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Encapsulation of probiotic living cells by,australian probiotic supplements,probiotic juice good belly juice,probiotic pearls 100 natural xalapa - 2016 Feature

Science, Technology and Medicine open access publisher.Publish, read and share novel research. Encapsulation Technology to Protect Probiotic BacteriaMaria Chavarri, Izaskun Maranon and Maria Carmen Villaran[1] Bioprocesses & Preservation Area, Health Division, Tecnalia,Parque Tecnologico de Alava, Minano (Alava),, Spain1. Microbes are live microorganisms that exist in our bodies and play a role in our general health and well being.
As probiotics themselves are quite fragile, Forever Active Probiotic® uses an exclusive, patented encapsulation technology that protects the probiotics then releases a unique combination of six beneficial strains of microbes only after they reach the desired destination of the intestines. The power of the senses and aromatherapy essential oil; Since 1978, Forever Living Products has worked to source the purest natural ingredients found all over the world and create the highest quality products available on the market. The human senses are incredibly powerful and greatly affect thought, mood and many other brain functions. It’s no surprise given the power of our senses, that the benefits of aromatherapy are widely celebrated.
Essential oils and aromatherapy have been utilized by many ancient cultures and were as a way to help naturally support the  body, stimulate the senses and help people look and feel better. After harvesting, essential oils are extracted from these carefully selected crops primary using steam distillation and cold pressing. One of the common diseases of aging or middle age men is associated with urinary paths.This is avoided or at least prevented, if even before the onset diseases we helps to maintain healthy urinary system. Forever Vitolize is nutritional supplement which is unique blend of botanical ingredients as pumpkin seed, saw palmetto, pygeum. Recent studies show that chemicals in the ripe berries of the saw palmetto do have some demonstrable effects in a tube – including mimicking the famale hormone estrogen and counteracting male sex hormones. For now, the most prudent way to use saw palmetto is to talk to your doctor about it if you have BPH.
Make sure that any products you purchase contains extracts from the fresh or partially dried ripe fruits (often labeled as fatty acids or lipophilic extracts) – the part of the saw palmetto teas, which will have little effect because the active chemical dissolve poorly in water. Forever Vitolize including one of the best source of Saw Palmetto extract combined high quality of botanical blend, vitamins which are balance for complete prostate and urinary support. Humanity is the aromatherapy oils already in use by thousands of years mainly the harmony of the right being and better health in assisting.
The Citrus grown in Argentina and Italy, lemons are grown in California, where the climate is best for them in order to produced most active substance of the plants.
Forever Living Carrier Oil is unique blend of rose hips oil, sesame oil, apricot kernel oil and borage oil which are rich of vitamins such as A, C and E including with antioxidant and other vitamin.These helps to rejuvenates skin and makes your skin healthy, in additional helps to deliver all the benefits of the Forever Essential Oils. Relaxing therapeutic oils for boost immune system, helps to soothing and relaxing. Make more Harmony both inside and outside of the body! Over the past few decades, a variety of ingredients have been researched, bringing new innovation to foods and supplements designed to support digestive health. In fact, the amount of researc being conducted on probiotics has grown exponentially in the past 10 years. Between 1990 and 1999, there were just 300 peer-reviewed studies on probiotics published… compare that to the more than 5,300 articles published between 2000 and 2009, and over 6100 in just the last 5 years!
Forever Living Products recognizes the important role that beneficial probiotic bacteria play in human health and the need for probiotic supplementation. As a result, our scientific team created Forever Active Probiotic, a unique probiotic supplement which contains six beneficial strains of probiotics, including two species of Bifidobacterium and four species of Lactobacillus, all well-researched for their probiotic capabilities. By combining our Forever Aloe Vera Gel with Active Probiotic we create a perfect blend of support optimal digestive health. Consuming a fiber supplement a half hour to an hour prior to meals can help you to feel full, thereby reducing your calorie consumption at mealtime.
Finally, adequate intake has been shown to support cardiovascular health as well, by helping to support both normal cholesterol and normal blood pressure levels.
The recommended daily intake of this healthy supplement in the US 25 grams daily for women 38 grams for men, but it turns out that we are only consuming an avarage of about half that amount. Forever Fiber provides a powerful blend of four unique types -designed to give 5 grams of health-supporting Fiber in every stick pack. Although royal jelly has been traditionally known to prolong youthfulness and improve the skin beauty, evidence indicates that this substance increases energy, immunity, alleviates anxiety, sleeplessness, moodiness, memory loss. Royal jelly is very complex, exclusive food of the Quin Bee which rich, high quality of vitamin, proteins and including very important eight essential amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, phosphorous compounds and sterols as well as acetyl-choline.  Acetyl-choline is rule of transmit nerve messages from cell to cell. Increasing dietary fiber and water intake is the first treatment to try chronic constipation. The fiber is not digested in the human body but necessary for healthy immune system, mainly support proper function of the digestion, and metabolism of the tract-system and help to avoid constipation.
Fiber has been shown that support up to 70% -80% in the body immune function, in additional to greatly assist digestive function because its strongly influenced by the healthy functioning of the intestines-gastrointestinal tract. Scientists now recognize that fiber Influencing the right direction cardiovascular health, and may help balancing normal cholesterol level.
A typical dosage is 5 to 10 g 1 to 3 times daily, with at least 16 ounces of liquid or mix with Forever Aloe Vera Gel. Try to consume our fiber with Forever Aloe Vera Gel, Fields of Greens that you make appropriate support your immune, digestive and cardiovascular health. The Nutrient Vital5 pack is designed to efficiently deliver nutrients through our bodies to our cells, tissues and vital organs.
In a nutshell- nutrients move to where they are needed, and wastes are carried to be eliminated from the body.
In pack you find  five essential Forever products that provide a solid foundation of advanced nutrition.
Soy is a complete, plant-based protein with the quality being equivalent to that of whey or animal-based protein sources. The soy protein is in addition to its benefits:in supporting muscle tissue the , support for  immune health, and even helping us to maintain our weight, soy also supports cardiovascular health. In fact, the US Food and Drug administration states that 25 grams of soy protein per day, as a part of a diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol, may the risk of heart disease. Several factors can inhibit protein digestion, including the environment, age, illness, and metabolic predisposition. If you’re looking to promote energy, weight management, and support immune function, look no futher than Forever Lite ultra with Aminotein,- a perfect addition to your daily routine. Not only is a soy protein delicious, safe and effective Shake with Aminotein also contains many vitamins and minerals to support your body. Forever Daily Nutritional Supplement is high quality and  rich in multivitamin, antioxidant and minerals which are provides for you daily needed intake of  these necessary nutrients which are boost your daily healthy vitality. As I have worked in health and wellness few years, it never ceases  to amaze me that in this information age, people are still literally confused on how to help themselves nutritionally.  Most of people want to look and feel better, but they just do not know where to begin.
Forever Daily supplies you with 55 of the most well-researched and proven ingredients, (including aloe vera ) in scientifically balanced ratios, to work with your body. For example, assimilation of Vitamin A is reliant on the correct ratio of Zinc and Vitamin C, D and E. That is why the form and ratio of minerals we consume is as important as consuming the minerals.
Forever Daily complex formula which contains all the benefits of natural Vitamin, mineral and antioxidants that bodies daily needed.
New for 2012 the Postureflex Collection has been designed to ensure a fabulous night’s sleep for all the family.
In addition the mattress has Sensity™ filled fabric with friendly probiotic micro-capsules to keep it hygienic, fresh and healthy.
Schematic diagram of a spray-dry encapsulation process and image of a Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (BUCHI), available at TECNALIA.Table 1.
Flow-Focusing technology to make droplets and Cellena® equipment from Ingeniatrics Tecnologias.
Image of Inotech Encapsulator IE-50R and schematic diagram of jet destabilization and breakage for single and concentric nozzles. Schematic diagram of the JetCutter technology and representation of fluid losses due to the cutting wire impact. Examples of two bioencapsulation process carried out at TECNALIA changing the nozzle diameter, cutting tool and inclination angle to obtain different bead size necessaries for several applications.Table 3. Gelation of an alginate bead when the Ca2+ gelling ions diffuse into the alginate-containing system. IntroductionProbiotic bacteria are used in production of functional foods and pharmaceutical products. Working with a team of scientists, farmers, aromatherapists and botanists, the Forever Living team traveled throughout the wold to find and source nature’s purest botanical essence to create Forever Essential Oils. The Essential oils blends are each made of carefully selected oils paired powerful results. Minerals content o soil, climate, location and sustainability are all considered when choosing a location to source the botanical, fruits, herbs and plants that become the best essential Oil. Each essential oil is extracted from fruits, seeds, leaves and even bark and roots.The plants part used and extraction techniques are distinct to each type of oil. Even today, saw palmetto is widely prescribed in Europe to treat men with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), a noncancerous enlargement of the prostate gland. And some small, short-term European studies have suggested that saw palmetto may help relieve the symtoms of mild and moderate BPH just about as well as conventional drugs – and without the cost and nasty side effects. Although no one knows for sure whether it will help, this herb seems to safe for virtually anyone (in fact, it was a popular food among southeastern Native Americans), and side effects seem to be nothing. Forever Living launched the best ingredients and 100% pure oils with an own trademarked. Created with  Citrus, peppermint, lavender .
Its scent disinfects, and in addition to other beneficial effects is appetite suppressant because it reduces feelings of hunger. In addition to this you can use such as usual aromatherapy candles, with massage, in to the bath water, rubbing and directly applicable to the skin. They produce vitamins, enzymes and biochemical messengers that help boost your immune system and promote healthy digestion. This is a great start, but there are a variety of probiotics that provide different types of health benefits. These beneficial bacteria work synergistically to support both digestive health and overall health. Our Digestive System when stretched out is roughly 10 yards long, and it’s compacted into roughly 1,5 feet of space! Fiber is such a key part of our diet that most governments recommended we get between 25 to 30 grams per day.
Added  to water, FLP Aloe vera gel, or other beverage , Our supplement dissolves quickly and the stick pack is a convenient way to obtain extra Fiber in your daily diet, especially while you are at work or on the go! It is a 100% natural substance used to sustain the Queen bee, offering her with longevity and her healthy fertility.
It is particularly useful for its B-complex contents, including B1, B2, B6, B12, biotin, folic acid, and inozitol. Proper soluble fiber intake may help relieve occasional constipation and also may helps to facilitate removal of waste products. Eating soluble fiber supplement or such as our excellent quality nutritional preparation does seems to keep the intestine from absorbing cholesterol, but you have to force 5 or so grams of it a day down you gullet to nudge cholesterol levels even a bit lower. We take in nutrients from our food and the dietary supplements we consume and this Nutrient Superhighway ensures that these nutrients are delivered to every cell and tissue, plus removes the waste products our bodies normally generate. The result of a well functioning Nutrient Superhighway is optimal health and vitality with mental, physical and emotional energy. When combined these 5 core products from a powerful superhighway that serve as the building blocks of any customized  nutritional program. Nitric Oxide supports the circulatory system, which carries nutrients through our bodies to the cells and tissues and also carries waste products from normal metabolic processes to be eliminated by the body.
The  proper diet and supplementation will ensure you are obtaining adequate levels of this essential macronutrient that is key to maintaining a healthy weight and immune system. In addition to soy, we have included a specialized enzyme blend called Aminotein to help your body break down the protein then absorb the amino acids. If you’re going to go to extra effort of including a protein supplement in your diet, optimal absorption is the key!

Whether you are a skilled athlete or busy professional, optimal protein intake will help you look and feel you best.
Wouldn’t it be nice to have the peace of mind that you are filling these nutritional gaps on a daily basis with the critical vitamins, minerals and powerful antioxidant your body desperately needs?
When possible we try to eat right, exercise appropriately and control stress, but the reality is it fell tired and sick. These ingredients may help support your daily energy needs, your immune system, your metabolism, your cardiovascular health, your bone health,your mental activity and most importantly, help combat oxidative damage in every cell of your body.
A deficiency of those nutrients could impact performance in that area of our body and a negative domino effect could result.
Unfortunately, after most minerals enter the body, they compete with one another for absorption and as a result may not be efficiently utilized.
Chelated minerals are special minerals that are bonded to protein molecules that transport them directly into the bloodstream which enhances their absorption.
Featuring high density foam encapsulation for edge to edge support now you really can enjoy sleeping across the whole of your bed.
And what’s great about Forever Active Probiotic® is that it works in tandem with our patented aloe vera. These evocative blends are gathered from the best sources are throughout the world and blended for highest potency. Plus added Vitamins C, D, E, and B6 from plant extract which are all essential for a healthy prostate. And throughout the Western world,saw palmetto is a top-selling alternative treatment for a whole host of conditions, including BPH, impotence, asthma, and even undesirably small breasts.
Home, car, office, hospitality for the guest, disinfection, stimulation, sedation, pain relief, improved concentration.
In addition, Forever Active Probiotic utilizes an exclusive, patented encapsulation technology that protect the probiotic releasing them only after they have intestines. In actually, Fiber is for everyone and can be your secret weapon in helping maintain regularity and proper nutrient absorption. Without Fiber, our body would have a difficult time keeping the food we consume moving through our body effectively. This means Fiber is excellent part of a sensible diet and exercise program to help you lose weight or maintain a healthy weight.
Each type of helps your body in different ways, so a normal, heathy diet should include both types.
So don’t forget to toss a stick pack in your purse or lunch bag for that extra dose of healthy Fiber to keep things moving and support your body.
Royal jelly contains also gamma globulin which as we know stimulate the immune system and helps fight to free radicals and infections.
Royal jelly contains also B vitamin pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate which is ability to reduce stress levels, helps avoid panic disorder . These nutrients are then carried along the Nutrient way to our cells and tissues to support optimal functioning. This helps to support the cardiovascular system and digestive tract – both essential components of the Nutrient Superhighway. Forever Lite Ultra Shake (#324 Vanilla and # 325 Chocolate) with Aminotein can help you to increase of vitamin and minerals. That is why the team of doctors, nutritionist’s and health professionals who helped formulate Forever Living Daily ( # 430) spent three years researching and selecting the individual ingredients and creating a balanced formula that focuses on maximizing nutrient utilization by our bodies.
There can be a cooperative or competitive action between certain nutrients depending on the level and form. The interaction and relationships between vitamins and minerals is very complicated and requires tremendous work to reduce interferences and maximize synergies. Unlike many of the minerals commonly used in supplements that are not readily absorbed by the body and can cause stomach irritability, chelated minerals are designed to not compete with other minerals and nutrients so that they can be readily  absorbed and not disrupt the natural pH balance in the gut.
The Postureflex Collection offers exceptional value for money and all the comfort you would expect from Slumberland. In order, to produce health benefits probiotic strains should be present in a viable form at a suitable level during the product is shelf life until consumption and maintain high viability throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Forever Living Products® recognizes the important role that beneficial microbes play in human health and the need for probiotic supplementation. Aloe acts as a “prebiotic,” which fosters the growth of and provides the ideal environment for the probiotic to function. And so far, no credible data backs claims that it can treat asthma or bronchitis, boots sex drive and endurance, increase sperm production, or enlarge women’s breasts.
It is the most fragrant, and has the most therapeutic value, out of any lavender in the world.
There are even others which produce their own natural antibiotic chemicals to help destroy the bacteria that might find their way into your gut. Think of Fiber as a big sticky ball that rolls through your small and large intestine picking up excess food and toxins, then eliminating them as waste. It also supplies the minerals, calcium, copper, iron, phosphorous, potassium, silicon and sulfur which are important element of human body healthy function.
Made from 20 different kind of vegetable and fruits for additional  antioxidants and vitamin support.
However, soy protein meets or exceeds the essential amino acid requirements for those aged two years and older.
Forever Daily provides key nutrients at optimal levels to bridge the nutrient gaps that occur in everyday life. When a formula is created properly, nutrients can work as catalysts, promoting the absorption and assimilation of other nutrients. Many reports indicated that there is poor survival of probiotic bacteria in products containing free probiotic cells [1]. Designed to promote a healthy digestive system, Forever Active Probiotic® is a small, easy-to-swallow beadlet that helps overcome imbalances created by our food and lifestyle choices, which can inadvertently lead to a reduction in the amount of naturally occurring probiotics. Grown in soil saturated with volcanic ash it has nutrients that can’t be found anywhere else in the world. Providing probiotic living cells with a physical barrier to resist adverse environmental conditions is therefore an approach currently receiving considerable interest [2].The encapsulation techniques for protection of bacterial cells have resulted in greatly enhanced viability of these microorganisms in food products as well as in the gastrointestinal tract. Forever Active Probiotic® works primarily in the intestines where it assists with the process of food digestion, helping to release nutrients for absorption, and contributes positively to normal human growth and development by helping to maintain a balanced and healthy system. Encapsulation is a process to entrap active agents within a carrier material and it is a useful tool to improve living cells into foods, to protect [3, 4, 5, 6, 7], to extend their storage life and to convert them into a powder form for convenient use [8, 9, 10, 11]. In addition, encapsulation can promote controlled release and optimize delivery to the site of action, thereby potentiating the efficacy of the respective probiotic strain. This process can also prevent these microorganisms from multiplying in food that would otherwise change their sensory characteristics.
Otherwise, materials used for design of protective shell of encapsulates must be food-grade, biodegradable and able to form a barrier between the internal phase and its surroundings.2. DefinitionProbiotics are defined as live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, confer health benefits to the host [12], including inhibition of pathogenic growth, maintenance of health promoting gut microflora, stimulation of immune system, relieving constipation, absorption of calcium, synthesis of vitamins and antimicrobial agents, and predigestion of proteins [13].
Several health benefits have been proved for specific probiotic bacteria, and recommendations for probiotic use to promote health have been published [14].The term ‘‘probiotic’’ includes a large range of microorganisms, mainly bacteria but also yeasts. Because they can stay alive until the intestine and provide beneficial effects on the host health, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), non-lactic acid bacteria and yeasts can be considered as probiotics.
LAB are the most important probiotic known to have beneficial effects on the human gastro-intestinal (GI) tract [15].The effects of probiotics are strain-specific [16, 17, 18] and that is the reason why it is important to specify the genus and the species of probiotic bacteria when proclaiming health benefits. Health benefitsThere is evidence that probiotics have the potential to be beneficial for our health [22]. Multiple reports have described their health benefits on gastrointestinal infections, antimicrobial activity, improvement in lactose metabolism, reduction in serum cholesterol, immune system stimulation, antimutagenic properties, anti-carcinogenic properties, anti-diarrheal properties, improvement in inflammatory bowel disease and suppression of Helicobacter pylori infection by addition of selected strains to food products [23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33].The beneficial effects of probiotic microorganisms appear when they arrive in the intestinal medium, viable and in high enough number, after surviving the above mentioned harsh conditions [34].
Apart from the MBV index, daily intake (DI) of each food product is also determinable for their probiotic effectiveness.
This microbiota plays an important role in human health, not only due to its participation in the digestion process, but also for the function it plays in the development of the gut and the immune system [42].
The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria are thought to result from modification of the composition of the endogenous intestinal microbiota and its metabolic activity, prevention of overgrowth and colonization of pathogens and stimulation of the immune system [43]. With regard to pathogen exclusion, probiotic bacteria can produce antibacterial substances (such as bacteriocins and hydrogen peroxide), acids (that reduce the pH of the intestine), block adhesion sites and be competitive for nutrients [44].Recent studies have shown differences in the composition of the gut microbiota of healthy subjects [45], underlining the difficulties in defining the normal microbiota at microbial species level.
Moreover, studies suggest that some specific changes in gut microbiota composition are associated with different diseases [46, 47]. This was confirmed by the comparison of the microbiome from healthy individuals with those of diseased individuals, allowing the identification of microbiota imbalance in human diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or obesity [48, 49].3. The benefits of encapsulation to protect probiotics against low gastric pH have been shown in numerous reports [50] and similarly for liquid- based products such as dairy products [21, 52].Encapsulation refers to a physicochemical or mechanical process to entrap a substance in a material in order to produce particles with diameters of a few nanometres to a few millimetres. So, the capsules are small particles that contain an active agent or core material surrounded by a coating or shell. Encapsulation shell materials include a variety of polymers, carbohydrates, fats and waxes, depending of the core material to be protected, and this aspect will be discussed below in the this section.The protection of bioactive compounds, as vitamins, antioxidants, proteins, and lipids may be achieved using several encapsulation technologies for the production of functional foods with enhanced functionality and stability.
Encapsulation technologies can be used in many applications in food industry such as controlling oxidative reaction, masking flavours, colours and odours, providing sustained and controlled release, extending shelf life, etc. In the probiotic particular case, these need to be protected during the time from processing to consumption of a food product. The coating or shell of sealed capsules needs to be semipermeable, thin but strong to support the environmental conditions maintaining cells alive, but it can be designed to release the probiotic cell in a specific area of the human body.
The scientific references related with probiotic encapsulation stress the degradation in the gastrointestinal tract, more than the processing conditions and the coating material usually employed can withstand acidic conditions in the stomach and bile salts form the pancreas after consumption. In this way, the protection of the biological integrity of probiotic bacteria is achieved during gastro-duodenal transit, achieving a high concentration of viable cells to the jejunum and the ileum.The selection of the best encapsulation technology for probiotics needs to consider numerous aspects in order to guarantee the survival of bacteria during the encapsulation process, in storage conditions and consumption, as well as the controlled release in the specific desired area of gut. Spray-dryingSpray-drying is a commonly used technique for food ingredients production because it is a well-established technique suitable for large-scale, industrial applications. The first spray dryer was constructed in 1878 and, thus, it is a relatively old technique compared with competing technologies [53]. This technique is probably the most economic and effective drying method in industry, used for the first time to encapsulate a flavour in the 1930s. However, it is not so useful for the industrial production of encapsulated probiotics for food use, because of low survival rate during drying of the bacteria and low stability upon storage.Drying is an encapsulation technique which is used when the active ingredient is dissolve in the encapsulating agent, forming an emulsion or a suspension.
The solvent is commonly a hydrocolloid such as gelatine, vegetable gum, modified starch, dextrin, or non-gelling protein. The solution that is obtained is dried, providing a barrier to oxygen and aggressive agents [54].In the spray-drying process a liquid mixture is atomized in a vessel with a single-fluid nozzle, a two-fluid nozzle or spinning wheel (depending of the type of spray dryer in use) and the solvent is then evaporated by contacting with hot air or other gas. Inlet temperatures of above 60 °C resulted in poor drying and the sticky product often accumulated in the cyclone. The logarithmic number of probiotics decreases linearly with outlet air temperature of the spray-drier (in the range of 50 ?C - 80 ?C) [56].
So, the optimal outlet air temperature might be as low as possible, enough to assure the drying of the product and to avoid the sticky effect.
Alternatively, a second draying step might be applied, using a fluid bed or a vacuum oven, for example, due to the optimal survival of probiotics is achieved with low water activity.The successful spray drying of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium have previously reported for a number of different strains, including L. The atomization process and encapsulant agent cellulose acetate phthalate were effective in protecting these micro-organisms in acidic medium (hydrochloric acid solutions pH 1 and 2) during incubation for up to 2 h. Bifidobacteria in the encapsulated form showed a small reduction in their populations when exposed to acidic media and bile solutions when compared with those exposed in the free form. Among the encapsulants tested, gelatin and soluble starch were the most effective in providing protection to the micro-organisms in acidic medium and milk was the least effective [9]. They used the spray drying process, in which entry and exit temperatures of 170 ?C and 90–85 ?C respectively, and observed a reduction of 2 log cycles in the microbial population. The presence of some prebiotics in the encapsulating material show higher count after spray drying for Bifidobacterium, depending of the physical properties of the prebiotic compound selected (thermoprotector effect, crystalinity, etc.) [62, 63] and a similar effect occurs for Lactobacillus bacteria [61, 64]. Some researchers have proposed the addition of thermo-protectants as inputs before drying with the intention of improving the resistance to the process and stability during storage [65].
In the case of Rodriguez-Huezo and collaborators [63] used a prebiotic as encapsulant (‘aguamiel’) and a mixture of polymers composed of concentrated whey protein, ‘goma mesquista’ and maltodextrin.
In fact, Ross and collaborators [66] reported that neither inulin nor polydextrose enhanced probiotic viability of spray-dried probiotics.

In another study, it was also observed that when quercetin was added together with probiotics, the microencapsulation yields and survival rates were lower than for the micro-organism without quercetin [67]. However, most probiotic strains do not survive well the high temperatures and dehydratation during the spray-drying process.
Loss of viability is principally caused by cytoplasmatic membrane damage although the cell wall, ribosomes and DNA are also affected at higher temperatures [74]. It was reported that the stationary phase cultures are more resistant to heat compare to cells in exponential growth phase [61].One approach used by a number of researchers to improve probiotic survival is the addition of protectants to the media prior to drying. Nevertheless, this economical and effective technology for protecting materials is rarely considered for cell immobilization because of the high mortality resulting from simultaneous dehydration and thermal inactivation of microorganisms. Spray-coolingThis process is similar to spray-drying described before in relation with the production of small droplets. The principal difference in the spray-cooling process is the carrier material and the working conditions related with him. In the case, a molten matrix with low melting point is used to encapsulate the bacteria and the mixture is injected in a cold air current to enable the solidification of the carrier material.
It is interesting because the capsules produced in this way are generally not soluble in water. However, due the thermal conditions of the process, the spray-cooling is used rarely for probiotics encapsulation. As example of successful development, the patent US 5,292,657 [81] present the spray-cooling of probiotics in molten lipid atomized by a rotary disk in a cooling chamber. Fluid-bed agglomeration and coatingThe fluid-bed technology evolved from a series of inventions patented by Dr. Wurster and colleagues at the University of Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) between 1957 and 1966 [82, 83, 84, 85]. These patents are based on the use of fluidising air to provide a uniform circulation of particles past an atomising nozzle. This nozzle is used to atomize a selected coating material (a melt product or an aqueous solution) which solidifies in a low temperature or by solvent evaporation. A proper circulation of the particles is recognised as the key to assure that all particles in the fluid-bed achieve a uniform coating.
As particles flow is spray direction countercurrent, collisions involving wet particles are more probable and these collisions agglomerate particles. Bur the particles agglomerate become heavier and have less fluidization, so this phenomenon selectively agglomerates smaller particles and promotes agglomerate uniformity.Placement of the nozzle at the bottom of a fluid bed provides the most uniform film on small particles and minimises agglomeration of such particles in the coating process compared with any other coating technique.
This uniform coating is achieved because particles move further apart as they pass through the atomised spray from the nozzle and into an expansion region of the apparatus.
This configuration allows the fluidising air to solidify or evaporate coating materials onto particles prior to contact between particles.
This technique is among all, probably the most applicable technique for the coating of probiotics in industrial productions since it is possible to achieve large batch volumes and high throughputs.
As example, Lallemand commercialize ProbiocapTM, and these particles are made in a fluid bed coating of freeze-dried probiotics with low melting lipids [87].Specifically, Koo and collaborators [88], reported that L.
Later, Lee and researchers [69] showed that the microencapsulation in alginate microparticules coating with chitosan offers an effective way of delivering viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during refrigerated storage.Fluidized-bed drying was recently investigated by Stummer and collaborators [89] as method for dehydration of Enterococus faecium. This study concludes to use fluidized-bed technology as a feasible alternative for the dehydration of probiotic bacteria by layering the cells on spherical pellets testing different protective agents as glucose, maltodextrin, skim milk, trehalose or sucrose, preferably skim milk or sucrose. This drying technique is a dehydration process which works by freezing the product and then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water to sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gas phase. The process is performed by freezing probiotics in the presence of carrier material at low temperatures, followed by sublimation of the water under vacuum. One of the most important advantages is the water phase transition and oxidation are avoided. In order to improve the probiotic activity upon freeze-drying and also stabilize them during storage, it is frequent the addition of cryoprotectans.One of the most important aspects to decide is the choice of the optimal ending water content. This decision have to be a compromise between the highest survival rate after drying (higher survival rate with higher water content) and the lowest inactivation upon storage (better at low water activity, but not necessarily 0% of water content).
According with King and collaborators [90], the loses in survival rates of freeze-dried probiotic bacteria under vacuum may be explained with a first-order kinetic and the rate constants can be described by an Arrhenius equation. But this equation might be affected by other factors as phase transition, atmosphere and water content.In any case, the lyophilisation or freeze-drying is a very expensive technology, significantly more than spray-drying [56], even if it is probably most often used to dry probiotics.
However, most of freeze-drying process only provide stability upon storage and not or limited during consumption. The freeze-drying is useful to dry probiotics previously encapsulated by other different techniques, as emulsion [91] or entrapment in gel microspheres [92]. In this way it is possible to improve the stability in the gastrointestinal tract and optimize the beneficial effect of probiotic consumption.The Vacuum-drying is a similar process as freeze-drying, but it takes place at 0 - 40 ?C for 30 min to a few hours. The advantages of this process are that the product is not frozen, so the energy consumption and the related economic impact are reduced. Emulsion-based techniquesAn emulsion is the dispersion of two immiscible liquids in the presence of a stabilizing compound or emulsifier. Emulsions are simply produced by the addition of the core phase to a vigorously stirred excess of the second phase that contains, if it is necessary, the emulsifier (Figure 4).
Nevertheless, even if the technique readily scalable, it produce capsules with an extremely large size distributions. The technique is a modification of the basic technique in which an emulsion is made in of an aqueous solution in a hydrophobic wall polymer.
This emulsion is the poured with vigorous agitation, into an aqueous solution containing stabilizer.
The loading capacity of the hydrophobic core is limited by the solubility and diffusion to the stabilizer solution. The principal application of this technology is in pharmaceutical formulations.Entrapment of probiotic bacteria in emulsion droplets has been suggested as a means of enhancing the viability of microorganism cells under the harsh conditions of the stomach and intestine. For example, Hou and collaborators [93] reported that entrapment of cells of lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. The study was performed with Lactobacillus paracasei and their entrapment in the oil phase of protein-stabilized emulsions protected the cells when exposed to GI tract enzymes, provided that the emulsions were freshly prepared. Following, however, treatment of aged for up to 4 weeks emulsions under conditions simulating those of the human GI environment, the microorganism did not survive in satisfactory numbers.
Moreover, even if the emulsion techniques described before are easily scalable, these techniques have an important disadvantage to be applied in an industrial process because are batch processes. The static mixers are small devices placed in a tube consisting in static obstacles or diversions where the two immiscible fluids are pumped [118, 119]. This system improves the size distribution, reduce shear and allows keeping the aseptic conditions because it might be a closed system (Figure 5). CoacervationThis process involves la precipitation of a polymer or several polymers by phase separation: simple or complex coacervation, respectively. Simple coacervation is based on “salting out” of one polymer by addition of agents as salts, that have higher affinity to water than the polymer. It is essentially a dehydration process whereby separation of the liquid phase results in the solid particles or oil droplets (starting in an emulsion process) becoming coated and eventually hardened into microcapsules.
With regard to complex coacervation, it is a process whereby a polyelectrolyte complex is formed.
This process requires the mixing of two colloids at a pH at which both polymers are oppositely charged (i.e. But it is not the only use of this technique and the complex coacervation is also suitable for probiotic bacteria microencapsulation. And the most frequent medium used might be a water-in-oil emulsion [120].Oliveira and collaborators [121] encapsulated B. The process used and the wall material were efficient in protecting the microorganisms under study against the spray drying process and simulated gastric juice; however, microencapsulated B. However, the scale-up of coacervation is difficult, since it is a batch process that yields coacervate in an aqueous solution. Extrusion techniques to encapsulate in microspheresThe methods of bioencapsulation in microspheres include two principal steps: (1) the internal phase containing the probiotic bacteria is dispersed in small drops a then (2) these drops will solidify by gelation or formation of a membrane in their surface. Before this section, there are described emulsion systems and coacervation as different methods to obtain these drops and even the membrane formation, but also extrusion technology is useful in order to produce probiotic encapsulation in microspheres. There are different technologies available for this purpose and the selection of the best one is related with different aspects as desired size, acceptable dispersion size, production scale and the maximum shear that the probiotic cells can support.When a liquid is pumped to go through a nozzle, first this is extruded as individual drops.
Increasing enough the flow rate, the drop is transformed in a continuous jet and this continuous jet has to be broken in small droplets. So, the extrusion methods could be divided in two groups, dropwise and jet breakage (Figure 6), and the limit between them is established according to the minimum jet speed according to this equation (eq.
Moreover, the flow is around several millilitres by hour and the method is not interesting for an industrial application. For example, in the Figure 7 is showed a cell immobilization process carried out at TECNALIA using the method of dripping by gravity.
Drop generation by gravity using a 160 µm nozzle.? Air o liquid coaxial flow and submerged nozzlesApplying a coaxial air flow around the extrusion nozzle it is possible to reduce the microsphere diameter between a few micrometres and 1 mm. The air flow might be replaced for a liquid one: with a suitable selection of the liquid flow the control of the surface tension is improved. Drops produced in air are generated as aerosols, while the drops produced, for example, in water are made as emulsions.
An example of the former consist of a static cup immersed in a water-immiscible oil such as mineral oil or vegetal oil and a concentric nozzle as is schematically showed in the Figure 9.
Each droplet consist of core material being encapsulatd totally surrounded by a finite film of aqueous polymer solution, as gelatine, for example. Ltd in Japan These capsules are composed of three layers: a core freeze-dried probiotic bacteria in solid fat, with an intermediate hard fat layer and a gelatin-pectin outer layer [122]. The droplet generation improves replacing the dragging forces by a high electrostatic potential between the capillary nozzle and the harvester solution.
Even if the capsules size is appropriated and the size distribution is narrow enough, this technique is more expensive than other extrusion ones and it is not fast enough to be scaled.? Vibration technology for jet break-upApplying a vibration on a laminar jet for controlled break-up into monodisperse microcapsules is one among different extrusion technologies for encapsulation of probiotic bacteria. The vibration technology is based on the principle that a laminar liquid jet breaks up into equally sized droplets by a superimposed vibration (Figure 10). He showed that the frequency for maximum instability is related to the velocity of the jet and the nozzle diameter (eq. The possibility of working with a wide range of materials (hot melt products, hydrogels, etc.) is also an important aspect to be considered, as well as the design with also concentric nozzles in the lab scale devices and with this kind of nozzles it is possible to produce capsules with a defined core region (solid or liquid) surrounded by a continuous shell layer. On the other side, the principal disadvantage of this technology is the limit in the viscosity for the liquid to be extruded.But may be one of the most important advantage of the vibration devices commercialized is that the scale up of this technology is relatively “simple” and it consist in the multiplication of the number of nozzles, developing multinozzle devices. The only challenge is that each nozzle of a multinozzle plant must operate in similar production conditions: equal frequency and amplitude, and equal flow rate.
The droplet generation is based on a mechanical impact of the cutting wire on the liquid jet. Some techniques as emulsion, simple dropping, electrostatic-enhanced dropping, vibration technique or rotating disc and nozzle techniques have in common that the fluids have to be low in viscosity, and not all of them may be used for large-scale applications. Directly underneath the nozzle the jet is cut into cylindrical segments by a rotating cutting tool made of small wires fixed in a holder (Figure 11).
Driven by the surface tension the cylindrical segments form spherical beads while falling further down, where they finally can be harvested. The size of beads can be adjusted within a range between approximately 200 µm up to several millimetres, adjusting parameters as nozzle diameter, flow rate, number of cutting wires and the rotating speed of cutting tool.Bead generation by a JetCutter device is achieved by the cutting wires, which cut the liquid jet coming out of the nozzle. The device is designed to recover these losses, but it is important to minimize de lost volume selecting a smaller diameter of the cutting wire and angle of inclination of the cutting tool with regard to the jet (Figure 11). According with Pruesse and Vorlop [124], a suitable model of the cutting process might help to operator in the parameters selection.
One of the most important parameters is the ratio of the velocities of the fluid and cutting wire, necessary to determinate the proper inclination angle (eq.

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