DNA-digesting enzymes (like those in your pancreatic fluid) can do this, but most of them are no use for sequence work because they cut each molecule randomly. This particular sequence occurs at 11 places in the circular DNA molecule of the virus φX174. The union can be made permanent by another enzyme, a DNA ligase, that forms covalent bonds along the backbone of each strand. The availability of human insulin (for diabetics), human factor VIII (for males with hemophilia A), and other proteins used in human therapy all were made possible by recombinant DNA.
But not many know the significance of thousands of small molecules called enzymes breaking down food during digestion. Enzymes can accelerate biological reactions by drastically reducing the activation energy of the molecule. On this enormous molecule, the actual portion of the enzyme that is involved in catalysis is a very small region called the active site, which binds with the substrate and facilitates the reaction. This folded structure creates pockets and crevices where the substrates can bind and the chemical reaction basically occurs here. The proteinaceous enzymes are found closely associated with non protein molecules such as metal ions (Mg 2+, Mn2+, Zn 2+, Fe2+, Fe3+) and Vitamins (B complex). Digestion begins the moment the food hits the mouth, when the amylase and lipase break down starches and lipids respectively.
This can be corrected with over the counter digestive enzyme supplements to help the digestive system. A mutation in some genes can cause a faulty enzyme to be produced or sometimes even no enzyme is produced. Food needs to be broken into smaller particles so that animals can harness the nutrients and organic molecules. It is important to break down macromolecules into smaller fragments that are of suitable size for absorption across the digestive epithelium. The salivary enzyme amylase begins the breakdown of food starches into maltose, a disaccharide.
Recall that the chyme from the stomach enters the duodenum and mixes with the digestive secretion from the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. The enzyme pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins by breaking down the intact protein to peptides, which are short chains of four to nine amino acids.
However, the bulk of lipid digestion occurs in the small intestine due to pancreatic lipase. Constipation is a condition where the feces are hardened because of excess water removal in the colon.
It is often in response to an irritant that affects the digestive tract, including but not limited to viruses, bacteria, emotions, sights, and food poisoning. Digestion and absorption take place in a series of steps with special enzymes playing important roles in digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids.

The small intestine is relatively uncoiled but has several short transverse loops tightly enveloped by dorsal mesentery. When a rabbit eats, the food travels from the mouth, down the oesophagus, into the stomach, and on to the small intestine.
The glands producing these substances have ducts that enter the pancreatic duct, which then enters the duodenum. The acidic chime sends neural signals (via the vagus nerve) and hormonal signals (via secreting and cholecystokinin) to the pancreas and large amounts of enzyme filled pancreatic juice are into the duodenum. This will cause decreased secretin output and thus decreased pancreatic output and perhaps incomplete digestion as a result.
While plants can obtain nutrients from their roots and the energy molecules required for cellular function through the process of photosynthesis, animals obtain their nutrients by the consumption of other organisms.
Taking in more food energy than is used in activity leads to storage of the excess in the form of fat deposits.
The teeth play an important role in masticating (chewing) or physically breaking food into smaller particles. The gastro-esophageal sphincter (or cardiac sphincter) is located at the stomach end of the esophagus.
The highly acidic environment kills many microorganisms in the food and, combined with the action of the enzyme pepsin, results in the catabolism of protein in the food. The small intestine is the organ where the digestion of protein, fats, and carbohydrates is completed.
The human large intestine is much smaller in length compared to the small intestine but larger in diameter. The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that is required for the breakdown of fats in the duodenum. During digestion, digestible carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into glucose and used to provide energy within the cells of the body. All of the proteins in the body must be formed from these amino-acid constituents; no proteins are obtained directly from food.
Fatty foods are also significant sources of energy, and fatty acids are required for the construction of lipid membranes.
These nutrients are termed essential nutrients, meaning they must be eaten, because the body cannot produce them.
Vitamins are another class of essential organic molecules that are required in small quantities. One gram of carbohydrates has four calories, one gram of protein has four calories, and one gram of fat has nine calories. To combat childhood obesity and ensure that children get a healthy start in life, in 2010 First Lady Michelle Obama launched the Let’s Move! The mouth is the point of ingestion and the location where both mechanical and chemical breakdown of food begins. Some essential nutrients are required for cellular function but cannot be produced by the animal body.
While minerals are required in trace amounts, not having minerals in the diet can be potentially harmful. Some of the contributors to this situation include sedentary lifestyles and consuming more processed foods and less fruits and vegetables. It usually takes about 4 hours for most of a moderate sized mixed meal to be emptied from the stomach. Here the major food groups, protein fat and carbohydrate are broken down into amino acids, sugars and fatty acids, which are then absorbed into the blood stream. During a 12-48 hour residence, it extracts salt and water from the solidifying contents, while the trillions of colonic bacteria ferment unabsorbed sugars, starches and proteins to short chain fatty acids, which may be utilised as a source of energy.
You will see an images where related with to the title, entitled Including graphic with tag archive. Thus treatment of this DNA with the enzyme produces 11 fragments, each with a precise length and nucleotide sequence. Enzymes are biological catalysts, which increase the velocity of biological reactions without undergoing any changes themselves.
Enzymes lower the activation energy of reactions by bringing reactants closer to each other on the active site, rather than relying on collisions between them to produce the product. Being proteins, they are made up of amino acids(forming a polypeptide chain) strung together like pearls on a necklace. These protein structures are very sensitive to extreme conditions like high temperatures or pH which can unfold or denature them, resulting in losing the 3D structure required for catalytic activity. Another enzyme lysozyme destroys the bacteria and viruses by dissolving their protein based membranes.
A single mutation leading to a single change in the amino acid sequence in the enzyme can drastically influence its structure.
Large, complex molecules of proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids must be reduced to simpler particles such as simple sugar before they can be absorbed by the digestive epithelial cells. As the bolus of food travels through the esophagus to the stomach, no significant digestion of carbohydrates takes place. Pancreatic juices also contain amylase, which continues the breakdown of starch and glycogen into maltose, a disaccharide. In the duodenum, other enzymes—trypsin, elastase, and chymotrypsin—act on the peptides reducing them to smaller peptides.
When chyme enters the duodenum, the hormonal responses trigger the release of bile, which is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. If the lipid in the chyme aggregates into large globules, very little surface area of the lipids is available for the lipases to act on, leaving lipid digestion incomplete.
It is important to consume some amount of dietary lipid to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins. Recall that the colon is also home to the microflora called “intestinal flora” that aid in the digestion process. This forceful expulsion of the food is due to the strong contractions produced by the stomach muscles. Elimination describes removal of undigested food contents and waste products from the body. Lipids are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of lipid-soluble vitamins and for the production of lipid-soluble hormones. The primary cause, the hypochlorhydria in this case, needs correction for the pancreas to be corrected.
At the cellular level, the biological molecules necessary for animal function are amino acids, lipid molecules, nucleotides, and simple sugars. The rise in obesity and the resulting diseases like type 2 diabetes makes understanding the role of diet and nutrition in maintaining good health all the more important.
All mammals have teeth and can chew their food to begin the process of physically breaking it down into smaller particles.
The smooth muscles of the esophagus undergo peristalsis that pushes the food toward the stomach. In response to swallowing and the pressure exerted by the bolus of food, this sphincter opens, and the bolus enters the stomach. Chemical digestion is facilitated by the churning action of the stomach caused by contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles.
The small intestine is a long tube-like organ with a highly folded surface containing finger-like projections called the villi. The chyme is mixed with pancreatic juices, an alkaline solution rich in bicarbonate that neutralizes the acidity of chyme from the stomach. The anus is an opening at the far-end of the digestive tract and is the exit point for the waste material.
Accessory organs include the salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, and the gall bladder.
The liver also processes the absorbed vitamins and fatty acids and synthesizes many plasma proteins. Complex carbohydrates, including polysaccharides, can be broken down into glucose through biochemical modification; however, humans do not produce the enzyme necessary to digest cellulose (fiber). Fats are also required in the diet to aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins and the production of fat-soluble hormones.
These fatty acids are stored in adipose tissue cells—the fat cells in the mammalian body whose primary role is to store fat for later use. What is needed is a way to cleave the DNA molecule at a few precisely-located sites so that a small set of homogeneous fragments are produced.
These are called "sticky ends" because they are able to form base pairs with any DNA molecule that contains the complementary sticky end. Chemically, it would take a very strong acid such as hydrochloric acid or sulphuric acid a few days to break down protein when kept at 100° C. But this is not the same for all enzymes as some of them are named pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin and rennin which are more arbitrarily named by their discoverers.
In the stomach, gastric enzymes are secreted and are activated by the hydrochloric acid present here. This leads to an inactivation of the mutant protein produced, as it no longer structurally resembles the actual enzyme (wild type). The disaccharides are broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes called maltases, sucrases, and lactases, which are also present in the brush border of the small intestinal wall. Trypsin elastase, carboxypeptidase, and chymotrypsin are produced by the pancreas and released into the duodenum where they act on the chyme. By forming an emulsion, bile salts increase the available surface area of the lipids many fold.
The semi-solid waste is moved through the colon by peristaltic movements of the muscle and is stored in the rectum. Many bacteria, including the ones that cause cholera, affect the proteins involved in water reabsorption in the colon and result in excessive diarrhea. While most absorption occurs in the small intestines, the large intestine is responsible for the final removal of water that remains after the absorptive process of the small intestines. The large intestine is relatively wide and is separated from the cloaca by a distinct fold. As food travels along it, enzymes break the food down into individual nutrients that are small enough to pass through the lining of the intestine and be absorbed into the blood stream. The alkaline juices prevent the stomach enzymes from eating through the duodenal wall and provide the perfect pH needed by the pancreatic enzymes. The food is then swallowed and enters the esophagus—a long tube that connects the mouth to the stomach. It also contains an enzyme called salivary amylase that begins the process of converting starches in the food into a disaccharide called maltose.

The peristaltic wave is unidirectional—it moves food from the mouth the stomach, and reverse movement is not possible, except in the case of the vomit reflex.
When there is no swallowing action, this sphincter is shut and prevents the contents of the stomach from traveling up the esophagus. Pancreatic juices contain several digestive enzymes that break down starches, disaccharides, proteins, and fats.
Two sphincters regulate the exit of feces, the inner sphincter is involuntary and the outer sphincter is voluntary. The secretions of the liver, pancreas, and gallbladder are regulated by hormones in response to food consumption. The gallbladder is a small organ that aids the liver by storing bile and concentrating bile salts. The intestinal flora in the human gut are able to extract some nutrition from these plant fibers.
Greater amounts of food energy taken in than the body’s requirements will result in storage of the excess in fat deposits. The goal of this campaign is to educate parents and caregivers on providing healthy nutrition and encouraging active lifestyles in future generations.
Food intake in more than necessary amounts is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle cells, and in adipose tissue. Once they are activated, they can bind reversibly to a substrate and convert it to a product which is important for cell function.
However, we break down the same protein in our digestive system within a few hours, and that too at body temperature using enzymes. The stomach is the headquarter of protein digestion, where the protein digesting enzyme, Pepsin is present. These two natural and easily available enzymes can be used to tenderise meat by breaking down some of the tough protein structures, making meat succulent and easy to digest. Many metabolic disorders are due to enzyme defects and require enzyme supplements and in some cases even gene therapy to correct the enzyme at a DNA level. In vertebrates, the teeth, saliva, and tongue play important roles in mastication (preparing the food into bolus).
The animal diet needs carbohydrates, protein, and fat, as well as vitamins and inorganic components for nutritional balance. Further breakdown of peptides to single amino acids is aided by enzymes called peptidases (those that break down peptides). Emulsification is a process in which large lipid globules are broken down into several small lipid globules. The pancreatic lipases can then act on the lipids more efficiently and digest them, as detailed in [link]. As the rectum expands in response to storage of fecal matter, it triggers the neural signals required to set up the urge to eliminate.
The cells that line the large intestine absorb some vitamins as well as any leftover salts and water. Any time the duodenal pH drops below 4.5 secretin is released resulting in release of bicarbonate. Animals must convert these macromolecules into the simple molecules required for maintaining cellular function.
Using peristalsis, or wave-like smooth-muscle contractions, the muscles of the esophagus push the food toward the stomach. The peristaltic movement of the esophagus is an involuntary reflex; it takes place in response to the act of swallowing. Acid reflux or “heartburn” occurs when the acidic digestive juices escape into the esophagus. The epithelial cells of these structures absorb nutrients from the digested food and release them to the bloodstream on the other side. Bile is produced in the liver and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder; it enters the duodenum through the bile duct. The colon is home to many bacteria or “intestinal flora” that aid in the digestive processes. This program aims to involve the entire community, including parents, teachers, and healthcare providers to ensure that children have access to healthy foods—more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains—and consume fewer calories from processed foods.
The rarer the site it recognizes, the smaller the number of pieces produced by a given restriction endonuclease. Enzymes are very specific for the type of reaction that they catalyse and work in a very controlled manner. While the food is being mechanically broken down, the enzymes in saliva begin to chemically process the food as well.
Other disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively. Specifically, carboxypeptidase, dipeptidase, and aminopeptidase play important roles in reducing the peptides to free amino acids. These small globules are more widely distributed in the chyme rather than forming large aggregates. The conversion of the food consumed to the nutrients required is a multistep process involving digestion and absorption.
The chewing and wetting action provided by the teeth and saliva prepare the food into a mass called the bolus for swallowing. The villi and microvilli, with their many folds, increase the surface area of the small intestine and increase absorption efficiency of the nutrients. The colon has four regions, the ascending colon, the transverse colon, the descending colon and the sigmoid colon. The excess sugars in the body are converted into glycogen and stored for later use in the liver and muscle tissue. Minerals perform many functions, from muscle and nerve function, to acting as enzyme cofactors. The combined action of these processes modifies the food from large particles to a soft mass that can be swallowed and can travel the length of the esophagus.
Sucrase breaks down sucrose (or “table sugar”) into glucose and fructose, and lactase breaks down lactose (or “milk sugar”) into glucose and galactose. Lipids are hydrophobic substances: in the presence of water, they will aggregate to form globules to minimize exposure to water. These molecules can pass through the plasma membrane of the cell and enter the epithelial cells of the intestinal lining. The left over indigestible fibre doesn’t contain any useable nutrients, but it is still essential to the digestive process, as it has helped carry the food through the digestive system. During digestion, food particles are broken down to smaller components, which are later absorbed by the body. This acidity kills microorganisms, breaks down food tissues, and activates digestive enzymes. The movement of chyme from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by hormones, stomach distension and muscular reflexes that influence the pyloric sphincter. The monosaccharides, amino acids, bile salts, vitamins, and other nutrients are absorbed by the cells of the intestinal lining.
The main functions of the colon are to extract the water and mineral salts from undigested food, and to store waste material. Glycogen stores are used to fuel prolonged exertions, such as long-distance running, and to provide energy during food shortage. With the increase in television viewing and stationary pursuits such as video games, sedentary lifestyles have become the norm. The monosaccharides (glucose) thus produced are absorbed and then can be used in metabolic pathways to harness energy. Bile contains bile salts, which are amphipathic, meaning they contain hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts. The bile salts surround long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides forming tiny spheres called micelles.
Further breakdown of food takes place in the small intestine where bile produced by the liver, and enzymes produced by the small intestine and the pancreas, continue the process of digestion.
The large intestine reabsorbs water from the undigested food and stores waste until elimination.
The monosaccharides are transported across the intestinal epithelium into the bloodstream to be transported to the different cells in the body. Thus, the bile salts hydrophilic side can interface with water on one side and the hydrophobic side interfaces with lipids on the other.
The micelles move into the brush border of the small intestine absorptive cells where the long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides diffuse out of the micelles into the absorptive cells leaving the micelles behind in the chyme. The caecum can absorb some of the nutrients but most need to go back through the small intestine to be absorbed.
The smaller molecules are absorbed into the blood stream through the epithelial cells lining the walls of the small intestine. The human body can synthesize only 11 of the 20 required amino acids; the rest must be obtained from food. The long-chain fatty acids and monoglycerides recombine in the absorptive cells to form triglycerides, which aggregate into globules and become coated with proteins. Some fish have specially adapted kidneys that vary in function, allowing them to move from freshwater to saltwater.
To achieve this, the fermented fibre moves back into the colon, where it is coated in protective mucus, before being excreted from the body as special droppings, called cecal droppings.
The waste material travels on to the large intestine where water is absorbed and the drier waste material is compacted into feces; it is stored until it is excreted through the anus. The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that covers the tracheal opening during swallowing to prevent food from entering the lungs.
The rabbit eats these droppings (a process called cacography) so they pass through the digestive tract again.
Chylomicrons contain triglycerides, cholesterol, and other lipids and have proteins on their surface.
Together, they enable the chylomicron to move in an aqueous environment without exposing the lipids to water.

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