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The human gastrointestinal tract is one of the most fierce and competitive ecological niches. Bacteria vary in proportion and amount all along the gastrointestinal tract; the greatest amount is found in the colon, which contains over 400 different species belonging to 9 phyla or divisions (of the 30 recognized phyla), and hereafter you refer to them as gut microbiota. Actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria); Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, Eggerthella, and Propionibacterium.
Bacteroidetes (Gram-negative bacteria); more than 20 genera including Bacteroides, Prevotella and Corynebacterium. Firmicutes (Gram-positive bacteria); at least 250 genera, including Mycoplasma, Bacillus, Clostridium, Dorea, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus, Eubacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus, Sporobacter, and Roseburia. Proteobacteria (Gram-negative bacteria); Escherichia, Klebsiella, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Helicobacter, and Serratia. The presence of a small subset of the bacterial world in the colon is the result of a strong selective pressure which acted, during evolution, on both the microbial colonizers, selecting organisms very well adapted to this environment, and the intestinal niche. Despite the high variability existing both with regard to taxa and between individuals, it has been proposed, but not accepted by all researchers, that in most adults the bacterial gut microbiota can be classified into variants or “enterotypes”, on the basis of the ratio of the abundance of the genera Bacteroides and Prevotella. Adult’s gut harbors a large and diverse community of DNA and RNA viruses made up of about 2,000 different genotypes, none of which is dominant. The intestinal bacterial community is regulated by several factors, most of which are listed below. Traditionally considered sterile, mother’s milk harbors a rich microbiota consisting of more than 700 species, dominated by staphylococci, streptococci, bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. A recent study has compared the intestinal microbiota of European and African children (respectively from Florence and a rural village in Burkina Faso) between the ages of 1 and 6 years old. With short-term changes in the diet (10 days), such as the switch from a low-fat and high-fiber diet to a high-fat and low-fiber diet and vice versa, changes were observed in the composition of the microbiome (within 24 hours), but no stable change in the enterotype partitioning.
Dietary interventions can also result in changes in the gut virome, which moves to a new state, that is, changes occur in the proportions of the pre-existing viral populations, towards which subjects on the same diet converge. For example, a kind of geographical gradient occurs in the microbiota of European infants, with a higher number of Bifidobacterium species and some of Clostridium in Northern infants, whereas Southern infants have higher levels of Bacteroides, Lactobacillus and Eubacterium. For example, in mothers with inflammatory bowel disease or IBD, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a bacterium that produces butyrate (an important source of energy for intestinal cells), and with anti-inflammatory activity is depleted, whereas there is an increase in the number of adherent Escherichia coli. Phages play an important role in controlling the abundance and composition of the gut microbiota. The development of the intestinal microbial ecosystem is a complex and crucial event in human life, highly variable from individual to individual, and influenced by the factors outlined above. In utero, the gut is considered sterile, but is rapidly colonized by microbes at birth, as the infant is born with an immunological tolerance instructed by the mother.
However, recent studies show the presence of bacteria in the placental tissue, umbilical cord blood, fetal membranes and amniotic fluid from healthy newborns without signs of infection or inflammation. It seems that both vaginal and gut bacteria may gain access to the fetus, although via different route of entry: by ascending entry the vaginal ones, by dendritic cells of the immune system the gut ones. Colonization occurs during delivery by a maternal inoculum, generally composed of aerobic and facultative bacteria (the newborn’s gut initially contains oxygen), then replaced by obligate anaerobes,  bacteria typically present in adulthood, to which they have created a hospitable environment. Furthermore, there is a small number of different taxa, with a relative dominance of the phyla Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, that remains unchanged during the first month of life, but not in the subsequent ones as there is a large increase in variability and new genetic variants.
Mother’s vaginal and fecal microbiotas are the main sources of inoculum in vaginally delivered infants. The first bacteria encountered by infants born by caesarean section are those of the skin and hospital environment, and gut microbiota is dominated by species of the genera Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium, with a lower bacterial count and diversity in first weeks of life than infants born vaginally.
Further evidence supporting the hypothesis of vertical transmission is the similarity between the microbiota of meconium and samples obtained from possible sites of contamination. These “maternal bacteria” do not persist indefinitely, and are replaced by other populations within the first year of life.
Objects, animals, mouths and skin of relatives, and breast milk are secondary sources of inoculum; and breast milk (see below) seems to have a primary role in determining the microbial succession in the gut. The variation and diversity among children reflect instead the individuality of these microbial exposures. Note: the delivery mode seems also to influence the immune system during the first year of life, perhaps via the influence on the development of gut microbiota. By the end of the first month of life it is thought that the initial phase of rapid acquisition of microorganism is over. In 1-month-old-infants, the most abundant bacteria belong to the genera Bacteroides and Escherichia, whereas Bifidobacterium, along with Ruminococcus, appear and grow to become dominant in the gastrointestinal tract of the breastfed infants between 1 and 11 months.
Their abundance confers also benefits through competitive exclusion, that is, they are an obstacle to colonization by pathogens. Although breast-fed infants receive only breast milk until weaning, their microbiota can show a large variability in the abundances of bacterial taxa, with differences between individuals also with regard to the temporal patterns of variation. It seems that also the virome changes rapidly after birth, as the majority of the viral sequences present in the first week of life are not found after the second week.
Interestingly, the significant turnover of taxa occurring from birth to the end of the first year is accompanied by a remarkable constancy in the overall functional capabilities. Towards the end of the first year of life also the early viral colonizers were replaced by a community specific to the child. The gut microbiota reaches maturity at about 2.5 years of age, fully resembling the adult gut microbiota.
An increased fitness to the intestinal environment of the taxa that typically dominate the adult gut microbiota than the early colonizers.
The significant changes in the intestinal environment, result of the developmental changes in the intestinal mucosa. Therefore, the first 2-3 years of life are the most critical period in which you can intervene to shape the microbiota as best as possible, and so optimize child growth and development. From a chaotic beginning, all this leads to the establishment of the gut ecosystem typical of the young adult, which is relatively stable over time until old age (viral, archaeal and eukaryotic components included), and dominated, at least in the western population, by members of the phyla Firmicutes, about 60% of the bacterial communities, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria (mainly belonging to the Bifidobacterium genus), each comprising about 10% of the bacterial community, followed by Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. It should be noted that different data were obtained from analysis of populations of African rural areas, as seen above. And the gut microbiota is sufficiently similar among subjects to allow the identification of a shared core microbiome. Stability and resilience, however, are subject to numerous variables among which, as previously said, diet seems to be one of the most important. Also the variability in the composition of the community is greater than in younger adults; this could be due to the increase in morbidities associated with aging and the subsequent increased intake of medications, as well as to changes in the diet. We always see on  TV so many adds related to Probiotics, they are good for this and that and so on, it has been proven that they helped in the treatment  of digestive diseases, lowering cholesterol  but how can effective they can be with allergies?

According to Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and  World Health Organization (WHO) defined probiotics as “live microorganisms when consumed in adequate amounts, confer a health effect on the host”. There are various studies linked to the use of probiotics to relieve the symptoms of allergic reactions: dermatitis , eczema , rhinitis, asthma and others.
Clinical trials related to the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children with positive outcomes are related with lactobacilli .
Another study with babies  who  received strains of Lactobacillus GG during a four months reduced their SCORAD levels. Another clinical trial  was  done with the prenatal and post natal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnousus, it produced a protective barrier against AD in young children.
The consumption of supplemented formula with  Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 reduced the symptoms of eczema in children. Another research related with the combined consumption of fermented milk with Lactobacillus casei showed that it was really good in patients with allergic rhinitis but it didn’t work for asthmatics. Apparently, there is not enough evidence that probiotics could be effective in the treatment of asthma  , there is still more work to be done with that type of condition and the consumption of these little guys. Probiotics are good for some conditions as I have said before, and they don’t work for the relieve of another ones.
Probiotics are defined as naturally occurring bacteria, which are usually found in the intestinal portion. Besides live bacterium, the term probiotic is colloquially used to represent food or nutritional supplements, which are formulated with beneficial bacteria.
It is not necessary that you rely on probiotic supplements, or include food that contain the same.
Probiotics are effectual to treat diarrhea, resulted as an adverse effect of antibacterial treatment.
They aid in protecting gastrointestinal infections, and also, in ensuring quick recovery of intestinal infections. The beneficial bacteria aid in counteracting harmful bacteria, thus effective for treatment of urinary tract infections.
Consuming supplements aid in minimizing the risk of allergic reactions and respiratory tract infections (cold and flu). Disclaimer: This Buzzle article is for informative purposes only, and should not be replaced for the advice of a medical professional.
Door dietistenpraktijk Renate de Schaap op 24 juni 2010 om 09:27, in de categorie Gezondheid, Kinderen en onderzoek.
Bij kinderen met eczeem kan het toedienen van probiotica een gunstig effect hebben op de conditie van de huid. It harbors viruses, eukaryotes, bacteria, and one member of Archaebacteria, Methanobrevibacter smithii.
This seems to indicate that there is a limited number of well balanced symbiotic states, which could respond differently to factors such as diet, age, genetics, and drug intake (see below). Indeed, the most abundant virus accounts for only about 6% of the community, whereas in infants the most abundant virus accounts over 40% of the community. Therefore, it is a major source for the colonization of the breastfed infant gut, and it was suggested that this mode of colonization is closely correlated with infant’s health status, because, among other functions, it could protect against infections and contribute to the maturation of the immune system.
It has highlighted the dominant role of diet over variables such as climate, geography, hygiene and health services (it was also observed the absence of significant differences in the expression of key genes regulating the immune function, which suggests a functional similarity between the two groups).
In the Europeans, gut microbiota was dominated by taxa typical of Bacteroides enterotype, whereas in the Burkina Faso children, Prevotella enterotype dominates. And this underlines as a long-term diet is needed for a change in the enterotypes of the gut microbiota.
In addition to Helicobacter pylori, able to cause gastritis and gastric ulcers, microorganisms of the genus Lactobacillus are also present. The low number of microorganisms present in the small intestine is due to the inhospitable environment, consequent to the fact that there is the opening of the ampulla of Vater in the descending part of the duodenum, which pours pancreatic juice and bile into the duodenum, that is, pancreatic enzymes and bile acids, which damage microorganisms.
In the duodenum and jejunum, the amount of available nutrients is much higher than that found in the terminal portion of the ileum, where just water, fiber, and electrolytes remain. In particular, they could play a major role in the colonization of the newborn, infecting the dominant bacteria thus allowing to another bacterial strain to become abundant. Therefore, the most abundant bacteriophage genotype will not be the same at different times. And for example, the meconium of premature infants, born to healthy mothers, contains a specific microbiota, with Firmicutes as the main phylum, and predominance of staphylococci, whereas Proteobacteria, in particular species such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, but also enterococci are more abundant in the faeces. Indeed, infants harbor microbial communities dominated by species of the genera Lactobacillus (the most abundant genus in the vaginal microbiota and early gut microbiota) Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, or Sneathia. This community is less stable over time and more variable in composition than that of adults. However, viral community has an extremely low diversity, like bacteria, and is dominated by phages, which probably influence the abundance and diversity of co-occurring bacteria, as seen above. And indeed, Escherichia and Bacteroides can become preponderant if Bifidobacterium is not adequately present in the gut. These variations may be due to diseases, treatments with antibiotics, changes in host lifestyle, random colonization events, as well as differences in immune responses to the gut colonizing microbes. Moreover, the repertoire expands rapidly in number and diversity during the first three months. The genera Bacteroides, Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, Ruminococcus and Eubacterium make up, together with Methanobrevibacter smithii, the large majority of the adult gut microbial community.
Therefore, in order to maintain the stability of the gut microbiota, the variables have to be kept constant, or in the case of diseases prevented (also through vaccinations).
In a study conducted in Ireland on 161 healthy people aged 65 years and over, the gut microbiota is distinct from that of younger adults in the majority of subjects, with a composition that seems to be dominated by the phyla Bacteroidetes, the main ones, and Firmicutes, with almost inverted percentages than those found in younger adults (although large variations across subjects were observed).
Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly. Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa.
Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns. In other words, probiotics are microorganisms that are really beneficial to health when they are ingested. However, another study with the oral administration of Lactobacillus GG strains to people who had allergic episodes during the spring didn’t cause any kind of effect.
It is a potent, viable combination of human strain Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, and Bifidobacterium longum.

Users may download and print extracts of content from this website for their personal and non-commercial use only. These useful microbes are generally added in food products that are prepared by partial fermentation process. While choosing the best probiotics, most people are confused between probiotic food and supplements. Remember that helpful bacteria are already present in the intestinal tract of healthy individuals.
The benefits of probiotics in restoring microbial balance and preventing yeast infections are true to some extent. Dat blijkt uit een studie in de Oekraine, op 11 juni gepresenteerd tijdens het congres ‘Probiotics, from Bench to Market’ in New York.
Na 4 weken was er in de probioticagroep een significante afname van de huidklachten (34%), terwijl er in de controlegroep een afname van 19% te zien was. The majority of DNA viruses are bacteriophages or phages, that is, viruses that infect bacteria (they are the most abundant biological entity on earth, with an estimated population of about 1031 units), whereas the majority of RNA viruses are plant viruses.
Breast milk affects intestinal microbiota also indirectly, through the presence of oligosaccharides with prebiotic activity that stimulate the growth of specific bacterial groups including staphylococci and bifidobacteria. Indeed infants, as long as they are breastfed, have a very similar gut microbiota, rich in Actinobacteria, mainly Bifidobacterium (see below). Therefore, the presence of large number of bacteria in the terminal portion of the ileum, and even more in the colon, is not a problem.
And although some the gene sequences present in the infant gut virome are stable over the first three months of life, dramatic changes occur in the overall composition of the viral community between the first and second week of life.
Additionally, these initial communities may act as a source of protective or pathogenic microorganisms.
And it seems likely that anaerobes, such as members of the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, not growing outside of their host, rely on the close contact between mother and offspring for transmission. Very soon, it will be more numerous than that of the child’s cells, evolving according to a temporal pattern highly variable from individual to individual. This is in contrast with the stability observed in the adult virome, where 95% of the sequences are conserved over time. However, the stability and resilience could be harmful if the dominant community is pathogenic. And there are Faecalibacterium, about 6% of the main genera, followed by species of the genera Ruminococcus, Roseburia and Bifidobacterium (the latter about 0.4%) among the most abundant genera. Human milk and infant intestinal mucosal glycans guide succession of the neonatal intestinal microbiota. Through more than 10 years development, our manufacture has expanded to functional ingredients, pharmaceuticals, lactobacillus bacteria, fine chemicals, etc. These strains of beneficial bacteria have a favorable effect on the balance of microorganisms in the intestines. Republication or redistribution of content is expressly prohibited without the prior written consent.
Hence, after administering antibiotics for an extended period, an expected side effect is disturbing the balance of probiotic flora in the body.
Yes, their main functions are to ensure smooth digestion of food particles, and minimize bowel problems.
You might have already come across commercial probiotic food, like yogurt, aged cheese, fermented milk, soy milk, miso, fruit juices, pickles, etc.
Needless to say, the concentration of live culture in a supplement is higher than that in a food product. There are chances that population of good bacteria gets reduced due to antibacterial therapy, fungal infections, infectious diseases and other medical problems.
In het dubbelblind placebogecontroleerde studie kreeg een groep van 90 peuters (1-3 jaar) met eczeem een combinatie van Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 en Bifidobacterium lactis UABLA-12 met FOS. De onderzoekers willen meer onderzoek doen, ook naar het effect van probiotica op eczeem bij volwassenen. The problem would be to find a high bacterial concentration in the duodenum, jejunum, and proximal parts of the ileum; and there is a disease condition, called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth or SIBO, in which the number of bacteria in the small intestine increases by about 10-15 times.
Finally, due to the presence of oxygen in infant gut, the transmission of strict anaerobes could occur not directly at birth but at a later stage by means of spores. Notably, the earliest viruses could be the result of induction of prophages from the “newborn” gut bacterial flora, hypothesis supported by the observation that more than 25% of the phage sequences seem to be very similar to those of phages infecting bacteria such as Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus, which are abundant in breast milk.
Probiotics are medically defined as organisms in fermented foods that promote good health and establish the right balance of intestinal bacteria. Some examples are Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Bifidobacterium species. With supplements, the challenging part is deciding safe dosage and intake period to avoid any side effects.
In such instances, the health care specialist may recommend taking probiotic food and supplements with an aim to restore normal gut flora.
Fructo-oligosacchariden (FOS) zijn prebiotische vezels die de groei van gezonde darmbacterien bevorderen, net zoals bepaalde FOS die in probiotische yoghurt voorkomen. Gram-positive bacteria, mainly Firmicutes, were more abundant than Gram-negative bacteria in European children, whereas Gram-negative bacteria, mainly Bacteroidetes, prevailed over Gram-positive bacteria in African children. This puts them in a position to compete with the host for nutrients and give rise to gastrointestinal disturbances such as diarrhea.
They are extremely beneficial for treating digestive problems, intestinal stomach bugs and urinary tract infections. In precise words, they are live bacterial strains beneficial for the overall functioning of the body.
Like other beneficial bacteria found in the body, probiotics also help in controlling the population of other harmful microbes.
Immune-boosting probiotics are beneficial for decreasing children's susceptibility to infections and allergies. Newsletter ok > For Children>Immune System>ACIDOLAC JUNIOR white chocolate, 20tabl.

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